UNIVERSITY OF RIJEKA

TECHNICAL FACULTY RIJEKA











Vladimir Medica



SIMULATION OF TURBOCHARGED DIESEL ENGINE
DRIVING ELECTRICAL GENERATOR
UNDER DYNAMIC WORKING CONDITIONS




Doctor of Science Thesis























Rijeka, 1988.



ii











































iii



UNIVERSITY OF RIJEKA

TECHNICAL FACULTY RIJEKA











Vladimir Medica



SIMULATION OF TURBOCHARGED DIESEL ENGINE
DRIVING ELECTRICAL GENERATOR
UNDER DYNAMIC WORKING CONDITIONS




Doctor of Science Thesis







Mentor: Prof. Radivoje Trifunović, Ph.D.
Co-mentor: Prof. Špiro Milošević, Ph.D.













Rijeka, 1988.



iv




























































I





CONTENT






Preface


1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 General 1

1.2 Regulations 3

1.3 Model choice 6

1.4 Review of other papers 8

1.5 Task of this paper 11


2 MATHEMATICAL MODEL 12

2.1 Basic equations and boundary conditions 13
2.1.1 Engine cylinder 15
2.1.1.1 Compression and expansion 19
2.1.1.2 Combustion 19
2.1.1.3 Working fluid exchange process 29
2.1.2 Intake manifold and air cooler 30
2.1.3 Additional air receiver 34
2.1.4 The exhaust manifold 35
2.1.5 Turbocharger 40
2.1.5.1 Exhaust turbine 41
2.1.5.2 Compressor (Charger) 44
2.1.5.3 Turbocharger dynamics 49
2.1.5.4 Stability of compressor operation 50
2.1.6 Mechanical substitution of engine system 52
2.1.7 Engine governor 54
2.1.8 Fuel injection pump 57
2.1.9 Electric consumers 58

2.2 Model of the turbocharged diesel engine 63
2.2.1 Introduction 63
2.2.2 Engine system description 63
2.2.2.1 Control volumes 65
2.2.2.2 Connections between control volumes 66
2.2.2.3 Boundary conditions 69
2.2.3 Model of engine system 69

2.3 Solving the system of differential equations 69
2.3.1 Calculation of engine steady state operating points 70
2.3.2 Calculation of engine transient operation 71
2.3.3 Model implementation on the digital computer 71
II



3 APPLICATION OF THE SIMULATION MODEL 76

3.1 Description of system components 76
3.1.1 Turbocharged diesel engine 76
3.1.2 Electrical generator 82
3.1.3 Electric consumers 83

3.2 Diesel engine steady operation 85

3.3 Diesel engine loading 87
3.3.1 Loading by electric ohmic loads 87
3.2.2 Switching-on the asynchronous electric motor 98

3.3 Comparison of transients with ohmic and inductive loading 101

3.4 Engine deloading 104

3.5 Diesel engine starting 106

3.6 Limits of diesel engine load acceptance 110


4 ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCING PARAMETERS TO TRANSIENTS
OF TURBOCHARGED DIESEL ENGINE DRIVING
SYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC GENERATOR 122

4.1 Influence of moment of inertia of DG set rotating masses 122

4.2 Influence of turbocharger rotor moment of inertia 126

4.3 Influence of exhaust gas manifold volume 126

4.4 Influence of exhaust manifold thermal insulation 131

4.5 Influence of fuel delivery limits 133

4.6 Influence of engine governor parameters 138

4.7 Comparative analysis of influencing parameters 147

4.8 Possibilities to improve transient characteristics of turbocharged diesel
engine driving synchronous electric generator 147


5 CONCLUSIONS 153


Symbols 157

Bibliography 161







III




PREFACE



This paper presents english translation of the Doctor of Science Thesis titled originally (in
croatian) "Simulacija dinamičkih uvjeta rada dizelmotora s prednabijanjem kod pogona električnog
generatora", deposited in the library of the Technical Faculty Rijeka, University of Rijeka.

The thesis was done under survey of mentor Prof. Radivoje Trifunović, Ph.D. (Faculty of
Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade) and co-mentor Prof. Špiro Milošević, Ph.D. (Technical
Faculty Rijeka, University of Rijeka).

The thesis was defended in oral examination held on June 30th, 1988. on Technical Faculty
Rijeka in front of the examination commission:
Prof. Dušan Jeras, Ph.D., Faculty of Mechanical and Naval Engineering, University of Zagreb
Prof. Radivoje Trifunović, Ph.D., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade
Prof. Špiro Milošević, Ph.D., Technical Faculty Rijeka, University of Rijeka
Prof. Ivan Vlahinić, Ph.D., Faculty of Maritime Engineering, University of Rijeka
Prof. Edgar Škrobonja, Ph.D. (late), Technical Faculty Rijeka, University of Rijeka

The thesis is divided in five chapters. First chapter is introductory and it presents the problem
and a supervision of related published papers. Second chapter presents the mathematical model of the
system "turbocharged diesel engine - electric generator - electric consumers". Third chapter presents
application of the developed simulation model to predict steady state and transient engine operation. In
the fourth chapter an analysis of system parameters influence was performed and some
recommendations to achieve faster and reliable load acceptance are presented. The fifth chapter
presents conclusions.

The figures in this translated paper are copies of figures in original paper, with texts translated
to english. Some symbols in figures are same as in original and they are explained in list of symbols.

Author is grateful to mentor and co-mentor for their precious advices and support, to Prof. Ivan
Vlahinić, Ph.D. for suggestions to overcome electrical problems, to Prof. Ferdinand Trenc Ph.D. for
submitted data and papers dealing with turbocharging and to many colleagues in shipbuilding and
electrical industry. Special thanks to my family for their firm and steady support.




Rijeka, May 1997. Author

















IV





























































1






1 INTRODUCTION




1.1 GENERAL


The security of electric supply is one of the basic preconditions for reliability of technological
processes, electronic data elaborating systems, systems serving to security of human and material
goods etc. For electric black out prevention the reserve and emergency power sets are used. The most
of these power sets are highly automated diesel electric sets. Diesel engine is a very concurrent and
reliable power source for driving electric generator. Applying the diesel engine the economic, light and
compact power sets are available. In the range of powers from 400 kW to 2000 kW the high speed
turbocharged engines (1000 or 1500 min
-1
) are applied. For higher unit powers (2 to 8 MW) the
medium speed turbocharged diesel engines are used. In very special cases and only as prime power
sources the slow speed diesel engines are applied.

The development in diesel engines leads to the compact design and high specific power. To
achieve these goals the turbocharging is applied. The medium effective pressure is today high as 25
bars. High turbocharging of engine has as drawback a very slow engine reaction speed in the cases of
sudden load acceptance. Because of the inertial effects in turbocharger rotor speeding up, the engine
develops its power, necessary to cover the power demand, slowly.

Higher turbocharging pressures and better turbocharger efficiencies are achieved by adequate
vane profiles and by higher circumferencial speeds. This narrows the optimal operating field of
turbocharged engine. The operating field in charger map is by one side limited by surge line, and by
other side by very fast efficiency drop. These limits leave a very narrow field for operating curves in
charger map in the case of speed or load changes. This causes special problems in matching engine
and turbocharger. The mathematical model enables the prediction of engine operating performances
when working with particular turbocharger. Final choice of optimal solution is made upon experiments
with the limited set of turbochargers showing the best calculated results.

The first response of diesel engine to higher loading is the speed drop, which the governing
system tries to compensate as fast as possible. As the result of governor action, the injected fuel mass
is augmented, so the medium effective pressure would rise. As the air mass in the cylinder has not
been augmented, air excess factor will be lowered to values under 1, so the combustible mixture will
be richer than stoichiometric. Air excess ratio would be recovered only with higher charging pressures
after speeding of the turbocharger. During all this time engine parts are exposed to higher thermal
loads. In the same time, possible black smoke e.g. soot in exhaust emissions are very high if they are
not limited by appropriate devices.

The mentioned events are especially pointed when sudden loads are applied, as when driving
an electric generator, maintaining the constant speed because of necessity for constant electric current
frequency. The engine speed is determined by frequency and number of generator pole pairs. Each
load change in the electric network is transferred to the diesel engine very fast (in few milliseconds).

Switching on of greater asynchronous electric motors to the electric mains, supplied by the
diesel generating set, is accompanied by the necessity for higher power to speed up the moving parts.
Very high load peaks can be the cause of not tolerable frequency drop with the change in electric
consumer characteristics. In extremes this can lead to the frequency protecting device action and
complete black out of the emergency power systems, causing very poor reliability and availability of the
systems, which are the main goals meanwhile.


2

















































Fig. 1.1 Transient operating conditions of DG set during load acceptance /127/


Transient conditions of such power supply are mainly determined by influence of the inertial
moments of the rotating parts of engine and generator, thermodynamical influences of the
turbocharging system and electrical influences of the generator and voltage controller. Maintaining of
the voltage in the desired limits is influenced primarily by the generator voltage controller.

The pointed problems are very important in greater diesel generating power plants, serving as
emergency or peak load power plants to supply the critical consumers of the following plants: nuclear
power plants, petrochemical plants, industrial plants, ships and offshore plants, hospitals, computing
facilities, military facilities etc. In all cases very high reliability of the fast starting and load acceptance
are the primary goals. To fulfill these propositions, the diesel generating sets are in many cases
3

oversized, to achieve high power reserve, necessary for fast load acceptance when starting of electric
motors. This causes higher plant investment cost and higher operating costs, so that this type of
solution puts the producer to the background compared with other competitors.

The generator producer tries, intending to lower the price of his product, to spare on active
magnetic materials, consuming the allowed limits of applicable departures. The positive laws and
prescriptions exerts a pressure to the constructors to fulfill the reliable operation of the diesel
generating set also in the worst operating conditions. The investment costs are maintained as low as
possible fulfilling the requested conditions for reliable and safe operation.

Operation of the common electric system composed of the particular elements for the
emergency supply, points special problems as system boundary conditions. Dynamical characteristics
of diesel engine and electric generator, as those of their particular subsystems, are the determining
factors for operating characteristics. In the application of the mathematical model it is possible to
optimize the design of various system components. The main goal of the system designer is to fulfill
the requested operating conditions with as possible as smaller units, without to deteriorate the
operating conditions out of allowed limits, causing in the worst case the system black out.

Turbocharged diesel engine characteristics optimization, without mechanical link between
engine and turbocharger, is rather heavier task to optimize than that for naturally aspirated engine.
This holds especially for transient operating conditions.

The duration of load acceptance for turbocharged diesel engine is longer when compared with
naturally aspirated engine. The transient operation is often accompanied with soot emission and higher
thermal loads to engine parts. This is the main reason for cautious introduction of turbocharged diesel
engines in the applications with very often and sudden load changes during operation, as for example
in vehicles and in diesel generating sets. This problem is more severe at higher charging pressures.
Serious mastering of these problems makes possible further specific power increase and applications
of such engines in the field formerly preserved for naturally aspirated engines. The designer primary
interests are mutual influences of governor, fuel injection system, engine, air intake and exhaust piping
and turbocharger on engine load acceptance characteristics. Engine designer deals with loads applied
to the engine and engine capabilities to compete with these loads, what all together determines load
acceptance dynamics. If the investigation should be performed only by experiments, the possible
parameters variation is often limited by economic reasons, and apart of this, some parameter
conditions are impossible to simulate by experiments. The mathematical modeling is the choice to
make all necessary investigations, minimizing the costs, with narrowing the field of final experiments if
they were necessary .


1.2 REGULATIONS


The diesel generating set during operation should fulfill the goal to maintain the operating
frequency and voltage in accepted limits. These limits are prescribed by national and international
regulations and recommendations (ISO, ICE, VDE, VDMA, Lloyd's Register of Shipping, British
Standards etc.). These regulations determine the consumer load which can be connected at a time,
depending on nominal diesel generating set power, which could be applied without the danger to cross
the permitted limitations of voltage and frequency. The shipbuilding rules of Det Norske Veritas, aside
of limitations on applied loads, set the demand for necessary minimum of kinetic energy of rotating
parts for unit power of diesel generating set.

The regulations determine the allowed tolerances for engine speed at stationary loads and in
transient conditions. The ISO 3046 IV 1979 regulations determine the minimal demands to be fulfilled
for various classes of the diesel generating sets (Table 1.1). The Fig. 1.2 show the parameters for the
description of parameter variations during the transient. The Fig. 1.3 show the permissible instant
loads to be applied in sense that this should not make the departures out of permissible tolerances.
The higher medium effective pressures, the lower load increment relative to the nominal power should
be connected. Permitted limits for voltage and frequency of short duration are not a serious demand,
because a majority of electric consumers could work shortly with great departures not at overvoltage!
without any troubles.
4




























































Fig. 1.2 Basic parameters of engine transient
(from ISO 3046/IV-1979)
5





Table 1.1 Criteria for diesel generating sets classification according to ISO 3046/IV-1979



Diesel generating set class


A1

A2

B1

B2

Static speed change, δ
st



≤ 5%

≤ 8%

≤ 10%

≤ 15%

Dynamic speed change
Loading, δ
D
+

Deloading, δ
D
-




≤ 10%
≤ 10%


≤ 15%
≤ 15%


≤ 18%
≤ 18%


≤ 18%
≤ 18%

Time for speed stabilization
Loading, t
Deloading, t



≤ 8 s
≤ 8 s


≤ 15 s
≤ 15 s


-
-


-
-

Stability limit, ν


t 1%

t 1%

-

-






























Fig. 1.3 Permitted sudden load step (ISO 3046/IV-1979)



6





1.3 MODEL CHOICE


In modern research and development of product design, numerical modeling of physical
process becomes most important, thanks to the development of computers.

When the research activities were made only by experiments, the costs may arose
unacceptable, so that the content of parameters variation, for example, must be limited. In such cases
the numerical simulation makes an competitive choice, making the parameter variation as easy as
possible, without any special difficulties. Changes in investigated system configuration and parametric
studies in early stages of the design, could be evaluated saving time and funds, eliminating the
experimental model preparations. Looking in that sense, numerical modeling represents element of
rationalization, improving the product developing process. In general case, the numerical simulation
does not present a limiting factor, as for example in the case of experimental modeling.

Because of limited capacity of computers and approximations, necessary to make to keep the
mathematical model rational, or because all processes are not theoretically funded up to time,
numerical modeling faces some restrictions. Numerical simulations can in very limited number of
situations properly predict the reality, to which the adequate experimental data would be very close.
Numerically determined optimal solution must be verified by experiment too. Numerical and
experimental research must be mutually accompanied, completing each other. Both of these methods
represent the tools for designers and researchers, allowing effective predictions. Both methods must
be accompanied by the experience collected in earlier applications. Today the numerical studies were
applied to make a very narrow choice of final solutions, which were approved by limited number of
experiments.

System complexity is the primary criteria for simulation model choice. Developing the
simulation model we can select global or differentiated representation. In global representation black
box technique the outputs were related to the inputs by adequate functions or characteristic diagrams.
In differentiated representation, the system is divided in subsystems, which are separately modeled,
collecting all these models in final complex model.

Both approaches have advantages and shortages. Global representation is, compared to
differentiated representation, very fast in numerical speed, the formulation is simple, so that the
simulation is very fast and inexpensive. On the other hand, we do not have an evidence of the process
between inputs and outputs, and we are not in position to research influence of the system parameters
changes. Differentiated representation allows more detailed insight to the system processes. The more
detailed system division to the subsystems the better insight has been achieved. In the same time the
model is more detailed and much more comprehensive, so that the computation time is larger. The
degree of details must be matched to the problem under research.

Dealing with mathematical models the approach to the problem can be performed in two ways:
according to theory of the governing systems and according to the method of analysis and synthesis.

The theory of governing systems deals with the possibility of system parameters control during
the simulation upon the correlations made on earlier experimental measurements on the real system.
In this method the system is black box described with some parameters, so that the mathematical
description is very reduced, and the method is applicable in the real time simulation of known systems.

The degree of the system representation can be reduced applying different approximations
and efficient methods. The reduction could be achieved by linearisation of the system parameters, as
applied often in the theory of governing systems. This linearisation is allowed only for small changes in
vicinity of the stable operating point, keeping the introduced error smallest. The adopted linearisation
allows the application of Fouriers and Laplacian transforms, dealing with the transient conditions
analysis in the complex domain. These transformations could not be applied in nonlinear systems, as
7

for example in turbocharged diesel engines operating in ample conditions. If the system nonlinearityes
could not be neglected, one must adopt some functional forms for parameter descriptions.

Method of analysis and synthesis offer some advantages in the system transparency. The
parameters variations could be done without additional experimental correlations. It is possible to
achieve the complete physical representation of the system processes. The cost for this advantage is
the larger effort in model construction and larger computational time. In many applications dealing with
changes in time, to avoid the description by partial differential equations, the approximations were
made by adopting some "quasi stationary" conditions. These models dealing only with ordinary
differential equations are known as "quasi stationary" models.

The expanding field of turbocharged diesel engine applications and related problems are
demanding the adequate applicable mathematical models for stationary and dynamic operating
conditions of such engines. The application of such models saves time and money for research
studies, making decisions possible quite in the early project stages.

For the analytical approach to the dynamical system one can deal with four methods: classic
linearisation method, simulation on analog computer, simulation on hybrid computer and simulation on
digital computer. Mathematical modeling is easiest in using the linearisation method, but applicability of
this method in turbocharged engine transient simulation is limited. Some publicated paper deals with
analog computers in diesel engine transient simulations. The application of hybrid computers arose
with dealing some difficulties because of parameter nonlinearities. Digital computers have overseeded
the field of the nonlinear dynamic system simulation.

Linearised models allows the qualitative predictions of engine performances, rather than
quantitative. They could be used only for small changes in operating parameters, as for example in
stationary operation of diesel engine. Quasylinear models, beside they apply very simplified
assumptions made upon the experimentally measurements, allows some insight in the engine transient
operation. The most detailed are models based on the description by nonlinear differential equations.
Numerical solution of such model is rather demanding task, but they allows detailed qualitative and
quantitative predictions, so they could be used quite in the early project studies.

Problems dealing with stable stationary operation of diesel engine governing system have
resulted in research of the frequency characteristics of diesel engine. These first models have used the
linearisation of parameters for the differential equation describing the mechanics of the system: diesel
engine governor generator. One of the system inputs, for example the injected fuel mass have
resulted, after some time lag, in the engine driving torque. Discontinued engine operation was
described by series of torque pulse changes, with phase lag after pulses of injected fuel. Necessary
correlations for dependencies of torque on injected fuel quantity and other parameters have been
made by earlier ample experimental investigations. Linearity of engine parameters was the main
shortage of these models.

The load acceptance by turbocharged diesel engine is connected with problems, so the
interest for some insights have arisen very early. Firstly the frequency characteristics of engine
governing system in step changes have been investigated. These models have assumed the transient
as a series of small steps, during which the stationary operating conditions prevail. The models
accomplished the simulation of the engine thermodynamics and mechanics. Thermodynamic
parameters have been formulated empirically from experimental data for stationary operation. The
dynamics of the mechanical system was described by differential equation. The model assumption was
that inputs as admitted fuel and air mass results in the engine torque, according to the engine load
demands. The dynamic of turbocharger rotor was described by either differential equation. To make
the model operative, very large amount of experimental data for the system under investigation must
be prepared. Interpolation of this model to another turbocharged engine was uncertain. The results of
the first models were unsatisfactory, so the empirical corrections called "efficiency coefficients" have
been made to achieve better matching between reality and calculations.

The adoption of the nonlinear differential equations of mass and energy conservation was the
qualitative step in modeling the turbocharged diesel engine. In models for the stationary engine
operation the cylinder pressure, temperature, working fluid mass and composition are calculated. The
thermodynamic properties are correlated from the chemical equilibrium of the working fluid, relating the
composition, temperature and pressure. Combustion is correlated by heat release. Heat transfer to the
8

combustion chamber walls and mechanical work are calculated too. The engine subsystems are
determined as open thermodynamic systems, described by differential equations based on the first law
of thermodynamics. Such "control volumes" are interconnected, depending on engine design. The
mass and energy transfer between these volumes is modeled by filling&empting method. The energy
balance on turbocharger rotor determines the turbocharger operating point, depending on turbine and
charger characteristics. Numerically, such model represents the initial value problem. The evaluation
commences from assumed operating point and parameter values, converging by time to the stable
operating point.

At transient operating conditions of turbocharged diesel engine, the transient from one
stationary operation point to another is task of the research. Connection between turbocharger is
performed only by working mediums, with charging air and exhaust gases. Their energy level and flows
determine the operating conditions for the turbocharger. Dynamics of the turbocharger rotor is
determined by power relations between charger and turbine parts, accompanied with loses. Flow
coefficients and efficiencies for both, turbine and charger, are interpolated from diagrams for stationary
operation of these components. The power disbalance determines the speed change for turbocharger
rotor. Changes in charging pressure determine the admitted air mass in the cylinders, necessary for
combustion. Mass and energy transfer between engine subsystems is modeled with filling&empting
method. The engine crankshaft dynamics is determined by torque difference between engine and
generator. Generator torque depends on loading of the electrical network. Complete system is
described via set of nonlinear differential equations. The solution is determined by integration in small
time steps, depending on the solution stability requirements. Because of the changes in crankshaft
speed, each engine cylinder is treated as separate subsystem. The results predict the crankshaft
speed changes by time. Engine speed influences the governor response, which determines the mass
of the injected fuel. Correlation between the injected fuel mass and fuel rack position is determined
from the fuel injection system characteristics. The presented mathematical model solves the temporal
changes of engine speed, turbocharger rotor speed and governing system response, together with all
other thermodynamical parameters changes.

The mathematical model, presented here, for simulation of stationary and transient operating
conditions of turbocharged diesel engine is based on the system description via set of nonlinear
differential equations. The solution is performed by numerical integration methods. The presented
model does not differ the stationary and transient operating conditions, for both the model is the same.
The solution is converged to the stationary point starting from another stationary point or from user
defined not necessary correct initial condition. The solution is achieved by converging to the stationary
conditions, when the parameters value on the start of engine period is the same as at the end of this
period. The complete model solves the dynamics of various systems mechanical, thermodynamic or
governing . When dealing with engine transient conditions, the results are initially converged to the
starting stationary point. When this point was achieved, the load change is applied, and the solution
represents the engine transient up to the new stationary operating point. Applying the same model for
converging to the initial stationary point, as for transient when the load change is applied, the very fast
converging from the guessed initial user defined values to the stationary operation point has been
achieved. Bringing the system from the guessed parameter values to the converged values for the
desired stationary operating point is the same as for the transient, when the load has been changed, by
complete mutual influences of all engine subsystems.



1.4 REVIEW OF OTHER PAPERS


Dynamics of the system diesel engine generator from the point of governing systems has been
presented by Benz /4, 19/, Müller /5/, Eckert /6, 23/, Rumpel /22/ and Hutarew et al. /24/. The transfer
functions were applied for description of system dynamics. Naturally aspirated diesel engine was
presented as unit with time lag in torque production relating to the fuel rack position. Together with
governor and generator, diesel engine makes an oscillatory system with outer perturbations. The goal
of these research was to determine the frequency characteristics of system components to achieve
stable control of the diesel generating set. This research has not dealt with the in cylinder processes.
One more recent paper relating the same principle is Hildebrand et al. /128/.

9

Ledger at al. /44/ and Benson et al. /57/ have presented the models highly depending on
experimentally derived engine characteristics, with modeling performed on analog computer. Medium
effective pressure and exhaust temperature have been related to the air excess ratio. Air flow during
exchange process was modeled by linear function of engine speed. The turbocharger was modeled by
very simple presentation of components characteristics. Later work of Ledger et al. /58/ have applied
the hybrid computer. As the results have differed significantly from the measured data, the corrections
in the model have been performed by "efficiency factors". Such improvements have resulted in better
matching of computed and measured data. The engine thermodynamic process was modeled by ideal
cycle.

Bowns /43/, Hazell et al. /48/, Flower et al. /69/, Windet et al. /70/ and Krutov /92/ have divided
the characteristic parameters to the groups of dependable and independent variables, shown as
diagrams or in analytical form. Mathematical solution was obtained by substitution of values
interpolated from the diagrams. The final equations are solved very fast, so that this approach makes
very fast iterations for the stationary operation. Engine torque was calculated applying "efficiencies" to
the values interpolated from diagrams related to the engine speed and excess air factor. The mass
exchange process calculations were obtained by integration in time steps.

The shortage of the presented models was in nonappropriate representation of nonlinear
characteristics and necessity for a very ample measurements on the stable operating conditions for the
existing engine, necessary to predict the transient operation. The engine cycle was not modeled in
appropriate manner, so that many restrictions are put on such models, making them short in
possibilities to predict transient operation of one another engine or an engine still not produced.

Engine operation characteristics for stationary operation could be deduced from common
operation of engine cylinders, intake and exhaust manifolds, turbocharger, air coolers etc. For the
modeling, simple models based on ideal cycle were used together with "efficiencies" for corrections.
Wallace /17/, Reisacher /30/, Haasse /47/ and Winterbone et al. /87/ have used such model to
investigate the common operation of diesel engine and turbocharger. Detailed models are described by
Ryti /34/. Despite some simplifications, the time dependent cycle variables have been calculated by
integration in series of time steps. The engine was substituted by the system of control volumes,
interconnected by connections of variable geometries. Turbocharger charger and turbine have
presented the system boundary conditions for such system.

Babke /66/ has presented the transient simulation for the slow speed diesel engine with
constant pressure turbocharging. High pressure part of the engine cycle was modeled as mixed ideal
cycle, with isochoric pressure rise related empirically to the engine speed and air excess ratio.

Wallace and Winkler /84/ have compared stationary and transient performances for
turbocharged diesel engine with hyperbar and compound turbocharging. The models were based on
the adoption of the "inertial elements" (volumes) and "flow elements" (connections). Flow elements act
simultaneously with state changes. The inertial elements have time lag in their response to the
mechanical or thermodynamical changes. Elements were described by empirical equations, diagrams,
tabulated data and analytic functions for the physical properties. The complete system was divided to
four components: engine, turbine, charger and air cooler. These components are interconnected by
inertial and flow elements. The ideal cycle was used for the in cylinder process. For the mass
exchange process the open thermodynamic system was assumed, so that the influence of variable
valve opening times could be predicted. The model uses the simplified model for waves in the exhaust
piping. Turbocharger components have been presented by diagrams. Turbine was modeled using the
effective flow area. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluid were presented in polynomial form,
related to the air excess ratio. The air cooler properties were presented in diagram form.

Winterbone /87/ has shown the model using the filling&empting method for the changes in the
intake and exhaust manifolds. The high pressure part of the cycle was modeled as ideal cycle,
corrected by applying the "efficiencies". The limitations have been reported for the heat losses in
cylinder and in the pipings. The influence of the heat exchange to the combustion space walls was
performed by changing the expansion polytrope exponent.

Winkler /109/ has described the model with simple ideal cycle for the high pressure part of
engine cycle and better modeling of the engine exchange processes, accompanied with adequate
turbocharger model. This makes model of the turbocharged diesel engine better. The ideal cycle was
10

modified as the 5 characteristic points process, accompanied with heat transfer to the walls. The
exchange process was modeled as flow on restrictions, with changing the effective flow areas and
constant pressures. Turbocharger was modeled applying the charger diagram and an analytical model
for the turbine.

Meyer-Adam /162/ has presented an extensive model for transient simulation of the diesel
engine governor generator electric network system. The engine process is modeled by modified ideal
cycle. The first part of isochoric combustion was modeled by simplified heat release model, while the
other parts are assumed as constant pressure combustion and late combustion modeled by an tangent
line to the expansion adiabatic curve. The presented model was developed for the real time simulation
of diesel generating set driven by turbocharged engine in complex simulation of large systems.

McAulay et al. /21/ and Woschni /26/ have presented the first papers where engine process
was described by differential equations, based on the first law of the thermodynamics for the open
systems. The equations describe energy and mass conservations. McAulay has used the real gas
properties (compressibility, dissociation). Both papers have been milestones for the so called real cycle
models of engine process. Both papers presented only the models for stationary engine operation.

Solution of these models is performed by iterative solution of differential equations in series of
time steps. Starting from the guessed data in the moment of inlet valve closing for the reference
cylinder, the solution converges to the stable solution for the stationary operation point. Convergence
by these models is achieved very fast (in 3 to 5 cycles). The convergence has been achieved when the
parameters are comparable at start and end of engine cycle. After the cycle converges, another
convergence is tested, the energy balance on turbocharger. When discrepancies exist, the charging
pressure is corrected, and new convergence process commences again. If the convergence with
turbocharger has not been achieved after some number of iterations, the fuel mass is corrected, and
the iteration process starts again. These models give sufficiently correct results, in good correlations
with measurements, so they could be applied in early design stages, without great necessity for
experimentally derived data.

Beineke /73/ and Beineke and Woschni /94/ have presented models applied to the stationary
operation of turbocharged diesel engines applying one or two turbochargers in series.

Watson and Marzouk /85/ have presented the model of turbocharged diesel engine for
transient properties predictions, based on detailed mathematical model for engine processes. The
results, compared with measured data for a truck engine, have shown good agreement. The heat
release rate was derived by experiment. Boy /112/ has presented similar model applied to the
turbocharged medium speed diesel engine for ship propulsion for the transient properties predictions.
Both papers comprise detailed model of engine cycle, models for mass and energy transfer by
filling&empting method and turbocharger components descriptions by stationary derived diagrams and
characteristics.

Streit and Borman /46/ and Heeschen /141/ have applied these models for two cycle engines
simulation. Grohn /80, 100/ has investigated the influence of charger surge limit. Beineke /73/ and
Beineke and Woschni /94/ have investigated the two stage turbocharging. Influences of nonstationary
fluid flow on the characteristics of the turbocharger have been presented by Yano and Nagata /62/.
Seifert /55, 93, 102/ has investigated the influence of the waves in the exhaust piping by method of
characteristics. Alternative methods are presented by Zehnder /52/. Comparisons of calculated and
measured quantities performed on exhaust piping have shown that the applicability of the
filling&empting method depends on the characteristic time of wave reflection related to the engine
speed. According to Pucher /89/ and Bulaty /132/ the filling&empting method is still applicable for the
engine exchange process. At high engine speed and relative long pipes, the results may differ
significantly.

Zellbeck /127, 138/ has presented mathematical model of real engine cycle for simulation of
stationary and transient operation conditions of turbocharged diesel engine. The analysis of turbine
choice on engine transient in driving the DC generator and vehicle speeding was performed.

Schulmeister /110, 119/ has shown the improvements of transient properties of turbocharged
engine by applying the compressed air directly to the engine cylinders when sudden load has been
11

applied. The paper 119 shows the comparison between the results with and without the compressed
air admission for diesel generating set transient.

Winterbone et al. /86/ have resented a method to accelerate the turbocharger rotor by a jet of
lubricating oil to the small Pelton turbine on the rotor shaft and by applying separate compressed air
jets to the charger vanes, assisting the rotor acceleration. The measured results show significant
improvements in load acceptance when compressed air jets were applied.

Dinger et al. /126/ and Deutschman et al. /139/ have presented the development of the register
turbocharging by diesel engines made by MTU, Germany. The high medium effective pressures have
been achieved by introducing the two stage turbocharging, keeping in the same time good transient
properties and operation stability in each situation.



1.5 TASK OF THIS PAPER


This thesis has implied few tasks in developing the mathematical model.

Primary goal was the development of an mathematical model, which offers the possibility to
predict sufficiently exactly the transient properties of turbocharged diesel engine when driving
synchronous electric generator.

By applying the developed model, the characteristic parts of engine transient process
properties have been examined, when different sudden loads have been applied when driving
generator, as for example the start, load acceptance and deloading. The limit of acceptable, still stable,
sudden load acceptance has been determined.

By the same model the influences of various system parameters on stability and reliability of
turbocharged diesel engine in load acceptance transients have been investigated. Based on the
derived conclusions, the proposals for the improvements of engine dynamics are given.




























12



2 MATHEMATICAL MODEL



The system comprising the turbocharged diesel engine and the driven generator is
schematically presented on fig. 2.1. During the transient conditions, the governor permanently
compares the differences in the engine speed and performs the corrections in the fuel rack position.
Fuel injection system and its characteristic determines the start of the fuel injection and the amount of
injected fuel. By chemical and thermodynamic transformation, the torque on engine crankshaft has
been produced.















































Fig. 2.1 Scheme of the diesel generating set system
13


Depending on the electric load torque, friction in moving parts and rotating masses inertia, the
engine torque causes the crankshaft speed change. The exhaust gases from recent combustion are
fed with time lag time necessary for flow processes to the turbine, directly connected with the
compressor part. The compressor compresses the air, which passes through the air cooler and was
admitted to the cylinder. The external influences on the system are the ambient air pressure and
temperature, cooling water temperature, lubricating oil temperature, the desired engine speed and
counter pressure at exhaust. These influences the engine speed and air and exhaust gases flow. As
for the stationary operation the scheme also comprises the transient operation. The further chapters
deal with details of the system components.



2.1 BASIC EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS


Some authors point out that the engine transient operation could be modeled by quasi-
stationary processes with step changes of mass and energy during the engine process. The speed
change of rotating parts is caused by energy unbalances. Starting from the point of models for the
stationary operation, the quasi stationary model of the engine real process, by applying the
filling&empting method is the adequate choice. These models give reliable predictions permitting the
variation of various parameters. In keeping the model moderate, some assumptions and simplifications
are made. The basic model deals with the processes in the engine cylinders, in intake and exhaust
manifolds and other volumes. the variables in these separate control volumes are homogenous in
space, changing with time. Such control volumes are sometimes called "well stirred reactors" while the
mass of gases or air, admitted to the volume is in the same time completely mixed with content in the
volume, just to keep the homogeneity of the properties. This holds better if the volumes are more
compact in shape (closer to the sphere). Changes of variables in time are described by first order
differential equations for energy and mass conservation. To these equations the gas state equation is
added. Such set of equations enables the description of the system. Keeping the integrating time steps
small, assumptions could be made that for the short duration of the time step, the situation is stationary
enabling the application of the quasi stationary description for various process parts.

The application of these models for the engine real processes has shown that the differences
of results when applying real gas properties or ideal gas properties are small (Möhlenkamp /79/).

In modeling the transient operation properties, the energy and mass conservation equations
are extended by set of equations describing the dynamics of the governor and the mechanical system.


















Fig. 2.2 Scheme of the control volume with indicated positive
mass and energy transfer directions


14

Thermodynamical model of the engine real process is based on the first law of
thermodynamics applied to the open thermodynamic system. The first law is:

dQ dU pdV · + ( 2.1 )

The internal energy increment equals to the difference of the added heat and performed
mechanical work:

( )
dU dQ h dm pdV
i
i
i j
j
· + −
∑ ∑
( 2.2 )

( ) dU d mu m du u dm · · + ( 2.3 )

The gas state equation is:

pV mRT · ( 2.4 )

Specific internal energy and gas constant for real gas are dependent on pressure, temperature
and excess air ratio (gas composition).

( ) u f p T · , ,λ (for ideal gas: ( ) u f T · ,λ ) ( 2.5 )

( ) R f p T · , ,λ (for ideal gas: ( ) R f · λ ) ( 2.6 )

Differentiating the equations (2.5) and (2.6), we get:

du
u
T
dT
u
p
dp
u
d
p T p T
·
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,






∂ λ
λ
λ λ , , ,
( 2.7 )

dR
R
T
dT
R
p
dp
R
d
p T p T
·
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,






∂ λ
λ
λ λ , , ,
( 2.8 )

By substitution of derived equations 2 7 and 2 8 , together with gas state equation (2.4) in the
equation (2.2), rearranging this equation and by solution of dT/dϕ, we get the basic differential equation
for temperature change related to crank angle:

dT
d
m
p
dV
d
dQ
d
h
dm
d
u
dm
d
m
u d
d
C
u
T
A
B
p
T
u
p
i
i j j
ϕ
ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ

∂ λ
λ
ϕ




·
− + +
|
.

`
,
− −
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]

+
∑ ∑
1
( 2.9 )

A
T
R
R
T
· + 1


( 2.9a )

B
p
R
R
p
· − 1


( 2.9b )

C
p
B
u
p m
dm
d V
dV
d R
R d
d
· − +
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]

∂ ϕ ϕ

∂ λ
λ
ϕ
1 1 1
( 2.9c )

depending on pressure, include the influence of the compressibility and dissociation of combustion
gases. As the dissociation is low in diesel engine cycle with lower levels of cycle temperature, and the
compressibility (relating the vicinity to the critical conditions) is weak in engine cycle domain, we could
15

assume the ideal gas properties for the working medium. By neglecting the members A, B and C in the
equation (2.9), we derive the basic differential equation for the temperature change with ideal gas
properties for the working medium:

dT
d
m
u
T
p
dV
d
dQ
d
h
dm
d
u
dm
d
m
u d
d
i
i j j
ϕ ∂

ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ

∂ λ
λ
ϕ
·
|
.

`
,

− + +
|
.

`
,
− −
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
∑ ∑
1
( 2.10 )

The above equation assumes that the heat exchange over system boundaries (except the
sensitive heat admitted by mass exchange) has the members in the heat of fuel combustion Q
f
and
heat transferred to chamber walls Q
w
:

dQ
d
dQ
d
dQ
d
i
i
f w
ϕ ϕ ϕ

· + ( 2.11 )

The mass balance equation for the control volume is determined by mass exchange over
system boundaries has members in the mass exchange on the inlet ports, exhaust ports, special
additional ports (for example the starting air valve) and through the seals.

dm
d
dm
d
dm
d
dm
d
dm
d
dm
d
dm
d
j j inl exh f aA leak
ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ
·
|
.

`
,
·
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,


( 2.12 )

The heat exchange over system boundaries is performed partially by sensitive heat of mass
flow over system boundaries:

h
dm
d
h
dm
d
h
dm
d
h
dm
d
h
dm
d
h
dm
d
j inl j exh fl aA leak
ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ
|
.

`
,
·
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,


( 2.13 )

Caloric gas properties (u, h, κ, ∂u/∂λ, ∂u/∂T, ∂u/∂p, ∂R/∂λ, ∂R/∂T, ∂R/∂p) could be modeled
from the published analytical expressions relating the temperature and gas composition (Pflaum /2/,
Zacharias /41/ and Jankov /142/). The values could be deduced also from the equilibrium gas
composition at determined state during the cycle, depending on the used fuel.


2.1.1 ENGINE CYLINDER


Engine cylinder is presented as a separate control volume with periodical change of the
volume. The shape is determined by the volume walls (cylinder, head and piston face). Differential
equation for the temperature change related to the crank angle is:

dT
d
m
u
T
p
dV
d
dQ
d
h
dm
d
u
dm
d
m
u d
d
c
c
c
c
c
c i
i c j j
c
c
c
c
c
ϕ


ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ

∂ λ
λ
ϕ
·
|
.

`
,

− + +
|
.

`
,
− −
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
∑ ∑
1
,
,
( 2.14 )

All indicated members of the equation (2.14) are related to the state in cylinder. The work
transmitted to the piston, as pressure forces to the moving boundary is:

dW
d
p
dV
d
c
c
c
ϕ ϕ
· ( 2.15 )

Cylinder pressure is determined from gas state equation as:

16

p
m T R
V
c
c c c
c
· ( 2.16 )























Fig. 2.3 Engine cylinder


Cylinder volume, related to the crank angle, is determined from the crank mechanism
kinematics, as:

( ) V
V
c
s
crm
crm
ϕ
ε
ϕ
λ
λ ϕ ·

+ − + − −
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
2
2
1
1
1
1 1
2 2
cos sin ( 2.17 )

from which the volume change rate can be derived as:

dV
d
V
c s
crm
crm
ϕ
ϕ λ
ϕ ϕ
λ ϕ
· +

]
]
]
]
]
2
1
2 2
sin
sin cos
sin
( 2.18 )


Heat transfer to the cylinder walls


The heat exchange between the working fluid and the cylinder walls must be taken into the
account during the cycle calculation:

( )
dQ
d
A T T
dt
d
w
c w c i w i c
i
ϕ
α
ϕ
· −
∑ , , ,
( 2.19 )

The surfaces exposed to the heat transfer (the boundaries of the control volume representing
the engine cylinder) are piston face, cylinder head bottom and cylinder shirt. The exposed surface of
the cylinder shirt depends on piston position during the cycle. If the temperature distribution on the
cylinder shirt is known, we could use mean temperature, as it is usually done on all exposed surfaces.

If the thermal loads of engine parts were not the primary task of this paper, but the heat
transferred to or from the cycle, one could use the mean heat transfer coefficient value as:

17

α
α α
c
c i c i
c
c i c i
c i
A
A
A
A
· ·
∫ ∫

, , , ,
,
( 2.20 )

Pflaum and Mollenhauer /83/ have presented most of the empirically derived equations for the
heat transfer coefficient for the cylinder walls, for the exhaust and intake plenums and channels in the
cylinder head.

Woschni /42/ has elaborated an empirical equation for the mean heat transfer coefficient
derived from the convective heat transfer, including the effects of radiative heat transfer. This equation
is cited by many authors.

( )
α
c c c c m
s c IVC
c IVC c IVC
c pc
d p T C c C
V T
p V
p p · + −

]
]
]
]
− −
1305
0 2 0 8 0 53
1 2
0 8
.
. . . ,
, ,
.
( 2.21 )

where the pressure p is in bars.

The constants C
1
and C
2
are determined as:

C
c
c
sw
m
1
618 0 · + . .417 (exchange of the working fluid) ( 2.21a )

C
c
c
sw
m
1
2 28 0308 · + . . (compression, expansion) ( 2.21b )

C
2
= 0.00324 m/(s⋅K) (DI engines) ( 2.21c )

C
2
= 0.00622 m/(s⋅K) (IDI engines) ( 2.21d )


To determine the cylinder pressure in motored cycle (without combustion), the following
differential equation is used:

dT
d
m
u
T
p
dV
d
dQ
d
c
c
c
pc
c w
ϕ


ϕ ϕ
·
|
.

`
,

− −

]
]
]
1
( 2.22 )

Cylinder pressure is determined from the gas state equation. Other possibility is to use the
simplified pressure calculation using the polytrope equation, neglecting the effects of heat transfer to
the walls.

Hohenberg /105/ has presented better equation for heat transfer coefficient determination:

( ) α
0 1
0 06 0 8 0 4
2
0 8
· +
− −
C V p T c C
c c c m
. . .
.
( 2.23 )

where the pressure p is in bars.

According to the experiments on the diesel engines with cylinder bore from 97 mm to 128 mm,
the constants C
1
and C
2
/105/ are:

C
1
= 130 , ( 2.23a )

C
2
= 1.4 ( 2.23b )

The heat transfer surface is determined for the above equation as sum of the exposed cylinder
surfaces A
c,i
with added surface of piston circumferencial surface between piston face and the first
compression ring:
18


A A d h
c c i
i
c cr
· +
∑ , ,
2
3
1
π ( 2.24 )

where h
1,cr
is the height between the first compression ring and piston face.


Blow-by of the working fluid

The blow by of the working fluid during compression, combustion and expansion is usually
neglected. In the starting phase of the diesel engine, when the cranking speed is very small, and the
tolerances between cylinder bore and piston are significant, the blow-by must be taken into the
account. More details on this have been presented by Rau /74/. He has neglected the blow by during
the normal engine operation, while during the starting phase, the blow by has been calculated as the
flow through the restriction of constant flow area.


Temperature of the cylinder surfaces

To determine the heat exchanged to the cylinder walls, we must know their surface
temperatures. The heat flux determines the heat loading of the exposed engine parts. The thermal
loads are very important for the accurate engine design, for various operation conditions. As the
thermal inertia of the engine parts and the cooling fluid is very great, the characteristic times compared
with engine cycle period are many times greater. As by applying such zero dimensional models of
engine cycle, the local and time changes of surface temperature are usually unknown, we must be
satisfied by mean values. Mean temperature of the surfaces exposed to the working medium can be
determined from the expressions for heat transfer (Streit and Borman /46/):

T
T A
A A
T
A A
A
i w m
c m i m c m
w
w w cw i cw
cw
w
w w cw i cw
i m c m
, ,
, , ,
,
,
, ,
·
+
|
.

`
,

+
+ +
|
.

`
,

α
δ
λ α
δ
λ α
α
1
1
1
( 2.25 )

In the above equation, the mean values for surface area A
i,m
are used, the heat transfer
coefficient α
c,m
has been determined by equation (2.20), and for the mean temperature of the working
fluid T
c,m
.

A
A d
d
i m
i
,
·


ϕ
ϕ
( 2.26a )

T
T A d
A d
c m
c i c
i c
,
·


α ϕ
α ϕ
( 2.26b )

The integration is performed for one complete engine cycle. If we go from the first assumptions
of mean temperatures by time and space and the flat surface, temperatures on the combustion
chamber surfaces could be determined on the basis of the 1-D model using the thermal resistance
analogy (Streit and Borman /46/, Beineke /73/). In most cases the surface mean temperatures could
be set as initial values or evaluated from the boundary conditions. The calculation of the surface
temperatures for other operating point is possible by the thermal resistance analogy. As the thermal
resistances for heat conduction are about constant, the resistance of convective heat transfer on gas
side are changing significantly. The resistance of convective heat transfer to the cooling water are
roughly constant.

Another indicator of engine thermal load is the valve seat temperature. It is determined by
empirical equation (Curtil and Magnet /164/):
19


t t
n
n
p
p
VS VS
vol
vol
M
M
eff
eff
·
|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,



,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
0
0
0 9
0
016
0
0 44
0
016
λ
λ
η
η
( 2.27 )

Volumetric efficiency η
vol
is defined by equation:

η
ρ τ
vol
A
s A M
m
V z n
·
2 60
!
( 2.28 )

Although the characteristic times of the engine parts temperature variation are much longer
then for other operation parameters, the influence of the transient operation on the parts temperatures
must be taken into the account. Here, it is necessary to use the instationary heat transfer formulation.


2.1.1.1 Compression and expansion


Neglecting the blow by of the gases from the cylinder, the equation (2.10) could be simplified
for the compression and expansion parts of the engine cycle. The mass of the working medium in the
cylinder is constant, so we have:

dQ
d
f
ϕ
· 0 ( 2.29 )

dm
d
c
ϕ
· 0 ( 2.30 )

d
d
c
λ
ϕ
· 0 ( 2.31 )

After substitution into the equation (2.10), the equation is:

dT
d
m
u
T
p
dV
d
dQ
d
c
c
c
c
c
w c
ϕ ∂

ϕ ϕ
·
|
.

`
,

− +

]
]
]
1 ,
( 2.24 )

If we add some compressed air for the starting of the engine or for load acceptance assisting
during compression or expansion, the equation becomes:

dm
d
dm
d
c aA
ϕ ϕ
· ( 2.33 )

dT
d
m
u
T
p
dV
d
dQ
d
h
dm
d
u
dm
d
m
u d
d
c
c
c
c
c
w c
aA
aA
c
aA
c
c
c
ϕ ∂

ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ

∂ λ
λ
ϕ
·
|
.

`
,

− + + − −
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
1 ,
( 2.34 )


2.1.1.2 Combustion


The combustion process comprises various physical and chemical processes resulting in the
chemical energy transformation to the heat. These processes are the fuel injection, fuel evaporation,
mixing of fuel and air, ignition delay, selfignition and combustion.
20


Before the combustion, the fuel is injected by high pressure into the engine cylinder. The fuel
spray disintegrates to the drops, which mix with the air, compressed to high temperatures. The drops
are heated and evaporated. The evaporated fuel mixes with air to form the combustible mixture. If the
reactant concentrations and temperatures are adequate, the selfignition process commences, resulting
in selfignition of the prepared mixture. As for these processes the time is needed (ignition delay),
during this time some amount of combustible mixture is prepared. When ignition commences, the
prepared mixture react with very fast combustion, what is designed as "premixed combustion". This
causes initial peak in heat release curve. The heat released by combustion is used partially for the
evaporation of other fuel drops, producing further fuel vapor, necessary to form the mixture to maintain
the combustion. As the combustion during this period is determined by the evaporation rate, this
relative slow part of the combustion process is designed as "diffusion combustion".























Fig. 2.4 Diagram of fuel delivery on fuel pump, fuel injection and heat
release by combustion


Models of heat release

According to Heywood /113/ and Boulouchos /144/ the categories of models are cited, so we
have:
• zero-dimensional models,
• quasi-dimensional models,
• multidimensional models.

Zero-dimensional models represent the first step in the description of engine combustion
process. Only independent variable is time (or its equivalent in crank angle). The combustion process
is described by the heat release rate, in the following forms:

( ) Q f x m H
f f f pr d comb
· · ϕ η
,1
( 2.35 )

dQ
d
dx
d
m H
f f
f pr d comb
ϕ ϕ
η ·
,1
( 2.36 )

In engine combustion descriptions, the formulation can be using the combusted fuel mass, but
it is more accurate to use the released heat by combustion. This is justified especially in the case of the
incomplete combustion, as in the case of the oxygen shortage or at incomplete mixing processes. The
formulation form for the combustion description, related to the time, is designed as heat release law.
21


Many of the authors have published models for simulating the combustion process in the heat
release rate form. Lyn /29/ and Ryti /34/ have used triangles and Benson and Whitehose /103/ have
used rectangles in the heat release rate representation. Further models are combinations of triangles
or other forms (Vibe /40/, Watson and Marzouk /85/ and Oberg /77/). Characteristic of the models
proposed by Watson and Marzouk /85/ and Oberg /77/ is more adequate representation of the first
"premixed combustion".

Heat release law comprises two or more parameters correcting the shape to comply more
accurate with the experimentally derived results for the ample field of engine operation. The main
advantage of such models is in their simplicity. The drawbacks of these models are in the impossibility
to predict the influences of the combustion chamber shape, fuel injection rate, in cylinder flows etc.

Quasi-dimensional models take into the account the thermodynamical parameters of the
working fluid, fuel injection rate, combustion chamber geometry, flow of the working fluid etc. The
influences of various parameters, as the turbulence, spray angle, mixing rate, combustion chemistry
kinetics etc. can be determined. The fuel spray is divided into the groups of fuel drops contained in the
control volume, which travels with the group. All drops in the group are of the same properties, so the
parameters in the group are in a particular instant homogenous. The only independent variable is time.
The cylinder content is divided into small subsystems, mutually exchanging the mass, energy and
momentum, but without the spatial resolution. Position of each group is only time dependent. The
computation time is longer.

Multidymensional models are based on the description of the conservative laws for mass,
chemical species, momentum and energy by partial differential equations. To the model special
equations describing the boundary conditions, such as for local heat transfer, chemical reaction
kinetics etc., are added. As in the zero and quasi dymensional models the ordinary differential
equations are applied, the multidimensional models are described by partial differential equations with
4 independent variables time and 3 space coordinates . These models result in most detailed
description of the processes, but they are requesting large memories and very long computation times.
The predictions given by these models are very good, and the influence of various engine, fuel, flow
etc. parameters could be investigated very accurately.

In the presented work, the zero-dimensional model for the combustion process is applied. The
simplest description, derived from the analysis of the combustion of the homogenous premixed air fuel
mixture (in spark ignition engines), is the combustion law by Vibe /40/. The relative amount of
combusted fuel and the heat release rate are:

( )
x
Q
m H
Cy
f
f
comb f pr d
m
· · − −
+
η
,
exp
1
1
1 ( 2.37 )

( )
( )
dx
d
C m y Cy
f m m
ϕ
· + −
+
1
1
exp ( 2.38 )

Relative combustion time is:

y
SC
CP
·
− ϕ ϕ
ϕ
( 2.39 )

ϕ ϕ ϕ
CP ECo CS
· − ( 2.40 )

The equation (2.37) indicates the exponential function of the combustion process in which the
Viebe exponent m determines the position of the maximum heat release rate. The constant C is
introduced to determine the time when the combustion is practically ended, when the 99.9% of the fuel
is combusted. Then the value of C is C = 6.901. Vibe has introduced the combustion efficiency η
comb
to
take into the account the losses of dissociation process and of the incomplete fuel combustion.



22

















Fig. 2.5 The model of combustion by Vibe /144/


Although the equation (2.37) for the combusted fuel part, derived by Vibe for the combustion of
premixed homogenous fuel air mixture (as in spark ignition engines), this equation could be applied in
compression ignition engines too, relating to the maximum cylinder pressure, indicated power and
efficiency.

Many experiments have shown that the parameters of the Vibe model could be related to the
variation of the operation conditions by various correlations. According to Woschni and Anisits /65/ the
Vibe exponent depends on the ignition delay ∆ϕ
ID
, mass of the working medium and the engine speed
by the following correlation:

m m
p T
p T
n
n
ID
ID
c c
c c
M
M
·
|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

0
0
0 5
0
0
0
0 3


ϕ
ϕ
,
.
,
,
,
.
( 2.41 )

The change of the combustion duration is by same authors:

∆ ∆ ϕ ϕ
λ
λ
CP CP
M
M
n
n
·
|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

,
.
,
.
0
0
0 6
0
0 5
( 2.42 )

The more accurate models of two phase heat release process assume that the combustion
starts in the dynamic point of the fuel injection start comprising the two essential processes: the ignition
delay and the heat release. The ignition delay depends on the pressure and temperature in the
cylinder. The heat release phase consists of two parts: the premixed combustion and the diffusion
combustion. We assume that both combustion processes start in the same point. The premixed
combustion is at the initial of the combustion more intensive and lasts only short, up to the moment
when the premixed mixture is exhausted. The slower and longer process is the diffusion combustion.
In such model we can reconstruct the initial rapid heat release in the direct injection engines. The mass
of the premixed air fuel mixture depends on the amount of the injected fuel during the ignition delay
period and on the instantaneous air excess ratio. The relations between the combustion law and the
heat release law are based under assumptions of the chemical equilibrium. For the lean mixtures both
laws are mutually proportional, except when dissociation commences. For reach mixtures, each fuel
mass augmentation will result in the lower heat release because of the incomplete combustion. This
reduction in heat release because of the incomplete combustion is taken into the account by the
combustion efficiency.

Oberg /77/ has proposed the simulation of the heat release law by two superimposed Vibe
equations, one representing the rapid premixed combustion and other representing the diffusion
combustion, starting in the same point at angle ϕ
SC
so that each of two function has separate
parameter values, as for Vibe exponent and combustion duration:

23


( ) ( ) ( ) x x x
f f hf f df
ϕ ϕ ϕ · +
, ,
( 2.43 )

Q Q Q
f pr f pr hf f pr df , , , , , 1 1 1
· + ( 2.44 )

( )
x
Q
Q
Cy
f hf
f hf
f pr hf
hf
m
hf
,
,
, ,
exp · · − −
+
1
1
1 ( 2.45 )

( )
x
Q
Q
Cy
f df
f df
f pr df
df
m
df
,
,
, ,
exp · · − −
+
1
1
1 ( 2.46 )

Oberg has proposed to take the exponent value m
hf
= 2, for the premixed combustion, while
other parameters are functions of the ignition delay, air excess ratio and engine speed.










































Fig. 2.6 Results of the analysis of recorded indicated pressures during combustion
to derive the heat release rate and substitution by two superimposed
Vibe functions Oberg /77/
24


Watson, Piley and Marzouk /85/ have proposed the simple model consisting of special
exponential function for the description of the premixed combustion, while the diffusion combustion is
represented by the Vibe function. Both functions start in the same point, when ignition starts, and both
functions last 125° of crank angle.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x x x x x
f f hf f df f f
ϕ β ϕ β ϕ · + · + −
, ,
1 ( 2.47 )

β ·
m
m
f pr hf
f pr
, ,
,
1
1
( 2.48 )

y
SC
·
− ϕ ϕ
125
( 2.49 )

( )
x y
f hf
C
C
hf
hf
,
,
,
· − − 1 1
1
2
( 2.50 )

( )
x C y
f df df
C
df
, ,
exp
,
· − − 1
1
2
( 2.51 )

Parameters of the heat release law by Watson, Piley and Marzouk (β, C
1,hf
, C
2,hf
, C
1,df
, and
C
2,df
) are dependent on ignition delay, air excess ratio and engine speed. The influence of the air
excess ratio on the heat release law, combustion duration and Vibe exponent value was investigated
by Prebil /143/.

Heat release rate parameter evaluation from experiments

Starting point for the heat release law evaluation are the recorded pressures during the engine
cycle in the p = p(ϕ) form. The heat release law determined from the measurements has high degree
of noise because of various influences in the measurement chain (piezoelectric transducer drift, A/D
converter discretisation etc.), so we need some smoothing of the recorded data before we derive the
heat release law. Mölenkampf /79/ has described two fold smoothing by application of the 3. degree
polynomial. The smoothing could be performed by spline interpolation (Ledger et al. /58/) or by other
means. If we derive the heat release directly from the measurement records, the coefficients for the
Vibe function may be derived by the logarithmic anamorphosis as proposed by Vibe.




















Fig. 2.7 Example of the evaluation of Vibe function parameters for
heat release law in diesel engine combustion

25

Logarithmic anamorphosis proposed by Vibe results in longer combustion duration for records
derived by low engine loads, compared with the method proposed by Mölenkampf /79/. Both methods
give equal exactness of the cylinder process reconstruction. Logarithmic anamorphosis is insensitive to
the noise in recorded data.

For the evaluation of heat release law parameters, for the premixed and for the diffusion
combustion, we start from the selected heat release law. Using the form of the mathematical
description for the selected heat release, we could derive the values of parameters, by applying the
multiple iterations and least square regression method. To correlate the parameters to the various
operation regimes, we need many of the recorded data for such ample operation field.

Ignition delay

The start of combustion for the determined engine operating conditions depend on the
geometric fuel delivery starting point ϕ
SFD
, period for the pressure wave translation up to the injection
start ∆ϕ
SFI
and the ignition delay ∆ϕ
ID
.

ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ
SC SFD SFI ID
· + + ∆ ∆ ( 2.52 )

Injection delay ∆ϕ
SFI
represents the period from the fuel delivery start by fuel injection pump to
the fuel injection start. It is determined roughly by the period for the pressure wave translation through
the fuel injection line:

∆ϕ
SFI
M fil
f
n L
a
·
6
( 2.53 )

where a
f
is the sound speed for fuel in the injection line (a
f
= 1300 ... 1400 m/s).

As the values of L
fil
and a
f
are approximate constant, we can derive the change in the injection
delay related to the engine speed as:

∆ ∆ ϕ ϕ
SFI SFI
M
M
n
n
·
,
,
0
0
( 2.53 )
For the calculation of ignition delay, the semiempirical equation by Sitkei /11/, /13/ was used:

( )
τ
ID
c mID
c mID c mID
T
p p · +
|
.

`
,

+
− −
05
392782
01332 4
0 7 18
. exp
.
. .637
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
.

ID
in milliseconds) ( 2.55 )

The values of pressure and temperature are the mean values during the ignition delay period.
The equation is derived for diesel fuel with cetane number of 52 In our application the extrapolation of
constants for cold and blue flame, as for explosion flame, was performed to the heavy fuel oil with
cetane number of 40 (Boy /112/):

( )
τ
ID
c m ID
c m ID c m ID
T
p p · +
|
.

`
,

+
− −
05
392782
0155 5796
0 7 18
. exp
.
. .
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
.

ID
in milliseconds) ( 2.55a )

In the equations (2.55) and (2.56) the pressure is given in bars.

In the literature, the correlation for ignition delay by Wolfer is often cited:

τ
ID
c mID
c mID
T
p ·
|
.

`
,


3
2100
102
.45exp
, ,
, ,
.

ID
in milliseconds) ( 2.56 )
Corrections for the ignition delay during the engine start-up are given by Rau /74/.



26

Incomplete combustion and combustion efficiency

The good mixing of injected fuel with compressed air in the cylinder is primary task for the
formation of the combustible mixture. This process influences the combustion efficiency and the
available air usage. When the combustion is incomplete, the soot emission is the indicator of such
events. The intensity of fuel molecules cracking is determined by the period needed for the fuel
evaporation and mixing with air. This period depends on the in-cylinder temperature and pressure,
diameter of the drops, flow of the air, fuel properties and air excess ratio. Although in the combustion
white and blue smoke may result, according to Lyn /29/ only the black smoke provokes the power
derating. From this simple process preview, it is obvious that incomplete combustion and soot
emission depends on many factors, but the influence of the air excess ratio is the hardest. There is no
fixed limit when the sooting commences, so that in the correlations we must start from various
assumptions.

In the simulation of the transient operating conditions it is important to take into the account the
combustion efficiency by simple expressions. It is convenient to express the combustion efficiency
related to the air excess ratio limit when the visible soot emission commences. In the medium speed
engines this limit is often set at the value of λ = 1.6. Here we wish to point that by this limit commences
the visible soot emission, when for example 80% of available air is used, and that only 1% of fuel
transformed in soot gives a soot emission of 7 Bosh units, or ~ 90 Hartridge units. The significant
power derating commences in air excess ratio values lower then 1.6.

During the load acceptance, when load is added, shortly we can have air shortage, so the air
excess ratio can be lower than 1, when sooting is very hard. In mathematical simulation of such
processes it is necessary to express additional boundary condition, related to the air excess ratio, to
determine the combustion efficiency. Departures caused by incomplete insight in this phenomenon are
indicated in early papers. There is shown that discrepancies between the simulated data and the
measurements caused by assumptions that the combustion is complete especially by rich mixtures ,
what was indicated in the temperature of the exhaust gases before the turbine. By the introduction of
the combustion efficiency this temperature was corrected. There are many correlations by various
authors for the combustion efficiency correlations as indicated by Benson et al. /57/.





















Fig. 2.8 Combustion efficiency according to various authors


Characteristic value for the description of the heat released during combustion is the
combustion efficiency, defined as:

η
comb
f pr
f pr d
Q
m H
·
,
,
1
1
( 2.57 )
27


"Theoretical" values for the combustion efficiency are:

η λ
comb
· for λ ≤ 1 ( 2.57a )

η
comb
· 1 for λ > 1 ( 2.57b )

"Theoretical" values of the combustion efficiency are derived for the case that sufficient time
was given to the air and fuel to mix with each other. In diesel engine the time for mixture preparation
and combustion is limited. In experiments performed by Betz and Woschni /157/, as air excess ratio
limit value was used the value when visible soot commences (3.5 Bosh units at η
comb
= 0.99).
According to the measurements on the small diesel engines, the following limit values for the air
excess ratio were derived:

λ
RB
= 2.05 for engine with "quiet" combustion space,
λ
RB
= 1.25 for engine with high swirl ratio (swirl ratio ~ 2.4),
λ
RB
= 1.18 for indirect injection diesel engine.

























Fig. 2.9 Dependence of the combustion efficiency on air excess ratio according
to Woschni and Betz /157/


There is no evidence on dependence of the air excess ratio limit value on charging pressure or
on engine speed. From the investigations, the correlation for the combustion efficiency simulation for
the known air excess ratio limit (when sooting commences), for 1.18 < λ
RB
< 2.05 is:

η
comb
· 1 for λ λ ≥
RB
( 2.58a )

( ) η λ λ
comb
a c b · − exp for λ λ
RB
> > 1 ( 2.58b )

η λ
comb
d · + 095 . for 1≥ λ ( 2.58c )

c
RB
· −
1
λ
( 2.58d )
28


d
RB
· − −

0375
117
15
.
. λ
( 2.58e )

( ) ( )
a
d
c c
RB RB
·


005 .
exp exp λ λ
( 2.58f )

( ) b a c d · − − exp . 095 ( 2.58g )

Woschni and Betz /157/ have proposed the corrections for the combustion duration for change
of the operating conditions different that one for the operation at nominal power:

∆ ∆ ϕ ϕ
λ
λ
η
CP CP
M
M
comb
n
n
·
|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

,
.
,
.
.
0
0
0 6
0
0 5
0 6
( 2.59 )

Description of the combustion process in the cylinder

In the model, which is presented in this work, we assume that the injected fuel instantly
combusts to the combustion products, which mixes instantly and completely with other gases in the
cylinder. The heat release rate is expressed by the heat release rate law, rather than with the fuel
injection rate.

During the combustion there is no mass exchange with cylinder exterior, so we have:

dm
d
c inl ,
ϕ
· 0 ( 2.60 )

dm
d
c exh ,
ϕ
· 0 ( 2.61 )

The temperature change in the cylinder during the combustion is:

dT
d
m
u
T
dQ
d
dQ
d
p
dV
d
u
dm
d
m
u d
d
c
c
c
f w
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
ϕ ∂

ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ

∂ λ
λ
ϕ
·
|
.

`
,

+ − − −
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
1
( 2.62 )

dm
d
dm
d
dx
d
m
c
f c
f
f pr
ϕ ϕ ϕ
· ·
,
,1
( 2.63 )

λ
c
c f c
st f c
m m
L m
·

,
,
( 2.64 )

d
d m
dm
d
c c
f c
f c
λ
ϕ
λ
ϕ
· −
,
,
( 2.65 )

dm
d H
dQ
d
f c
comb d
f ,
ϕ η ϕ
·
1
( 2.66 )

The indicated equations are applicable also for the combustion during the engine transient
operation. It is necessary to take into the account the parameter change during the transient for the
heat release law.

29

2.1.1.3 The working fluid exchange process


During the high pressure part of the engine cycle, the cylinder and manifolds (intake air and
exhaust) are disconnected, while during the exchange part of the engine cycle they are connected by
opening the valves. Contrary to the two stroke engines, by the four stroke engines we assume the
perfect mixing of the gases producing the homogenous mixture in the cylinder. As during the exchange
process there is no combustion, the basic differential equation will be:

dT
d
m
u
T
dQ
d
p
dV
d
u
dm
d
h
dm
d
h
dm
d
m
u d
d
c
c
c
w
c
c
c
c
exh
c exh
inl
c inl
c
c
c
ϕ


ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ

∂ λ
λ
ϕ
·
|
.

`
,

− − + + −
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
1
, ,
( 2.67 )

The mass change in the cylinder is:

dm
d
dm
d
dm
d
c
c inl c exh
ϕ ϕ ϕ
· +
, ,
( 2.68 )

Mass flow through the valve is:

dm
d
A p
RT
dt
d
v v geom
ϕ
α ψ
ϕ
·
, 1
1
2
( 2.69 )

ψ
κ
κ
κ
κ
κ
·

|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
]
+
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
p
p
p
p
for 1
2
1
2
1
1
≥ ≥
+
|
.

`
,

− p
p κ
κ
κ
( 2.70 )

ψ
κ
κ
κ
κ
·
+
|
.

`
,

+
− 2
1 1
1
1
for
p
p
1
2
1 1
2

+ |
.

`
,

− κ
κ
κ
( 2.71 )

Indices 1 and 2 relate to the states before and behind the valve, looking in the flow direction.
The performed measurements of various authors assume that the influence of the pressure on the flow
coefficient could be neglected at the higher valve lift. There are very rare papers dealing with the flow
coefficients for engine valves. Some authors, as for example Benson /112/ indicate that the
instationary flow coefficients are of lower value compared to the stationary values.

Engine producers indicate often various values of the flow coefficient related to the valve lift.
Effective valve flow area is the product of the geometrical valve flow area with the flow coefficient:

A A
v eff v v geom , ,
· α ( 2.72 )

The determination of the geometrical valve flow area is reported by Hardenberg /36/, /60/ and
Dong /151/. Many authors indicate the diagrams of the measured flow coefficients (Eisele et al. /75/).
Hardenberg /60/ has reported the investigation of the valve series in the narrowing head channels. The
influence of the applied diffusers in the exhaust channel have been reported by Menne and Pischinger
/145/.

In this paper, a special program was used to determine the values of effective flow areas
related to the crank angle for the inlet and exhaust valves, according to the published data by
Hardenberg and Daudel /60/ and the geometric valve flow area according to Dong /151/. This program
is used if there are no available data on the valve effective area from the engine manufacturer.

In the case of the back flow, the situation on the inlet valve is worsened, and contrary on the
exhaust valve is better. Measurements of some engine manufacturers have shown that the flow
30

coefficient is for the backflow on the inlet valve ~6% lower in value, and that at the backflow on the
exhaust valve, the value is for the same amount greater. Some authors (Boy /112/) for example report
higher differences, as ~13% for the inlet valve and ~5% for the exhaust valve.




















Fig. 2.10 Values for the flow coefficient related to the valve lift
for various valve designs Menne and Pischinger /145/


For the enthalpy of the flow we must take the enthalpy of the gas before the flow restriction,
looking in the flow direction. Change of the air excess ratio due to the inflow of gases from another
control volume, designed by index i is:

d
d
dm
d
m m
m m
L m
dm
d
L
L
L m
c
c i c f c i
f c c i
st f c
c i
c st
i st
st f c
λ
ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
λ
λ
·

|
.

`
,

·

+
+
|
.

`
,

, , ,
, ,
,
,
,
1
1
1
1
( 2.73 )

where index i denotes the volume from which we have inflow, index c denotes the cylinder and index f
the fuel. The change in the air excess ratio results only when we have inflow of gases with different
value of air excess ratio, what is evident from the second part of the above equation. During the
outflow of the working fluid the air excess ratio does not change in the control volume from which we
have outflow. The change in the mass of combusted fuel in cylinder during the mass exchange is:

dm
d
dm
d L
f c i
i st
, , 0
1
1 ϕ ϕ λ
·
+
( 2.74 )


2.1.2 INTAKE MANIFOLD AND AIR COOLER


In the calculations of stationary operation point we often assume, due to small pressure
changes in the inlet manifold, the constant pressure in inlet manifold. Some authors have included the
inlet manifold pressure changes to investigate the influence of variations of the pressure on the
compressor operation, especially in the vicinity of the compressor surge limit (Yano and Nagata /62/,
Grohn /80/). Most of the authors often neglect the pressure change in the inlet manifold for the engine
stationary operation, from practical reasons and from the significant instability of the cyclic variations of
the compressor operation point in the vicinity of the surge limit. In this paper the pressure variations in
the inlet manifold are taken into the account, regarding the good regression models for the description
of the compressor operation field.

31

Regarding the low temperatures, when compared with others control volumes, the heat
exchange to the walls is small, so that many authors neglect the heat exchange for the inlet manifolds.
Here the heat exchange is included for the inlet manifold and the inlet channels in the cylinder head. If
the backflow of the combustion products occur to the inlet side, they are instantly mixed with the
trapped air in the inlet manifold.
















Fig. 2.11 Inlet manifold


dQ
d
f IM ,
ϕ
· 0 ( 2.75 )

d
d
dm
d
L
L
L m
IM
IM c
IM st
c st
st f IM
λ
ϕ
ϕ
λ
λ
·

+
+
|
.

`
,

,
,
1
1
1
( 2.76 )

dV
d
IM
ϕ
· 0 ( 2.77 )

The temperature change in the inlet manifold is:

dT
d
m
u
T
dQ
d
h
dm
d
u
dm
d
m
u d
d
IM
IM
IM
w IM
IM j j
IM
IM
IM
IM
IM
ϕ ∂

ϕ ϕ ϕ

∂ λ
λ
ϕ
·
|
.

`
,

+
|
.

`
,

− −
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]

1 ,
,
( 2.78 )

Mass conservation equation is:

dm
d
dm
d
dm
d
IM
IMC IM j
j
ϕ ϕ ϕ
· +

, ,
( 2.79 )


Heat transfer to the walls

Heat transfer to the inlet manifold and inlet channel walls is:

( ) ( )
dQ
d
A T T
dt
d
A T T
dt
d
w IM
IM IM w IM IM ICh ICh w ICh IM
,
, ,
ϕ
α
ϕ
α
ϕ
· − + − ( 2.80 )

Index IM relates to the inlet manifold, and index ICh to the inlet channel.

32

The equation for the heat transfer at laminar flow (Re<2300) through a inlet manifold pipe is
(Boy /112/):

α
λ
IM
IM
IM
IM IM
IM
IM
d
d
L
·

]
]
]
186
0 33
. Re
.
Pr ( 2.81 )

For the turbulent flow the equation is:

α
λ
IM
IM
IM
IM
IM
d
d
L
· +
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
0024 1
0 666
0 786 0 45
. Re
.
. .
Pr ( 2.82 )

According to Woschni /42/, the Prandtl number value is nearly constant (Pr ≈ 0.71) for the
range of 20 °C to 1500 °C. Reynolds number can be determined from the mass flow, pipe diameter
and the dynamic viscosity:
.
Re
!
·
4m
d
IM
IM IM
π η
( 2.83 )

Air properties may be determined by Pflaum /83/ in approximate expressions. The heat
conductance and dynamic viscosity of the air are:

λ
IM
IM
T · ⋅

317 10
4 0 772
.
.
( 2.84 )

η
IM
IM
T · ⋅

0 10
6 0 609
.612
.
( 2.84 )

For the heat transfer coefficient in inlet channel Pflaum /83/ has proposed the following
correlation:

α
ϕ
ICh
IV
IV
mICh IM
ICh
h
d
d T
dm
d
· −
|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,


0 1 0765
1675 0 362
0 675
.227 .
,
. .
.
( 2.86 )


Air cooler

For the power increase and for the lowering of the heat loading of engine parts, the air cooling
after compressor is needed. The air comes from the compressor with the mean temperature T
aC
and
cools in the air cooler. The design of the air cooler and air flow determines the cooling intensity. The
cooling efficiency η
AiC
is defined as:

η
AiC
A b AiC A a AiC
A b AiC CW b AiC
T T
T T
·


, , , ,
, , , ,
( 2.87 )

where from the air temperature after cooler T
A,a,AiC
can be determined. The air temperature on the
cooler inlet is:

T T T
T
A b AiC AaC amb
amb
C
C
, , , ,
· · + −
|
.

`
,


η
π
κ
κ
1
1 ( 2.88 )

In the calculations of the closed cycle and in the dynamic system, we use the constant value of
the air cooler efficiency. Stationary measurements on the coolers indicate significant influence of the
air mass flow on the cooler efficiency. This efficiency increases when the air flow diminishes, when the
cooling water flow remains constant. The measurements indicate the lower influence of the cooling
water and air temperatures on the cooler efficiency than is the influence of mass flow. Because of thin
33

walls in air coolers small mass of heat exchange plates or pipes , the delay in thermal response is
short. That means, that the stationary characteristics should suffice the instationary operation
simulation too.




















Fig. 2.12 Air cooler efficiency Boy /112/






























Fig. 2.13 (k⋅A) characteristics of the air cooler (Zellbeck and Woschni /138/)


If we do not know the product of the cooler active area A
AiC
with heat transfer coefficient k
AiC
,
for the known media and inlet temperatures we can evaluate the medium outlet temperatures as:

34

( )
( )
( )
T T T T
C
C
A k
C
C
C
C
C
k A
C
A a AiC A b AiC A b AiC CW b AiC
A
CW
AiC
A
A
CW
A
CW
AiC
A
, , , , , , , ,
exp
exp
· − −
− −
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
− −
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
1 1
1 1
( 2.89 )

where C
A
and C
CW
are heat capacities for air and cooling water mass flows:

C c
dm
dt
A p A
A
·
,
( 2.90 )

C c
dm
dt
CW pCW
CW
·
,
( 2.91 )

The heat taken in the cooler from the air is:

( )
dQ
d
C T T
dt
d
AiC
A A b AiC Aa AiC
ϕ ϕ
· −
, , , ,
( 2.92 )

Convective heat transfer is accompanied with flow losses. These losses are proportional to
square of the mass flow as:

p p p
dm
dt
dm
dt
Aa AiC A aC
C
C
, , ,
,
· −
|
.

`
,


0
0
2
( 2.93 )

It was shown practical to include the air flow losses in the air cooler to the common flow losses
for the intake manifold.


2.1.3 ADDITIONAL AIR RECEIVER


For the engine start up and for possible assisted load acceptance with addition of the
compressed air, it is necessary to use the compressed air in separate receivers. This air flows to the
cylinder during the start up through the starting valve with flow area of A
aA
. Basic differential equation
for the compressed air receiver is:

dT
d
m
u
T
h
dm
d
u
dm
d
AAR
AAR
AAR
AAR
AAR
AAR
AAR
ϕ


ϕ ϕ
·
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
1
( 2.94 )

dm
d
dm
d
AAR aA
ϕ ϕ
· ( 2.95 )

The last equation presents the mass variation in the air receiver, that means the air outflow
from the receiver. The outflow is performed through the pipings and valves, so that at the end the air is
admitted to the cylinder by the starting valve in the cylinder head.

The mass flow on the starting valve is:

dm
d
A p
RT
dt
d
aA
v aA v aA
ϕ
α ψ
ϕ
·
, , 1
1
2
( 2.97 )
35


The index 1 denotes the state before the valve, looking in the flow direction, that means in the
air receiver. The coefficients are determined by equations (2.70) and (2.71).

To accelerate the load acceptance, we can introduce the additional air into the cylinder. Valve
for the air admittance must have adequate control to add the air only during the compression stroke. If
we use the starting valve for these purpose, the control conditions must be determined. Boy /112/ has
shown that the opening and closing times of starting valve are in the range up to 10
-2
s, so that the
temporary change in the valve flow area could be neglected, so that only the open or closed valve
states could be used.


2.1.4 THE EXHAUST MANIFOLD


The pressure pulsations in the exhaust manifold are significant and they should not be
neglected. These pulsations have influence on the gas exchange process, on the turbine operation and
other effects. Depending on the task of calculations we could take various modes of calculations of
pressure variations. Some authors have used triangles (Benson and Whitehouse /103/) or rectangles
(Zinner /117/) for the pressure variations or have proposed correction factors (Zinner /117/). Simplified
expressions do not satisfy the needs of simulation models for turbine power evaluation in the cases of
pulsating pressures in the exhaust manifolds.

To determine the mass exchange and pressure variations we use various models for the
instationary flows:
• quasi stationary method,
• filling&empting method,
• 1-D modeling, and
• multidimensional models.

In quasi stationary method we assume that in the determined time step the state in selected
volume is homogenous and stationary for the same time step. The influence of inertial forces is
neglected, as well as the wave properties. Such flow is described by ordinary differential equations for
mass and energy conservation. The variance of such models is the "filling&empting" method.
Application of such models is restricted to the compact control volumes with small length relative to the
diameter.

1-D models for instationary flows are used for the description of wave propagations through
the pipes during the time. The description is performed by partial differential equations for mass,
momentum and energy conservation. To describe the flow in the exhaust piping of the engine, the
equations used by many authors (Woschni /26/, Seifert /55/, /102/, Mayer and Nowotny /130/, Stanski
/154/, Šegulja /160/) could be applied. From the mentioned papers the summary of these equations is:

• Equation of the mass conservation continuity equation is:


( ) ( ) ∂ ρ

∂ ρ

ρ
t
v
x
v
d A
d x
+ · −
ln
( 2.98 )

• Equation for the momentum conservation is:

( )
( )
( ) ∂ ρ

∂ ρ

µ ρ ρ
v
t
v p
x
v
d A
d x
Fr
+
+
· −
2
2
ln
( 2.99 )

• Equation for the energy conservation is:

( ) ∂

ρ


ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ t
v
u
x
v
v
u
p
v
v
u
p
d A
d x
q
2 2 2
2 2 2
+
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
+ + +
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
· − + +
|
.

`
,

+
ln
( 2.100 )
36


These equations could be presented in short vectorised description as:





u f
h 0
t x
+ + · ( 2.101 )

where the vectors have form of:

u ·
+
|
.

`
,

¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
ρ
ρ
ρ
v
v
u
2
2
( 2.101a)

f · +
+ +
|
.

`
,

¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
v
v p
v
v
u
p
2
2
2
2
( 2.101b )

( )
( )
( )
h · −
+ +
|
.

`
,


¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
ρ
ρ µ ρ
ρ
ρ
v
d A
d x
v
d A
d x
v
v
u
p
d A
d x
q
Fr
ln
ln
ln
2
2
2
( 2.101c )

0 ·
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
0
0
0
( 2.101d )

If we neglect the friction in exhaust piping, the heat exchange to the walls and if we assume
the constant flow area, the equation (2.101) will be simplified to the form:





u f
0
t x
+ · ( 2.102 )

The equations (2.101) and (2.102) are hyperbolic partial equations. Solving methods for
solution of such equations are developed together with the digital computer development.

The first approach was the linearisation method, where the small pressure variations have
been assumed, to avoid the influence of nonlinearities. These assumptions have been constructed on
the approximations of the constant fluid density during the calculations. This method of linearisation is
merely known as acoustic method or method of small perturbances. This method has made possible
to predict instationary wave effects of small amplitudes, so that many applications have been made on
the inlet piping and on the exhaust piping after the exhaust silencer. This method is not in position to
predict the wave effects in the exhaust piping after the cylinders (Bulaty /132/).

Next step was in the development of the method of characteristics. In the first time this
method was presented as graphical method, later the numerical scheme was derived. Partial
differential equations are transformed to the ordinary differential equations stretching on the lines
called characteristics. The solutions are determined in the crossections of forward and backward
characteristics. The discontinuities could be encountered in shock waves and on boundaries. As the
intersection points are not localized in the discrete points, we must interpolate results to the fixed
37

points in the 1-D space. The basic condition for the applicability of the method of characteristics is the
continuity in dependent variables. Authors having reported the usage of this method are Benson /9/,
Wallace /17/, Seifert /55/ and Pucher /89/.




















Fig. 2.14 Comparison of the measurements with the results of the method of characteristics
and filling&empting method for pressure variations in the exhaust piping (Pucher /89/)

Method of characteristics is very demanding for the application as a numerical method.
because of the need for the continuity of dependent variables it is inconvenient for description of shock
waves. The method is not adapted to the fixed time or space step, so that the interpolation to the fixed
space and time locations is necessary. The advantage of this method is in details of the solutions and
in smooth pressure profiles between shock waves.

The larger application in the solution of partial differential equations has the method of finite
differences. Partial differential equations are substituted by finite difference equations which are
solved by iterations. Depending on the solving algorithm, the methods of finite differences can be
divided to the first order schemes Lax , second order schemes (McCormack, Lax Wendroff) and third
order schemes (Warming, Rusanov) according to Šegulja /160/. Among the interesting schemes for
solving the instationary flow in exhaust piping of the engine, important role is dedicated to the
McCormack and Lax Wendroff schemes (Mayer and Nowotny /130/, Stanski et al. /154/ and Šegulja
/160/). Both schemes are iterative with solution corrections by space step according to the predictor
corrector scheme. The time step is chosen according to the numerical stability criteria by Friedrichs-
Courant-Lewy.

Methods of finite differences have very ample applications, resulting from their simplicity in the
numerical implementation to the digital computers, their simple and clear logic's, simple formulation of
shock waves and the possibility to maintain fixed space and time steps. Great advantage is in good
agreement between the predicted and measured values. The shortages are in very long calculation
times (10 to 50 times longer when comparing with the filling&empting method) and in slow and doubtful
solution convergence to the stationary operation point of the engine under investigation. The
application of this method to calculations of the engine transient operating conditions is the matter of
compromise. The preparation of the boundary conditions for the application of method of finite
differences is very demanding in the experimentally derived values, which are hard to transfer to
another situations.

Multidimensional models are based on the multidimensional description of the conservative
laws, similarly to the equations (2.101), but expanded to another space coordinates. Aside to the
conservative laws, the turbulent kinetic energy generation and dissipation equations are added. These
models are very demanding in the computer memory and computing time. The solution convergence is
very hard to achieve, especially in the case of stochastic flow fields in presence of turbulent flows, so
very detailed preparation of the boundary conditions is very important in the use of these models.

38


































Fig. 2.15 Pressure variation in straight exhaust pipe for the one cylinder two stroke
engine by applying the method of finite differences (Šegulja /160/)


Bulaty /132/ has proposed the application of the filling&empting method for relative short
exhaust manifolds. As criteria for the choice he has introduced the wave characteristic Φ
L
, representing
the crank angle needed for the pressure wave to pass the way from cylinder to the turbine and to come
back as reflected wave. The filling&empting method will give the satisfying results when the wave
characteristic is in the range Φ
L
< 20 °CA. In the range 20 °CA < Φ
L
< 40 °CA the filling&empting
method will indicate only global influence of the wave effects in the exhaust manifold.

In this paper the application of the filling&empting method was proposed, same as in other
authors (Bozung /98/, Boy /112/, Zellbeck /127/ and Zellbeck and Woschni /138/).













Fig. 2.16 Exhaust manifold

39

Basic differential equation for the exhaust manifold is:

dT
d
m
u
T
dQ
d
h
dm
d
u
dm
d
m
u d
d
EM
EM
EM
w EM
EM j j
EM
EM
EM
EM
EM
ϕ ∂

ϕ ϕ ϕ

∂ λ
λ
ϕ
·
|
.

`
,

+
|
.

`
,

− −
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]

1 ,
,
( 2.103 )

In the exhaust manifold there is no volume change and no combustion, so the dependent
members are eliminated. The change of the air excess ratio is:

d
d
dm
d
L
L
L m
EM
EM i
EM st
i st
i
st f EM
λ
ϕ
ϕ
λ
λ
·

+
+
|
.

`
,


,
,
1
1
1
( 2.104 )

where the mass of combusted fuel in the exhaust manifold is:

m
m
L
f EM
EM
EM st
,
·
+ λ 1
( 2.105 )

The mass change in the exhaust manifold is:

dm
d
dm
d
EM
EM i
i
ϕ ϕ
·

,
( 2.106 )

Here the index i denotes particular control volumes (cylinders, exhaust manifolds, turbocharger
turbine) from which the exhaust gases flow to the exhaust manifold.


Heat transfer to the walls

In the exhaust manifold, because of the fluid high temperatures there is significant heat
transfer to the walls. In many early papers this was accounted using the correction factors. More
accurate values are obtained by the models of the real process. The equation for heat transfer to the
walls of the exhaust manifold and exhaust channel in the cylinder head is:

( ) ( )
dQ
d
A T T
dt
d
A T T
dt
d
w EM
EM EM w EM EM ECh ECh w ECh EM
,
, ,
ϕ
α
ϕ
α
ϕ
· − + − ( 2.107 )

Here the index EM is related to the exhaust manifold and index ECh to the exhaust channel.
The index w denotes walls. The heat transferred to the walls is small, because of the good thermal
insulation of the exhaust manifold. The convective heat transfer coefficient on exhaust manifold wall
α
EM
is determined by equations (2.81) and (2.82), taking into the account the composition of the
exhaust gases.

Properties of the exhaust gases can be determined by empirical expressions proposed by
Pflaum /83/. The thermal conductance and dynamic viscosity of exhaust gases are:

λ
EM
EM
T · ⋅

202 10
4 0 837
.
.
( 2.108 )

η
EM
EM
T · ⋅

0355 10
6 0 679
.
.
( 2.109 )

Usually unknown value of internal surface temperature could be determined by heat transfer
equation for cylindrical shell.

40

Pflaum /83/ has proposed the following equation for the convective heat transfer coefficient in
the exhaust channel in the cylinder head:

α
ECh
EV
EV
mECh ECh
ECh
h
d
d T
dm
dt
· −
|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,


3 1 0797
15 0 517
0 5
.27 .
,
. .
.
( 2.110 )

There is some uncertainty when deriving the mean surface temperatures for the exhaust
channel. If this temperature is known for some engine operation point it is convenient to interpolate this
value to other engine operation conditions, proportionally to the mean temperature of the fluid in the
exhaust manifold.


2.1.5 TURBOCHARGER


Turbocharger speed and compressor pressure ratio are determined by the balance between
powers of turbine, compressor and losses when engine is in stationary operation condition. In engine
transients turbocharger is out of power balance. Periodical variations are influenced by the variations in
exhaust gases energies at pulse turbocharging, rotor speed variations etc., and they could be
neglected when stationary operating. For slow speed engines this turbocharger rotor speed variations
are of order 1.5 ... 3.9% according to Streit and Borman /46/. The calculations made for a medium
speed engine show the values of 0.4 ... 1% according to Boy /112/.

Turbochargers for majority of diesel engines driving electric generator consist of single stage
axial or radial turbine and single stage radial compressor. The mathematical description for
implementation to the models for numerical simulations is often in adequate presentation of their
stationary operation characteristics with interpolation in the data series or in polynomial form.
Turbochargers usually have exchangeable diffusers and spiral housings, influencing the turbocharger
characteristics.




























Fig. 2.17 Turbocharger

41

2.1.5.1 Exhaust turbine


In the modeling of the engine real processes, it is convenient to represent the single stage
turbine as flow restriction of changeable effective flow area A
T,eff
= α
T
A
T,geom
, where A
T,geom
is the
resulting geometric flow area of the turbine. The flow coefficient α
T
multiplies the geometric flow area to
result in the effective flow area to determine the mass flow on the turbine according to the flow
equation:

dm
d
A p
R T
dt
d
T
T T geom EM
EM EM
ϕ
α ψ
ϕ
·
,
2
( 2.111 )

A
A A
A A
T geom
TD TW
TD TW
,
·
+
2 2
( 2.112 )

The η
T
is isentropic turbine efficiency determining the ratio between the real and the theoretical
enthalpy change:

η
T
T
s T
h
h
·


,
( 2.113 )

∆h R T
s T
EM
EM
EM EM
T
EM
EM
,
·

]
]
]
]
]

κ
κ
π
κ
κ
1
1
1
( 2.114 )

The pressure ratio π
T
is determined from the ratio of total pressure p
bT,tot
on turbine inlet flange
to the static pressure p
aT
on the outlet flange:

π
T
bT tot
aT
p
p
·
,
( 2.115 )

∆h
T
is the real enthalpy change for the expansion on the turbine from the state before the
turbine to the state on turbine outlet. Dimensionsless characteristic of turbine speed ν is described by
ratio of rotor speed to the theoretical flow speed:

ν · ·
u
c
u
h
T T
s T
0 2∆
,
( 2.116 )

Static pressure on the inlet flange is determined by the pressure in the exhaust manifold
diminished for equivalent losses in the exhaust piping.

p p p
dm
dt
dm
dt
bT EM
T
T
· −
|
.

`
,


0
0
2
,
( 2.117 )

Pressure loss ∆p
0
depends on the design of exhaust system. For the pressure loss after the
turbine, many engine manufacturers define the limit at 20-25 mbar. The pressure after the turbine is:

p p p
dm
dt
dm
dt
aT amb exh
T
T
· +
|
.

`
,


,
,
0
0
2
( 2.118 )
42


From the measurements it is clear that the values for the isentropic turbine efficiency η
T,max

and flow coefficient α
T
are related to the turbine pressure ratio and dimensionsless speed
characteristic ν, as to the turbine geometry.

The measurements have shown that α
T
and η
T
depend on pressure ratio π
T
, speed
characteristic and turbine geometry. The shape of the curve η
T

T,max
depends on turbine vane design
and the dependence on π
T
is slight. The curve has two points, the origin (0,0) and maximum at (ν
opt
,1).
Near the point (ν
max
,0) only small amount of the energy is converted, so these assumptions are quite
valid.

Bulaty /68/ has proposed the correlation for efficiency by the second order polynomial:

η
η
ν
ν
ν
ν
T
T opt opt
a a a
,max
· −
|
.

`
,

+
|
.

`
,

− +
2
2 1 ( 2.119 )

If the whole function does not present parabola (in radial and mixed flow turbines), we could
approximate the top part of the curve with parabola and the flanks with straight tangential lines.






































Fig. 2.18 Characteristics for radial and axial turbine (Bulaty /68/)


43

This makes possible to take into the account the maximum efficiency and dependent speed
characteristic ν
opt
, as the pressure ratio π
T
on the turbine. For the calculation we need the flow
coefficient α
T
related to the speed characteristic ν and to pressure ratio π
T
.

( ) α π ν
T T
f · , ( 2.120 )

The curve for flow coefficient α
T
is broken line α
T
= f(ν) with coefficients as functions of
pressure ratio π
T
.

Influence of the turbine dimensions are correlated according to Ackeret (Boy /112/):

1
1
1
2
1
0
0
1 5


· +
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
η
η
T x
T x
,
,
Re
Re
( 2.121 )

where index 0 denotes the reference design, and index x the new one. Reynolds number relates to the
rotor characteristic diameter.

The applicability of stationary derived turbine characteristics to the transient operation
conditions is investigated by many authors. Traupel (Boy /112/) has assumed the quasi stationary
method as applicable, when the period of pressure variation is longer then the time needed for fluid
particle to flow through the turbine. Craig et. al. /35/ has examined the influence of pulsating flow to the
turbine power and flow. It was shown that the turbine power and flow are overvalued when using the
stationary derived characteristics. Using the stationary characteristics the good agreements between
predictions and measurements are achieved when the pressure ratios are up to 1.8 and pulse
frequency up to 27 Hz. At pressure ratios higher than 2.6 and pulse frequency higher than 27 Hz, the
results derived from stationary characteristics give ~15% higher power and ~7.5% higher turbine flow.

In pulsating exhaust gas flow and in turbine partial admittance nozzles, we must count with
sector and ventilation losses, especially at higher rotating speeds.

Power of ventilation losses P
gVTp
of some turbine could be expressed as part of ventilation
losses P
gVT
for turbine without any flow admittance:

( ) P P
gVTp gVT
· − 1 ε ( 2.122 )

P c A
u
gVT gVT EM TW
T
· ρ
2
2
( 2.123 )

For the pure ventilation losses Ryti /43/ has proposed exponential form of variation of
ventilation constant c
gVT
:

( )
[ ] { ¦
c c B
gVT gVT
· − − −
, max
exp
0
1 ν ν ( 2.124 )

Constant B in equation (2.124) should be chosen so that at the speed characteristic value of
ν
max
, the turbine power increase is equal to the ventilation losses power increase (it is recommended to
choose values of B = 2.75 ... 4.5) (Ryti /34/).

Sector losses could be treated using the corrections in the turbine efficiency (Boy /112/):



η
ε
T
T
s T
z u
h
· 0025 .
,
( 2.125 )

where z is the number of active turbine sectors, and ε is the partiality of turbine admittance. For the
calculation of stationary and transient characteristics, it is necessary to know the operation of the
turbine:
44


W
dm
d
h d
T
T
s T T
·

ϕ
η ϕ ∆
,
( 2.126 )

At pulse turbocharging, one exhaust manifold collects the exhaust gases from more cylinders.
More of such manifolds are connected to the same turbine. This is taken in the calculation in such a
way that the complete turbine flow area is shared between the connected manifolds. The flow
coefficient α
T
is then determined separately for each manifold, depending on instantaneous speed
characteristic n and reduced rotating speed ( n T
T
). The isentropic efficiency η
T
is treated in the
same manner.

If we need the mean value of turbine efficiency for pulse turbocharging, the value could be
determined by:

η
ϕ
η ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
mT
T
sT T
T
sT
dm
d
h d
dm
d
h d
,
,
,
·




( 2.127 )



h
dm
d
h d
dm
d
d
msT
T
sT
T
, ,
,
·


ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
( 2.128 )


2.1.5.2 Compressor (Charger)


Basis for compressor selection is the air flow demanded by engine:

dm
d
c V n p L z
C
s M eff sp
ϕ
·
1
( 2.129 )

where c
1
is a constant and L
sp
is power specific air consumption:

L b L
sp eff st
· λ ( 2.130 )

Air mass flow dm
C
/dϕ and air temperature increase could be deduced from the compressor
characteristics. For the given charging pressure, rotor speed and air state in the inlet manifold the air
flow and compressor efficiency could be determined, in which manner the compressor operation point
is also determined.

To represent radial compressor performance map we could use nondimensional
characteristics of pressure ψ
C
and flow ϕ
C
. Here are:

ψ
C
s C
C
h
u
·
2
2
2

,
,
( 2.131 )

u
d n
C
C TC
,
,
2
2
60
·
π
( 2.132 )

45

∆h R T
s C
A bC
A bC
A bC A bC
C tot
A bC
A bC
,
,
,
, ,
,
,
,
·

]
]
]
]
]

κ
κ
π
κ
κ
1
1
1
( 2.133 )

Index C,2 relates to the outer flank of rotor vane, and index A,bC on the air before rotor
entrance. Total pressure ratio π
C,tot
is the ratio of total pressures on compressor outlet p
aC,tot
to the total
pressure on the compressor inlet p
bC,tot
. As we have air cleaning filter, the total pressure on the
compressor entrance is equal to the atmospheric pressure p
amb
diminished for the pressure losses on
the air filter:

p p p
dm
dt
dm
dt
bC tot amb F
C
c
,
,
· −
|
.

`
,


0
2
( 2.134 )

Flow characteristic ϕ
C
is usually determined as:

ϕ
π
C
C C
A bC
C
C
A bC
u A
dV
dt
u d
dV
dt
· ·
1 4
2 2
2
2
2
, ,
,
,
,
,
( 2.135 )

Neglecting the influence of Mach and Reynolds numbers, the complete compressor map could
be described by single curve. At higher pressure ratios (π
C,tot
> 1.5) it is necessary to count with the air
compressibility, that means, with the influence of the Mach number. According to this, the description
of compressor performance map is not a simple matter.

For a given compressor, the characteristics description could be simplified with respect to the
nondimensional presentation:

π
C tot
aC tot
bC tot
TC
p
p
f
dV
dt
n
,
,
,
,
,
, · ·
|
.

`
,

1288
288
( 2.136 )

η
C TC
f
dV
dt
n ·
|
.

`
,

1,288
,288
, ( 2.137 )

The above equations describe the compressor performance map, regardless of the inlet air
state, while the volumetric flow and rotor speed are normalized to the standard temperature of T
0
= 288
K.

dV
dt
T
T
dV
dt
amb
A bC 1288
0
, ,
· ( 2.138 )

n n
T
T
TC TC
amb
,288
0
· ( 2.139 )

dm
d
dV
dt
T
T
p
R T
dt
d
C
amb
amb
amb amb
ϕ ϕ
·
1288
0
,
( 2.140 )

Turbocharger mechanical losses are counted in calculations of compressor operation. Equally,
the compressor volumetric efficiency η
vol
is also treated.



46

































Fig. 2.19 Pressure and characteristics y and f for radial compressor
depending on the circumferential speed (Boy /112/)

























Fig. 2.20 Compressor performance map of radial compressor (Zellbeck /127/)

47





















Fig. 2.21 Curves for the engine operation in compressor performance map
for various driving modes


Compressor work during one engine cycle is:

W
dm
d
h
d
C
C
s C
s C mech vol
·

ϕ η η η
ϕ

,
,
( 2.141 )




























Fig. 2.22 Operation loop in compressor map during stationary
engine operation (Grohn /80/)


48

Mean isentropic efficiency is:

η
ϕ
η
ϕ
C m
s C
s C
s C
h d
h
d
,
,
,
,
·




( 2.142 )



h
h
dm
d
d
dm
d
d
C m
s C
C
C
,
,
·


ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
ϕ
( 2.143 )

The periodical air discharge from the inlet manifold results in the pressure variations, which
influences the compressor operation. The surge limit must be shifted to the higher flow rates,
depending on the pressure variation frequency and intensity. In this manner the available operation
range in the compressor performance map is narrowing, reducing a little the isentropic efficiency.

In this paper the instationary compressor operation is described using the stationary derived
compressor characteristics by filling&empting method.


Representation of the compressor performance map

As the representation of compressor performance map has a significant role on turbocharged
engine cycle simulations for stationary and transient operation, we must apply special care.

If we neglect the pressure variations in the inlet manifold it is convenient to use the simplified
compressor map description as
( )
π
C
f V n ·
!
, and
( )
η
C
f V n ·
!
, . Here we could describe functions
( )
π
C
f V ·
!
and
( )
η
C
f V ·
!
using the regression polynomials of the 4th or 5th order for n
TC
= const.
Calculation for the rotor speed and compressor efficiency are made using known values for π
C
and
!
V
and interpolating in the compressor performance map. Such, sufficiently exact representation of
compressor map is insufficient if we do not have an appropriate interpolation method. Characteristic
field operating point is for the π
C
= 1 and
!
V =0, where for the n
TC
= const is dπ
C
/dV = 0.

To calculate the pressure variation in the inlet manifold we must have such representation of
compressor performance map to allow us to determine the volumetric flow from the given pressure
ratio and rotor speed:

( )
!
,
, ,
V f n
C tot TC 1288
· π ( 2.144 )

It is necessary to determine the volumetric flow in each integration step, during the engine
cycle calculation, so we need the fast mode of calculations. A favorable mode is to use the 2
dimensional polynomials, which on turn require large preparation efforts. The accepted form of the
polynomial for determining the pressure ratio is:

( ) ( )
π
C
i TC
i
i
j TC
j D
j
TC
B B n C n V
n
D
·
+ +
+
· ·
∑ ∑
1
0
1
5
1
5
2
2
1 !
( 2.145 )

where B
0
to B
5
, C
1
to C
5
, D
1
and D
2
are coefficients which are derived by a least square regression
method in connection with iterative solution. A very good agreement was achieved between the
polynomial results and original data with maximum difference in the central part of the compressor
performance map of ~1% and on the borders of the order ~1.5%. As many turbocharger
manufacturers declare the tolerance for presented data of order ~3%, the agreement is practically
acceptable.
49


With equation 2.145 it is possible to calculate by iterations the volumetric flow for given
pressure ratio and rotor speed. Because of very flat curve of ( )
!
V f
C
· π for n
TC
= const in the vicinity of
surge line, it is inconvenient to use regression polynomials of the type ( )
!
, V f n
C TC
· π , while small
errors in regression equation produce large errors in resulting volumetric flow.

From given pressure ratio and flow, using another regression polynomial we are in position to
determine the compressor isentropic efficiency.

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
η π π π π π π
C i
C
i
i
i
C
i
i
C
K
i
C
i
i
C
K
i
C
i
i
A V B C D · + + − + −
· · · ·
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
0
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
0
2
1 1
!
( 2.146 )

where the coefficients A, B, C, D and K are determined in a same way as for equation (2.145).

This type of compressor performance map description has great advantage in high computing
speed (by using the Horner scheme) and small memory engagement. The needed flow is determined
by iterative convergence of solution, by successive substitutions, to satisfy the pressure ratio π
C
. This
solution mode is very fast and the result is achieved in few calculation steps.

Quality of the data in the compressor performance map is of crucial importance for the exact
simulations. In early papers, compressor performances were the reason of model nonlinearities. In
later papers problems have arisen from the inadequate compressor map representation. Only finer
representations of turbocharger map representation, with a lot of curves for the region of low loads
have resulted in more accurate predictions.


2.1.5.3 Turbocharger dynamics


In transient operating conditions the moment of inertia of turbocharger rotor has a significant
influence. The turbocharger compressor and turbine rotors are mounted rigidly on the same shaft, so
that the torque difference between compressor and turbine torques will decrease or increase the rotor
speed:

dn
d
dn
dt
dt
d
M M
J
dt
d
M M
n J
TC TC T C
TC
T C
M TC
ϕ ϕ π ϕ π
· ·

·
− 60
2 6
30
( 2.147 )

dn
d
P P
J
dt
d
M M
J n n
TC T C
TC TC
T C
TC M TC
ϕ ω π ϕ π
·

·
− |
.

`
,

30 30 1
6
2
( 2.148 )

Turbine and compressor torques could be determined from turbine and compressor works in
unit time:

M
dW
dt
dW
dt n
dm
d
h
n
d
dt
T
T
TC
T
TC
T
s T T
TC
· · ·
1 60
2
30
ω π ϕ
η
π
ϕ

,
( 2.149a )

M
dW
dt
dW
dt n
dm
d
h
n
d
dt
C
C
TC
C
TC
C
s C
s C mech vol TC
· · ·
1 60
2
30
ω π ϕ η η η π
ϕ

,
,
( 2.149b )

d
dt
n
M
ϕ
· 6 ( 2.150 )

P M
M n
T T TC
T TC
· · ω
π
30
( 2.151 )

50

P M
M n
C C TC
C TC
· · ω
π
30
( 2.152 )

If we maintain the geometric similarity and if we change the compressor rotor diameter, the
change in the moment of inertia will be:

J d
TC

5
( 2.153 )

If we change separately diameters of turbine and compressor, the resulting change in the
turbocharger moment of inertia will be:

J J
d
d
J
d
d
TC T
T
T
C
C
C
·
|
.

`
,

+
|
.

`
,

,
,
,
,
0
0
2
0
0
2
( 2.154 )


2.1.5.4 Stability of compressor operation


The operation point in compressor performance map is placed on the intersection point of the
compressor delivery curve for given rotor speed with the air consumption curve. We describe this point
as stable if this intersection is placed right of the maximum on the delivery curve (in direction of higher
flows). Increasing the flow on compressor, maintaining the constant rotor speed, the pressure ratio will
be lower, causing smaller air consumption by engine. Decreasing the air consumption by engine will
cause the pressure increase in the inlet manifold reducing the compressor delivery. In this way the
operating point will be self stabilized. If the intersection is placed left of the maximum on compressor
delivery curve, instable compressor operating is possible. These assumptions result in the conditions
for stable compressor operation:




















Fig. 2.23 Scheme of the compressor performance map (Grohn /80/)

( )
d
dm dt
C
C
π
≤ 0 ( 2.155 )

Regarding the fig. 2.23 the point C could also be the stable operation point. From here we
derive the stability condition as:

( ) ( )
d
dm dt
d
dm dt
M
M
C
C
π π
≥ ( 2.156 )
51


















Fig. 2.24 The "pumping" ("surging") of the compressor


Operation stability depends on pressure variations in inlet manifold. At extremely large
volumes of inlet manifolds, the surge line is in the vicinity of the maximum on compressor delivery
curves at constant rotor speeds. At smaller inlet manifold volumes, surge line is shifted to the right (in
direction of larger flow) from the delivery curve maximum. This is valid for engine stationary operation.
At higher pressure variations in the inlet manifold the surge line is shifted more to the higher flows.





















Fig. 2.25 Results of the compressor pumping calculation (Yano and Nagata /62/)


Turbocharged diesel engine is a combination of one flow and one volumetric machine, which
periodically takes the air delivered continuously by turbocharger. To compensate the pressure
variations in the connecting piping, we must add inlet manifold with adequate volume. As a result of the
pressure variations, compressor pumping may result, even when the stationary operation point is in the
stable region in the vicinity of surge line. Yano and Nagata /62/ have studied compressor pumping and
they have shown that the inlet manifold volume and pressure variation frequency have the main
influence on the compressor pumping.

To be able to simulate the compressor pumping too, the four quadrant compressor
performance map must be known. Experimental derivation of such maps is very demanding because
of the operation instabilities at determined operating regimes.

52

Pressure variations in the inlet manifold are calculated by filling&empting method. According to
known instantaneous pressure in the inlet manifold, the compressor air flow is determined. At such
operation compressor has no fixed operation point, since the operation points are placed on a loop
curve with the period depending on the exhaust and inlet air manifolds and their connections to the
turbocharger.

When we have proposed compressor surge line for given engine design, the measurements
have included the influence of pressure variations in the inlet manifold. If we have the compressor
performance map derived from measurements at turbocharger manufacturers site, the surge line does
not match the engine where turbocharger should be applied. In such cases the surge line could be
determined by numerical simulations for the engine completed with the turbocharger under question.


2.1.6 MECHANICAL SUBSTITUTION OF ENGINE SYSTEM


To describe the mechanical properties dynamics and kinematics of engine system, we must
choose the equivalent substituting dynamic system. If we neglect the torsional vibrations for the
system, we could derive the torque balance as:

( ) J J
d
dt
M M
M Cons
M
M Cons
+ · +
ω
( 2.157 )

The engine speed variation, related to the crank angle, is:

( )
dn
d
M M
J J
dt
d
M M Cons
M Cons
ϕ π ϕ
·
+
+
30
( 2.158 )

( )
( )
dn
d
P P
J J n
dt
d
P P
n J J
M M Cons
M Cons M
M Cons
M
M Cons
ϕ π ϕ π
·
+
+
|
.

`
,

·
+
+
|
.

`
,

30 1
6
30
2
2
2
( 2.159 )

Indicated engine power is determined from the mechanical work of one engine cycle:

P
n z dW
d
d
ind
M c
·

30τ ϕ
ϕ ( 2.160 )

For the given mean indicated pressure p
ind
of engine cycle, the indicated power is:

P
n z
V p
ind
M
s ind
·
30τ
( 2.161 )

p
dW
d
d
V
ind
c
s
·

ϕ
ϕ
( 2.162 )

Consumers power, as load to the engine, is determined according to the equation (2.187),
depending on electric load and losses in electric generator.

Effective engine power P
M
is lower than indicated power for the mechanical losses and power
for engine driven auxiliaries. Effective power could be calculated using mean effective pressure p
eff
.
This pressure is determined by mean indicated pressure diminished for mean pressure for engine
losses, comprising the losses and power for auxiliaries.

P
n z
V p P
p
p
M
M
s eff ind
eff
ind
· ·
30τ
( 2.163 )

53

p p p
eff ind mFr
· −
,
( 2.162 )

The mean pressure of engine losses, according to Kochanowsky and Thiele /82/ is depending
on cylinder bore, engine speed, engine load (expressed in mean effective pressure), charging pressure
and temperatures of cooling water and lubricating oil. The influences of friction in the engine system,
cooling pump drive, injection pump drive and the valve drive are expressed as:

p d d
n
n
Fr c c
M
M
,
. .
,
.
1
0 329 0 943
0
2
67 89 1 · − −
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
− −
( 2.165 )

where d
c
is the cylinder bore in millimeters.

Dependence of friction losses on engine load, for diesel engines with direct injection is:

∆p p p
Fr
eff
eff ,
. .
2
3
00002 0006 · − (in bars)

where the mean effective pressure p
eff
is in bars.

Influence of charging pressure is given by:

∆p
p
p
c
Fr
aC
amb
m ,
. .
3
1 01874 018 · −
|
.

`
,
− (in bars) ( 2.167 )

In engines operating at normal temperatures, the influence of cooling water and lubricating oil
temperatures is neglected. At larger departures of these temperatures, corrections are:

( )
∆p T T
Fr oil oil , ,
.
4 0
0005 · − − (in bars) ( 2.168a )

( )
∆p T T
Fr CW CW , ,
.
5 0
00055 · − − ( in bars) ( 2.168b )

The complete mean pressure for engine losses is:

p p p p p p
mFr Fr Fr Fr Fr Fr , , , , , ,
· + + + +
1 2 3 4 5
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ( 2.169 )

The variable inertia moment of engine crank mechanism J
M
is here substituted by mean value
in time. To determine this value, the mean moments of translatory masses are calculated. If the
engine power consumer is the propeller or hydraulic brake, we must add the influence of surrounding
fluid to the rotor moment of inertia. In electric generators, the rotor moment of inertia is in limits given
by generator manufacturer. For competitive optimized electric generators the rotor moment of inertia is
(see fig. 2.26):

J
S
n
H
EG
· 1825
2
. ( 2.170 )

where S in kVA is apparent generator power, n in rpm is rotor speed, and H in kJ/kVA is specific
energy of active material. The calculated moments of inertia in high speed generators (3000 and 1500
rpm) are usually higher than for real generators.

Consumer power is varying depending on load arrangements. For synchronous generators
drive, the frequency is maintained constant, so the consumer power does not depend on frequency or
engine speed :

( ) P f n
Cons M
≠ ( 2.171 )

54

















Fig. 2.26 Diagram for determining the "natural" moment of inertia of generator rotor /165/


For propeller or hydraulic brake drive:

P K n
Cons
M
·
3
( 2.172 )

For vehicle drive:

P a v a v a v
Cons
· + +
0 1
2
2
3
( 2.173 )

where v is vehicle speed.


2.1.7 ENGINE GOVERNOR


Depending on governor design, we divide governors to mechanical, hydraulic (with mechanical
sensitive part and hydraulic servo actuators) and electronic with hydraulic, electro-magnetic or electric
motor driven actuators.

Simple mechanical proportional governor (P governor) can be described by differential
equation:

( )
m
c
d x
dt
d
c
dx
dt
F
c
dx
dt
x V n t
R
R
R R
R
R Fr
R
R
R R R
2
2
+ +
|
.

`
,

+ · sign ( 2.174 )

The actuator acts to fuel rack to bring it to the position x
R
, determining the injected fuel mass.

Index R relates to the governor instant state. In the calculations for fuel rack position x
R

according to the equation (2.174) the influences of governor inertial masses m
R
, damping d
R
, Coulomb
friction forces F
Fr
and spring stiffness c
R
are included. On the right side of the equation (2.174) there is
the amplification factor V
R
for the engine speed signal n
R
. At stationary operation at engine nominal
load the speed n
M,NL
is set, and at idle load the speed n
M,Id
is set. The corresponding respective fuel
rack positions are x
R,NL,0
and x
R,Id,0
. From this the amplification factor is derived as:

V
x x
n n
x x
n
R
R NL R Id
M NL M Id
R NL R Id
st M NL
·


·

, , , ,
, ,
, , , ,
,
0 0 0 0
δ
( 2.175 )

This value is of interest for the plant designer, while it presents the factor of speed change,
called the factor of proportionality:

55

δ
st
M NL M Id
M NL
n n
n
·

, ,
,
( 2.176 )

This factor determines the speed change from nominal engine load to idle, relative to the mean
engine speed, expressed in percents. The medium engine speed is one determining the current
frequency.

In diesel generating sets, this factor has value up to 15%, depending on plant requirements
(see the table 1.1).

For special applications in diesel generating sets, isochrounous governors are sometimes
applied. They have no speed change from full load to no load. As the proportional governor is not in
position to do this, the integrating member must be added. This is described by adding a member to
the equation (2.174) to give:

m
c
d x
dt
d
c
dx
dt
F
c
dx
dt
x V n
n dt
T
R
R
R R
R
R Fr
R
R
R R R
R
n
2
2
+ +
|
.

`
,

+ · +
|
.

`
,


sign ( 2.177 )

where T
n
is the so called setup time in which governors eliminate the speed deviation.

This means that the engine equipped with this governor will maintain the constant frequency
irrespective to the engine load. These governors, as good as in first sight, are of reduced applicability
in the parallel operation of two or more diesel generating sets. In case when the isochronous governor
is applied, special load sharing system must be provided.

Load increase applied to the diesel engine causes the speed drop in the first moments. The
governor senses this speed drop and moves the fuel rack to the position of increased fuel delivery.
What is essential is that it is the speed drop which causes the governor reaction in this case, not the
load increase. Because of this fact, the engine response is delayed to the load increase, and in some
situation the complete failure of load acceptance may occur. This inconvenience may be bridged by
using special add on feature in load sensing unit. This is an differential member, sensitive to the load
increase rate, giving an additional governor reaction, before the engine speed drop has occurred. The
governor completed with proportional, integrating and derivative (not the load increase sensing)
member is described by equation:

m
c
d x
dt
d
c
dx
dt
F
c
dx
dt
x V n
n dt
T
T
dn
dt
R
R
R R
R
R Fr
R
R
R R R
R
n
v
R
2
2
+ +
|
.

`
,

+ · + +
|
.

`
,


sign ( 2.178 )

where T
v
is the delay time, necessary to stop the P governor (according to the equation 2.178) action
to give the similar properties. Integrating the above equation we could derive the solutions for governor
actions.

To accelerate the engine load acceptance, the "load advance" unit is added (described above
as load increase differential member). The above equation for the governor completed with this feature
is:

m
c
d x
dt
d
c
dx
dt
F
c
dx
dt
x V n
n dt
T
T
dn
dt
V
dP
dt
R
R
R R
R
R Fr
R
R
R R R
R
n
v
R
R
Cons
2
2
1
+ +
|
.

`
,

+ · + +
|
.

`
,

+

sign
,
( 2.179 )

For the description of hydraulic governor, single differential equation is not sufficient. Such
governor must be described as a system broken to the subsystems described with separate equations.




56


























































Fig. 2.27 Feedback in governors for diesel generating sets


57

In special diesel engines, between the governor and fuel injection pump a torsional damper is
included, to stop the torsional vibration transmission to the sensitive governor parts. Where such
damper is included, following equation is applied:

J
c
d n
dt
d
c
dn
dt
n
d
c
dn
dt
n
Td
Td
R Td
Td
R
R
Td
Td
Fp
Fp
2
2
+ + · + ( 2.180 )

Index Td relates to the torsional damper, R to the governor, Fp to the fuel injection pump. The J, c, d
are the inertia moment, damping coefficient and spring stiffness respective. Fuel injection pump and
governor speed is:

n
n
Fp
M
·
2
( 2.181 )

n
n
R
M
·
2
( 2.182 )

Restriction of fuel injection pump delivery is made by limiting the fuel rack movement. It is
necessary to take into the account the imposed limitations for the fuel rack movements. These limits
may be made fixed or variable (for example depending on charging pressure).


















Fig. 2.28 Fuel rack movement limitation depending on charging pressure (Boy /112/)


Governor differential equation coefficients may be derived by regression analysis of measured
governor response to the input disturbances (engine speed and load changes). The measured speed
changes data must be numerically smoothed to prepare the data for evaluation of higher derivations.


2.1.8 FUEL INJECTION PUMP


For the calculation of engine cycle it is necessary to know the mass of fuel injected by the
pump to the cylinder, depending on the fuel rack position and engine speed. We assume that the
injected fuel mass, for given fuel rack position, is equal among all engine cylinders. To calculate the
injected fuel mass it is convenient to use the fuel pump performance map in relation to engine speed
and fuel rack position. Exact models would require the complete simulation of the fuel injection system,
but we assume that the mentioned performance map would be efficient in the same way.

The fuel pump performance map is determined in stationary conditions on fuel pump test
bench, where the pump is completed with the high pressure injection lines and injection valves. These
measurements are in position to give only pump hydraulical performances. Ledger /58/ has proposed
58

the corrections of pump hydraulic performances, to derive the performances for the pump working on
engine in the real engine conditions, where the fuel injection pump must inject fuel into the compressed
air and after ignition in the cylinder fluid at even higher pressure. On the test bench the fuel injection
was in the surrounding air under atmospheric pressure, so the injected fuel mass for injection in the
cylinder of operating engine would be lower. Ledger /58/ has proposed the correction by multiplying the
test bench results with factor of 0.8.

Fuel injection pump performance map could be described by equation:

( ) m f x n
f pr R M ,
,
1
· ( 2.183 )

Vogel /71/ has shown a model for simulation of the fuel injection system consisting of fuel
injection pump, high pressure fuel line and fuel injection valve. For the given design of fuel injection
system it is possible to determine the mass of injected fuel and fuel injection rate. The mathematical
model comprises the ordinary differential equations for mechanical parts and partial differential
equations for 1-D instationary flow in fuel line. Comparison of predictions and measurements show
very good agreement. Using this model it is possible to determine the fuel injection pump performance
map for operation with engine, or we can implant the complete model into our model for engine
simulation.






























Fig. 2.29 Examples of fuel injection pump performance maps (Zellbeck /127/, Boy /112/)


2.1.9 ELECTRIC CONSUMERS


Electric generator supplies the electric power to electric consumers connected to the electrical
network. The consumers are divided into two main groups: ohmic and inductive. Ohmic consumers are
those consumers consisting mainly of electrical resistors (for example heaters), which do not produce
any phase angle between the voltage and current vectors. At inductive loads, consisting of the
electromegnetic windings and active magnetic materials (for example electric motors, transformers
59

etc.) we have an phase angle between the voltage and current vectors. Angle cosine is known as
power factor. The active power component for a given electric consumer on three phase electric
current is:

P UI
EC EC
· η ϕ 3 cos ( 2.184 )

Active electric power by which the electric consumers load the electric generator is:

P UI
EG
· 3 cosϕ ( 2.185 )

The apparent electric power is:

S
P
UI
EG
EG
· ·
cosϕ
3 ( 2.186 )

The electric generator loads the diesel engine with power increased for the losses in
generator:

P P
P UI
Cons EG mech
EG
EG EG
· · ·
,
cos
η
ϕ
η
3
( 2.187 )

In steady generator load conditions, voltage controller maintains the constant voltage of
electric current. At switching on or off of some electric consumers, the sudden change in generator
current occurs, causing the changes in generator electromagnetic field and load. As result of these
changes, the change in voltage results. The voltage controller tends to capture these voltage changes
and hold them in the tolerable limits. As the characteristic times for electromagnetic changes are of the
order 10
-4
to 10
-2
s, the initial voltage changes are very rapid. The characteristic time for voltage
recovery by voltage controller is much longer and of order 10
-2
to 1 s.

























Fig. 2.30 Curve for voltage drop determination (Payne /166/)


Ohmic loads have constant resistance, so that their power is directly proportional to the square
of electric voltage. At voltage changes their power will change as:
60


P P
U
U
EC EC
·
|
.

`
,

,0
0
2
( 2.188 )

The power of electric motors changes with electric voltage and frequency. Most of electric
motors today are squirrel cage asynchronous motors, whose performances depend on voltage and
frequency. This influence could be very roughly described as:

P P
U
U
f
f
AM AM
·
|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

,0
0
2
0
( 2.189 )

Frequency of electric current is directly proportional to generator rotating speed:

f
p n
EG M
·
6
( 2.190 )

From above mentioned we could derive the fact that the reduction in speed is very inconvenient,
especially when driving asynchronous electric motors.

This paper is limited to the simulation of operation of turbocharged diesel engine at transient
load conditions when driving electric generator. Electric generator is in this respect only the consumer
of mechanical energy produced by diesel engine, with time resolved load change. As this load change
depends on the connected electric consumers, to cross this gap, here will be used a very simplified
model for the description of electrical components electric generator with voltage controller, ohmic
loads and asynchronous motors , with any pretension for accurate simulation of all processes in the
electrical part. In this simplified simulation the voltage change when load is connected or disconnected
is sudden, after what the voltage controller recovers the voltage with constant recovery speed dU/dt.
For description of asynchronous electric motor performances, steady state characteristic were applied,
as proposed by Jurković /169/. Steady state characteristics are described in nondymensional form,
depending on instantaneous electric voltage and frequency according to Freidzon /168/.

















Fig. 2.31 The substitute scheme of asynchronous electric motor (Fridzon /168/)


For description of steady state characteristics of asynchronous electric motor at slipping
speed, the nondimensional characteristics are:

s
n n
n
EM syn EM
EM syn
·

,
,
( 2.191 )

61

M
M
M
r
EM
EM
·
,0
( 2.192 )

f
f
f
r
·
0
( 2.193 )

U
U
U
r
·
0
( 2.194 )

I
I
I
r
·
0
( 2.195 )

Z
U
I
0
0
0
· ( 2.196 )

X
X
Z
r 1
1
0
,
· ( 2.197 )

′ ·

X
X
Z
r 2
2
0
,
( 2.198 )

R
R
Z
r 1
1
0
,
· ( 2.199 )

′ ·

R
R
Z
r 2
2
0
,
( 2.200 )

Using these nondimensional characteristics, the instantaneous torque, current and power
factor for squirrel cage asynchronous motor are:

( ) z s s
s
2
· + + α β
γ
( 2.201 )

( ) ( )
α · + + ′ c R f X c X
r r r r 2 1
2
2
1 1 2
2
, , ,
( 2.202 )

β · ′ 2
1 2
R R
r r , ,
( 2.203 )

( )
γ · ′ +
′ |
.

`
,
c R
bR R
f
r
r r
r
1 2
2
1 2
2
,
, ,
( 2.204 )

δ
ϕ
·

1
1 cos
( 2.205 )

c bX
r 1 1
1 · +
,
( 2.206 )

c bX
r 2 2
1 · + ′
,
( 2.207 )

b
I
U I X
r
r r r
·
− ′
1,
( 2.208 )

62

( )
M
U R
f z s
r
r
r
·
′ δ
2
2
2 2
,
( 2.209 )

( )
( )
I U
c X c X s f
c bR
s f
z s
j r r
r r r
r
r
,
, ,
,
·
+ ′ +

2 1 1 2
1 2
2
( 2.210 )

( )
I U
c R s R
b R R
sf
z s
a r r
r r
r
r
r
,
, ,
,
,
·
+ ′ +

2
2
1 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
( 2.211 )

I I I
r
j r
a r
· +
,
,
2 2
( 2.212 )

cos
,
,
ϕ ·
+
1
1
I
I
j r
a r
( 2.213 )

Instantaneous electric motor torque is:

M M M
EM r EM
·
,0
( 2.214 )

Instantaneous electric motor power is:

P M f
EM EM syn
· 2π ( 2.215 )

Driving torque on the centrifugal pump driven by electric motor is:

M K n
pp
EM
·
2
( 2.216 )

Change in rotating speed for the pump set, consisting of centrifugal pump and electric motor,
could be determined from equation:

( )
dn
d
M M
n J J
EM
EM pp
EM EM pp
ϕ π
·

+
|
.

`
,

6
30
( 2.217 )

The applied simplified simulation model is in position to give only approximate qualitative
predictions of load changes to diesel engine, caused by electric generator in transient electric network
operating conditions.

For the complete simulation of the operation of diesel generating set in transient operating
conditions of electric network, it is essential to complete this simulation model for turbocharged diesel
engine with more accurate model for electromagnetic and other transients in electrical part, what is out
of scope of this paper.









63


2.2 MODEL OF THE TURBOCHARGED DIESEL ENGINE



2.2.1 INTRODUCTION


In the chapter 2.1 separate subsystems of the complete system "turbocharged diesel engine"
are described. Now it is necessary to collect these subsystems and with adequate mutual connections
make the complete system on a flexible manner to allow various turbocharged diesel engine designs
descriptions.

The diesel engine system is divided in separate control volumes interconnected by
connections for mass and energy transfer. The system is accompanied with additional subsystems
determining the boundary conditions (for example the injected fuel mass, mechanical load of electric
generator, the ambient conditions etc.).


2.2.2 ENGINE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


The fig. 2.32 depicts the basic components of turbocharged diesel engine. Each cylinder, inlet
or exhaust manifold, starting air receiver and possible other volumes are presenting control volumes.
Special control volume with unchangeable state is the atmosphere.

The control volumes are interconnected by connections, each with specific performances
(compressor, turbine, inlet valve, exhaust valve etc.).

All volumes could be presented in form of control vector, where members of the vector are
integers describing the sort of control volume. The volumes are sorted according to their
performances. One proposal for such sorting is presented in table 2.1.

Table 2.1 Descriptive integers for various volumes

0 Atmosphere
1 ... 10 Cylinders with direct fuel injection, cylinders
11 ... 20 Prechambers (for cylinders with indirect injection)
21 ... 30 Inlet manifolds
31 ... 40 Exhaust manifolds
41 ... 50 Additional air receivers
51 ... 99 Other volumes and buffer spaces

The control vector of volume integers is presented as:

{ ¦ { ¦
I I
CV CV i
·
,
( 2.218 )

where integer I
CV,i
is index for i-th control volume.

In identical way we could classify the integers representing the connection indices, according
to their performances. In the same time the connections with same performances have the same
index. In the table 2.2 indices are presented

The control matrix of connection contains integers representing the connection indices. This
matrix has form of:

[ ]
[ ]
I I
Con Con i j
·
, ,
( 2.219 )

where integer I
Con,i,j
is connection index between i-th and j-th control volumes.
64


































Fig. 2.32 Control volumes and connections for diesel engine system


Table 2.2 Descriptive indexes for connections
11 ... 11
0 No connection exists
1 ... 10 Periodically variable connection, A=f(ϕ)
11 ... 20 Controlled, periodically variable connection, A=f(ϕ,t)
21 ... 30 Compressor (charger)
31 ... 40 Exhaust turbine
41 ... 50 Controlled connection, A=f(n,t,∆p,...)
51 ... 99 Connections with constant flow area


Using such description, the control vector for volumes and control matrix for connections of
arrangement according to the fig. 2.32 are composed.

Here i and j represent the vector or matrix index for volumes denoted on the figure in the
volume . This index is different from integer members in the control vector or in control matrix and point
to the separate volume. The integer members of control vector or control matrix describe what kind of
volume or connection it is.

In the same manner we are in position to describe more complex engine designs. Control
matrix for connections is symmetric, so it is sufficient to take the lower triangle of this matrix.

The purpose of such description is in the internal program control in the mathematical model
for engine simulation. Integer members of control vector and control matrix are the flags in program,
deviating the program execution to the appropriate subprograms dealing with the subsystems or
65

connections. Indices of control matrix are also needed for control of the iterative integration process
with variable and flexible integration time steps. If the numerical integration error for some volume is
not tolerable, integration is performed with smaller time step in all volumes with active connections to
the problematic volume, while other volumes are waiting on the next time mark. In such manner the
integration process is accelerated.


2.2.2.1 Control volumes


State variables in separate control volumes are presented in vector form for complete engine.
The separate vectors are formed for each state variable:

{ ¦ T , { ¦ V , { ¦ p , { ¦ m , { ¦ λ , { ¦ R , { ¦ u , { ¦ h , { ¦ ϕ
PA
,

{ ¦ dV dϕ , { ¦ dQ dϕ , { ¦ dQ d
w
ϕ , { ¦ dQ d
f
ϕ , { ¦ dm dϕ , { ¦ d d λ ϕ , { ¦ dT dϕ ,

{ ¦ ∂ ∂ λ u , { ¦ ∂ ∂ u p , { ¦ ∂ ∂ u T , { ¦ ∂ ∂ λ R , { ¦ ∂ ∂ R p , { ¦ ∂ ∂ R T

The members of separate vectors could be described as it was declared in the chapter 2.1.
Here are again in shorter form the appropriate expressions for volume state variables. Index i points to
the i-th control volume in control vector.

dm
d
dm
d
dm
d
dm
d
i i j j
f
i
leak
i
ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ
|
.

`
,
·
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,


,
( 2.220 )

d
d
d
d m
dm
d
i i j j
i
f i
f
i
λ
ϕ
λ
ϕ
λ
ϕ
|
.

`
,
·
|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,


,
,
( 2.221 )

( )
dQ
d
A k T T
dt
d
w
i
i i w i i
ϕ ϕ
|
.

`
,
· −
,
( 2.222 )

dQ
d
dm
d
H
f
i
f
i
d comb
ϕ ϕ
η
|
.

`
,
·
|
.

`
,
( 2.223 )

dQ
d
dQ
d
dQ
d
h
dm
d
i
w
i
f
i
k
i j j
ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ
|
.

`
,
·
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,


,
( 2.224 )

dT
d
m
dQ
d
p
dV
d
u
dm
d
m
u d
d
C
u
T
A
B
p
T
u
p
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
ϕ
ϕ ϕ ϕ

∂ λ
λ
ϕ




|
.

`
,
·
|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]

|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,

1
( 2.225 )

A
T
R
R
T
i
i
i
i
· +
|
.

`
,
1


( 2.225a )

B
p
R
R
p
i
i
i
i
· −
|
.

`
,
1


( 2.225b )

C
p
B
u
p m
dm
d V
dV
d R
R d
d
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i i
·
|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,
+
|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]

∂ ϕ ϕ

∂ λ
λ
ϕ
1 1 1
( 2.225c )
66


p
m R T
V
i
i i i
i
· ( 2.226 )

Members of other volume state vectors are derived by integration or from adequate models for
working fluid performances.



































In table 2.3 the derivative members are presented with the description if they change in
separate volumes.


2.2.2.2 Connections between control volumes


If we know the performances of connections and states in the volumes connected, the
members of various connection matrices could be determined. The connection matrices contain the
derivative members for mass and energy transfer between control volumes. Index i denotes the
volume under reference into or from which the energy and mass flows to the connected volume with
index j. If the transfer goes in direction j→i the sign is positive, otherwise negative. Following
connection matrices could be determined:

[ ]
dm dϕ , [ ]
hdm dϕ ,
[ ]
dm d
f
ϕ , [ ]
d d λ ϕ



67


Mass flow matrix:

dm
d
dm
d
i j
i j
ϕ ϕ
|
.

`
,
·
,
,
(according to the equation 2.69) ( 2.227 )

where is:

dm
d
p p
p p
i j i j
i j
,
ϕ
< >
> <
¹
'
¹
0
0
for
for
( 2.227a )

( )
dm
d
f n
i j
C TC
,
,
ϕ
π · (for charger) ( 2.227b )

( )
dm
d
f u c p T R
i j
T i i i i
,
, , , , ,
ϕ
π κ ·
0
(for exhaust turbine) ( 2.227c )

Sensible heat flow matrix:

h
dm
d
h
dm
d
i j
k
i j
ϕ ϕ
|
.

`
,
·
,
,
( 2.228 )

where is:

h h
k i
· for p p
i j
> ( 2.228a )

h h
k j
· for p p
i j
< ( 2.228b )

h h h
k j C
· + ∆ for inflow from charger p p
i j
< ( 2.228c )

h h h
k j T
· − ∆ for inflow from exhaust turbine p p
i j
< ( 2.228d )

Combusted fuel mass flow matrix:

dm
d
dm
d
f
i j
f i j
ϕ ϕ
|
.

`
,
·
,
, ,
( 2.229 )

where is:

dm
d L
dm
d
f i j
j st
i j
, ,
,
ϕ λ ϕ
·
+
|
.

`
,

1
1
for p p
i j
< ( 2.229a )

dm
d L
dm
d
f i j
i st
i j
, ,
,
ϕ λ ϕ
·
+
|
.

`
,

1
1
for p p
i j
> ( 2.229b )

Excess air ratio change matrix:

d
d
d
d
i j
i j λ
ϕ
λ
ϕ
|
.

`
,
·
,
,
( 2.230 )

68

d
d
L
L
L m
dm
d
i j
i st
j st
st f j
i j
λ
ϕ
λ
λ
ϕ
,
,
,
·

+
+
1
1
1
for p p
i j
< ( 2.230a )

d
d
i j
λ
ϕ
,
· 0 for p p
i j
> ( 2.230b )

Flows on turbine and compressor are solved according to chapters 2.1.5.1 and 2.1.5.2.

In table 2.4 the characteristics of various connections are presented.

















































69

2.2.2.3 Boundary conditions


Boundary conditions are determined by system depending on integrated process values and
are presented in the following variables:

• Engine rotating speed,
• Turbocharger rotor speed,
• Load on engine coupling,
• Fuel rack position,
• Injected fuel mass,
• Engine power,
• Turbine power,
• Compressor absorbed power,
• Electric motor rotating speed,
• Electric voltage

The boundary conditions variations are solved integrating the set of nonlinear differential
equations describing the system. These equations are described in chapters 2.1.5.3 and 2.1.6 to 2.1.9.


2.2.3 MODEL OF ENGINE SYSTEM


The described equations with members in volume vectors and connection matrices, together
with boundary conditions, form the set of nonlinear differential equations for the turbocharged engine
system.

By the presented description it is possible to set any desired engine design combination, using
the same model. The necessary data for the set build up are in the form of input data file. The
presented mathematical model leaves to the user the possibility to accommodate to any desired
engine setup, depending on the desired description transparency.

The model comprises all necessary elements of system dynamics: thermal, energetic and
mechanical.


2.3 SOLVING THE SYSTEM OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS


Depending on the desired engine design and description using volume vectors and connection
matrices, the set of the 1st order nonlinear differential equations is composed and completed by
empirical, regression and other type of equations for boundary conditions description.

The derived set of differential equations can be solved for the given initial conditions. Number
of included differential equations depends on the number of control volumes and on the number of
integrable dynamic variables. The degree of calculations depends on control volume number, number
of active connections and on the complexity of the chosen subsystem models.

In the literature many authors indicate as starting point for engine cycle calculation in the point
when inlet valve closes (the start of the compression for the cylinder No. 1). State for the working fluid
for separate control volumes, as the values for the initial boundary conditions must be guessed.

The integration of differential equation set is performed usually applying the 4th order Runge-
Kutta schemes. Some authors, as Annand /33/ and Jankov /142/, indicate the difficulties in integrating
the equations during the valve overlap period and prefer the predictor corrector methods. After long
experimentation with various numeric integration schemes for their applicability and efficiency for the
presented paper the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integrating scheme of 4th order was chosen, according to
Benku /171/, which is essentially the 5th order method, so that the higher method serves for
70

simultaneous integration error control. Such method spares the computation time. For the exchange
process of the engine cycle the predictor corrector method according to Euler-Cauchy was applied, as
proposed by Jankov /142/.

Integration of differential equations is performed in time steps. As the engine speed at diesel
generating set is nearly constant, instead of time step the crank angle step was used.

For the basic integration crank angle step the angle of 4 °CA is chosen. If such step results in
unallowable integration error, the integration step is halved and integration is repeated for the volume
under integration error and all volumes in active connection with them. Integration is continued until the
crank angle where other volumes are waiting is reached. In this way the computation time is spared
too, without influence on the result exactness.

For particular control calculations, where the result exactness is not the main problem, very
fast Euler integration method could be applied keeping the integration step sufficiently small.

To determine the engine power and other mean values for engine operation, the "great
integration angle" was introduced. This angle is the angle distance between two consecutive ignitions
in engine cylinders. After such angle the mean engine performance values are determined, such as
mean value of engine power, mean effective pressure, specific fuel consumption, mean engine speed,
mean turbocharger speed, mean pressure and temperature in inlet and exhaust manifolds etc.

In occasion of engine start up calculations, especially during the first time instances, we could
not use the "great integration step", so that the boundary conditions are determined from instantaneous
torque balance in the mechanical systems.


2.3.1 CALCULATION OF ENGINE STEADY STATE OPERATING POINTS


As it is impossible to guess exactly the true cycle initial conditions for steady state operation
conditions, the performances are calculated by convergence from guessed initial values.

Before the calculation of the transient operation it is necessary to bring the engine in simulation
model to the starting steady operating state. Therefore it is necessary to examine the good agreement
of the model predictions with measurements for the steady state engine operation. This check is one of
essential preconditions to be in position to believe in the predictions of engine transient.

In calculations of engine steady operation the solution process starts from the guessed initial
conditions for the desired steady operation point. So, for example, in calculations of steady operation
points on the propeller law curve, we must select the engine power and speed. In the iterative solution
process the engine power is permanently controlled, so that the necessary corrections in injected fuel
mass are performed, correcting the engine power. Engine speed is maintained constant. The
turbocharger speed is varied according to the energy balance on the rotor shaft. The calculations are
converged by successive substitution from cycle to cycle, until we do not achieve a value match on
start and end of engine cycle.

In calculations of engine steady operation points when driving the electric generator, diesel
engine is maintained under governor control. Starting from guessed initial conditions, during the
integration in cycle, the control of energy balances is performed for turbocharger rotor and for engine
crankshaft. In non-balance, the speed change results, changing the governor action, what results in the
injected fuel mass change. The calculation of following engine cycle follows the former one, with
starting conditions for the new cycle taken same as ending conditions of former cycle. The governor
guides the engine during time to the steady operating point, reaching the complete balance on engine
crankshaft and on turbocharger rotor. In the presented simulation model the solution convergence is
tested for engine speed, turbocharger speed, pressure and temperature in cylinder, for masses and for
excess air ratio. The convergence of the excess air ratio has been shown as the most critical and the
last to achieve. When the convergence of all values reaches the error lower than 1%, it is assumed
that the steady state is achieved.


71

2.3.2 CALCULATION OF ENGINE TRANSIENT OPERATION


After reaching the steady state operating point, as the starting point, the calculation of transient
operation of complete system "turbocharged diesel engine synchronous electric generator electric
consumers" may start. After the load change has been applied or started, the time dependent values
are derived by integration on time steps. All time dependent variables are stored during the calculation
to the data files for postprocessing. Possible surge limit exceeding or similar events are signaled
additionally. The state variables for chosen control volumes are also stored in separate data files for
postprocessing. During the calculations the instantaneous variable status is presented graphically on
monitor screen. On the screen are also presented the last values of most important engine variables.

The calculation of engine transient operation spreads up to the reaching of the new steady
state operating point adapted to the new engine load status or it is interrupted in case when the engine
stops because of overload or load acceptance failure.


2.3.3 MODEL IMPLEMENTATION ON THE DIGITAL COMPUTER


The described mathematical model for simulation of turbocharged engine operation in steady
and transient conditions was implemented on personal computer ATARI 1040 STF with the 16 byte 8
MHz processor. The first version of the program code was written in FORTRAN 77 Prospero Software
Inc. and it was abandoned by transition to the program language GFA Basic. The new compiled
version runs faster than the former version written in FORTRAN. The program code is modular. The
communication for data change is performed in prepared data files, so that the interactive operation
mode was not used. The compiled program version is of 112 kb. In the operation the program takes
the storage space of 326 kb for program and variables . Time of calculation for one row of cylinders of
diesel engine with 12 cylinder in Vee, at speed of 500 rpm, with the calculation of turbocharger
operating points in each integration time step lasts ~2 min. The ratio between the calculation time to
the real engine time is ~ 500/1.

To achieve the shorter calculation time for convergence to the steady state operation point,
when calculations of transient engine operation has to be made for variation of engine parameters, the
possibility to store the converged data for the steady state operation point has been provided. Next
calculations, starting from the same steady state operation point, start from the stored data.

All important program sections are arranged in subroutines, which, depending on the selected
options, are called by the main program. For example the program has included 4 subroutines for
working fluid thermal performances (1 for real fluid with compressibility at low temperatures and
dissociation at higher temperatures and 3 for ideal gas), which are called depending on the desired
choice and predictions quality. In calling the particular subroutines the program is controlled via
determined volume control vector and connection control matrix.

On the following pages the simplified program structure is presented.















72






























































73






























































74






























































75





























































76


3 APPLICATION OF THE SIMULATION MODEL



To present applicability of the developed model for simulation of transient operation of
turbocharged diesel engine driving synchronous electric generator, the model was applied on sample
system of diesel generating set, consisting of following main components:

• turbocharged diesel engine,
• synchronous electric generator,
• isolated electric grid with electric consumers (ohmic and inductive)

Model was applied on selected system to predict diesel generating set transient operation, as
for example engine start, load acceptance and deloading.


3.1 DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM COMPONENTS


3.1.1 TURBOCHARGED DIESEL ENGINE


As prime mover, an medium speed, four cycle, turbocharged diesel engine SEMT Pielstick 12
PC 2-2 V400 was selected. Main application of this engine is ship propulsion. Another wide application
of the same engine is as prime mover for diesel generating sets as emergency power supply for
nuclear plants /167/ and various industrial plants, as for basic electric supply, combined with heat
production for district heating.

The mentioned engine was selected, because for this engine all necessary data for simulation
model were available. The basic engine parameters are:

Type designation 12 PC 2-2 V400
Producer SEMT Pielstick, France
Rated power 4400 kW at 500 rpm
M.E.P. 15.6 bar
Engine cycles 4 cycle, direct injection
Number of cylinders 12
Cylinders arrangement V arrangement, angle 45°
Cylinder bore 400 mm
Stroke 460 mm
Medium piston speed 7.67 m/s
Swept volume (1 cylinder) 0.0578 m
3

Compression ratio 11.6
Crank mechanism ratio (λ=r/l) 0.24211
Exhaust manifold volume 0.05342 m
3

Inlet manifold volume 0.6 m
3

Number of turbochargers 2
Turbocharger type BBC VTR 320
Turbocharging mode pulse charging
Diameter of charger impeller 380 mm
Medium diameter of turbine wheel 305.7 mm
Turbine flow area 0.0149 m
2

Turbocharger rotor momentum of inertia 0.231 kgm
2

Turbocharger mechanical efficiency 0.99 ... 0.995
Volumetric efficiency 0.995
Engine dimensions, L x B x H 6730 x 3530 x 2930 mm
Engine weight (dry engine) 52 300 kg

77

































Fig. 3.1 Cross-section of SEMT Pielstick 12 PC 2-2 V400 diesel engine


Engine crankcase is of welded type, made of steel plates and casted and forged steel parts.
Crankcase accommodate crankshaft in main bearings, cylinder assemblies and other engine
components.

Engine cylinders are arranged in V, with angle of 45° between cylinder banks. Opposite
cylinders from both banks are shifted to allow connection of relative connection roads side by side on
the same crank of engine crankshaft. Each cylinder bank has its own camshaft with cams for inlet and
outlet valves, as for fuel injection pumps.

Single engine cylinder assembly consists of cooling mantle and cylinder liner, both tightened by
cylinder head with 8 elastic bolts to engine crankcase. Cylinder heads accommodate 2 inlet and 2
exhaust valves, centrally located fuel injection valve, starting air valve and safety valve. Exhaust valves
are mounted in detachable housings to facilitate dismantling and maintenance. Safety valve is
originally prestressed to maximum allowable cylinder pressure of 125 bars.

Inlet and exhaust valves opening and closing angles are presented in fig. 3.2. Figure 3.3
present effective flow area curves for inlet and exhaust valves of one cylinder.

Engine is equipped with 2 turbochargers, one per cylinder bank. Charging air from charger
housing passages through cooler to inlet manifold, and from there to engine cylinders (fig. 3.9). Each
cylinder bank has its own inlet manifold. Cylinders of one cylinder bank are connected to two exhaust
manifolds. Each exhaust manifold is connected to 3 cylinders, whose processes are shifted for 240° of
crankangle. Low volume of exhaust manifold enables application of pulse charging. Two exhaust
manifolds of same cylinder bank are connected to the same turbine.


78


























Fig. 3.2 Valve timing


Characteristic parameters of single stage axial turbine are shown in fig. 3.5. Turbine
parameters are presented through isentropic efficiency η
s,T
and flow coefficient α
T
, depending on
turbine pressure ratio and speed ratio. Characteristics of radial charger operation chart are presented
in fig. 3.6.

























Fig. 3.3 Effective flow areas for exhaust and inlet valves of one cylinder



79














Fig. 3.4 Engine cylinder arrangement and connection to exhaust manifolds and turbines






















Fig. 3.5 Turbine characteristics depending on turbine pressure ratio

T
= 1.5, 2, 3, 4)


Each engine cylinder has separate fuel injection pump, driven by fuel injection cam on
camshaft. Corrected fuel injection pump delivery chart is presented in figure 3.7. Fuel is injected
through centrally located injection valve to the combustion space in cylinder. Injection valve opening
pressure was set to 240 bars. For diesel engines driving electric generator (constant speed operation),
fuel injection starting angle is held constant.

Fuel delivery is controlled by mechanical governor with hydraulic amplification and hydraulic
actuator. Additional electric motor serves for fine engine speed adjustment. Governor has only
proportional and differential characteristics, without integrating part for error correction. Such assembly
has well preserved proportional characteristic. Governor was additionally equipped with fuel delivery
limiting device according to the charging air pressure (LDA device).

Engine is equipped with overspeed protection device, cutting fuel delivery when steping over
maximum allowed engine speed (usually 110% of nominal speed).

As the cylinder arrangement of one cylinder bank is symmetric to other cylinder bank, for
simulation purposes only one cylinder bank was modeled. All effective engine parameters (engine
power, torque etc.) are recalculated on whole engine system. Figure 3.9 schematically presents engine
system as applied for simulation model.


80




































Fig. 3.6 Charger performance map























Fig. 3.7 Fuel injection pump delivery depending on engine speed and fuel rack setting

81
















Fig. 3.8 Fuel rack limitation depending on charging air pressure










































Fig. 3.9 Scheme of engine system applied for simulation model


IM
EG C3
C6 C5 C4 C2 C1
R
FP
EM2 EM1
AC
SAR
C T
AF
ES
A
A atmosphere
AC air cooler
AF air filter
C charger
C1..C6 cylinders
EG electric generator
EM exhaust manifolds
ES exhaust silencer
FP fuel pump
IM inlet manifold
R governor
SAR starting air receiver
T turbine
82

In the applied model, following assumptions are accepted:

• temperatures of various parts of one cylinder are equal to those in other cylinders,
• during engine transient operation, engine parts temperatures varies very slow for negligible
values,
• spatially homogenous properties for each control volume are assumed in each time instant,
• processes in one cylinder bank are equal to those in corresponding cylinders of other bank,
• characteristics of fuel injection system are equal for all cylinders, what presumes that each
cylinder for given fuel rack position and engine speed becomes equal amount of injected fuel,
• blow-by of gases from cylinders was neglected (except in case of engine starting simulation).




3.1.2 ELECTRIC GENERATOR


Synchronous electric generator transforms mechanical energy, delivered by diesel engine, into
electric energy. Design of high voltage generator was derived from high speed generator design, to
allow small momentum of inertia of rotor. Generator construction is very compact and robust. The
design is of one end bearing type. Free end of rotor shaft is supported in generator bearing, while
driving end of rotor shaft is supported by engine crankshaft main bearing.

Main generator data are:

Type three phase, synchronous
Generator power 4 400 kW, 5 500 kVA
Voltage 6 000 V
Power factor cos ϕ = 0.8
Frequency 50 Hz

Total momentum of inertia of diesel generating set rotating masses is 4 500 kgm
2
.

Generator excitation system with governor take care of voltage correction and restoration. For
mathematical description of voltage governor, very simple set of equations was applied. It was
assumed that generator voltage changes linearly proportional to generator current change:

dU
d t
K
d I
d t
EG
VG
EG
· − ( 3.1 )

It was assumed that the voltage restoring rate was constant, i.e.:

dU
d t
K U U
K U U
EG
VR EG EG
VR EG EG
·
<
− >
¹
'
¹
for
for
,
,
0
0
( 3.2 )

Parameter K
VG
was set to value to meet an voltage drop of 20% of U
EG,0
for sudden change of
generator load from no load to nominal load. Value of voltage restoring rate parameter K
VR
was set to
restore the generator voltage from 80% to 100% of U
EG,0
in 0.02 s.

The presented model of electric generator is very coarse assumption of complex
electromagnetic changes in electric generator transient operation. More accurate modeling of these
processes is out of scope in this analysis.







83

3.1.3 ELECTRIC CONSUMERS


Electric consumers are grouped in pure ohmic and inductive consumers (according to chapter
2.1.9). In more important consumers, which must be supplied with electric current in emergency
situations, are usually electric motors for cooling pumps drive. As representative of inductive
consumers, one asynchronous squirrel cage electric motor for pump drive was selected, with rated
power of 3 000 kW. Momentum of inertia of rotating masses was selected according data for similar
pump sets.

Figure 3.10 presents the nondimensional characteristics for steady operation of selected
asynchronous electric motor. The characteristics are calculated according to model presented in
chapter 2.1.9. Figures 3.11 to 3.13 presents influences of electric voltage and frequency changes on
nondimensional characteristics of selected electric motor.
























Fig. 3.10 Nondimensional characteristics of asynchronous electric motor


Figure 3.10 presents the nondimensional characteristics for steady state operation of squirrel
cage asynchronous electric motor for pump drive. One parameter is starting torque and starting current
(for still rotor). As shown in fig. 3.10, starting torque for this motor is lower than maximum torque value.
Starting current is about 4.5 times higher than nominal value, causing high electric load on generator,
when switching on. Power factor for start is lover than nominal value.

Electric motor, soon after switching on electric power supply, speeds up toward synchronous
speed. Speeding rate depends on torque difference between motor torque and consumer torque, as on
momentum of inertia of rotating parts. synchronous speed is determined by frequency and number of
magnetic pole pairs. Synchronous speed for selected electric motor is 1500 rpm, at frequency of 50
Hz. As electric motor speeds up, the relative speed ratio (actual to synchronous speed) grows up.
Motor torque grows in the same time up to the maximum value (the so called "change-over torque"),
with steep decrease afterwards toward synchronous speed. Driving torque was very soon equalized
with consumer torque. The electric current decreases during this motor speed up. Power factor rise up
to the nominal value.





84
























Fig. 3.11 Motor torque characteristics depending on electric voltage U























Fig. 3.12 Motor torque characteristics depending on frequency f


Figure 3.11 presents the dependence of nondimensional torque characteristic for the same
electric motor, depending on electric voltage. It is evident that changing-over torque decrease, same as
for the whole torque curve, proportionally to squared electric voltage. For voltage drop to about 72% of
U
0
, the changing-over torque decreases to the value of nominal torque. With further decreasing of
electric voltage, there is a potential danger to lower maximum torque under load torque, what could
cause motor stopping. This is special problem in "stiff electric grids", i.e. in electric grids with negligible
frequency changes.




85
























Fig. 3.13 Motor torque characteristics for constant values of U/f ratio


Figure 3.12 presents dependence of nondimensional torque characteristic for the same
electric motor, depending on electric frequency. In presented diagram, the relative electric motor speed
was taken regarding the synchronous speed for frequency of 50 Hz. By lowering diesel engine (i.e.
electric generator) speed during load acceptance, the electric frequency lowers accordingly. Torque of
electric motor grows up reciprocally to the squared frequency. At lower electric frequency,
asynchronous electric motor speeds up faster toward actual synchronous speed. This is a favorable
fact, while the electric motor speeding lasts shorter and diesel engine would be faster deloaded. In the
same time, asynchronous electric motor draws lower power at lower frequency, what helps to the
diesel engine to take over the increased load.

Figure 3.13 presents dependence of nondimensional torque characteristic for the same
electric motor for electric voltage change proportional to the frequency change. The ratio of voltage to
frequency was held constant (U/f = const) on various values. it is common that voltage governing
circuit restores electric voltage very fast, faster than diesel engine restore crankshaft speed (i.e.
frequency). Fast voltage restoring results in faster load increase to diesel engine, what is unfavorable
by the fact that in same time the frequency was lowered by lowering engine speed. This fact presents
special trouble when switching on asynchronous electric motors with heavy speeding up (for example
heavy crane drives, large transporter line drives etc.). For diesel engine it is favorable in such
conditions to change the electric voltage proportionally to frequency.



3.2 DIESEL ENGINE STEADY OPERATION


For the selected diesel engine the measured data for steady operation on test bed were
available. The measured data include engine power, mean effective pressure, maximum cylinder
pressure, pressure in inlet manifold, turbocharger speed and specific fuel consumption on load
according propeller law.

It was done iterative correction of heat release rate parameters to achieve better matching of
calculated and measured data for the wide span of engine steady loads. The figure 3.14 presents the
results from measurements (lines) and numerical simulation (dots). Following loads are presented:

86


n
M
= 520 rpm P
M
= 4 400 kW (100%)
n
M
= 502 rpm P
M
= 3 960 kW (90%)
n
M
= 472 rpm P
M
= 3 300 kW (75%)
n
M
= 413 rpm P
M
= 2 200 kW (50%)







































Figure 3.14 Comparison of measured and numerical results for steady
operation of diesel engine according to the propeller law


The figure 3.14 presents very good matching of measured data and numerical results for
steady engine loads according to the propeller law. Discrepancies are evident on the maximum
cylinder pressure curve, in the range of nominal power (at 520 rpm), and on the curve for specific fuel
consumption for nominal power and for 50% load (at 413 rpm). The mentioned discrepancies indicate
some departures of applied correlation for diesel engine mechanical loses /62/ when applied on such
engine.

The achieved high degree of measurement and numerical results matching indicate the high
applicability of presented numerical model for prediction of turbocharged diesel engine steady loads. In
the starting calculation it was achieved the difference in calculated and measured results not higher
than t3%. After iterative parameters correction, a matching was achieved with differences smaller than
t1.4%. Such a good agreement between measured and numerical results is the basic presumption for
the quality of the predictions of diesel engine transient operation.
87

3.3 DIESEL ENGINE LOADING


After starting, the diesel engine has accepted the load of electric consumers and has reached
the steady speed. By governor action, engine was led to the steady operation conditions. by additional
switching of electric loads to the electric grid, mechanical balance between diesel engine and electric
generator is disturbed. This causes the changes in engine speed, what is detected by engine governor.
Governor tries to correct the engine speed by commands to fuel injection pumps to feed more or less
fuel to engine cylinders. By this action, the governor lead the engine to the new steady operation point,
where new mechanical balance between diesel engine and electric generator would be achieved.

In this chapter are presented results of numerical simulation of diesel engine loading, by
switching various electric loads to the electric grid.


3.3.1 LOADING BY ELECTRIC OHMIC LOADS

The selected diesel generating set was brought to the steady operation point for engine load of
1000 kW. Engine steady speed is 521.3 rpm, turbocharger speed is 8 770 rpm. Mean charging air
pressure (pressure in the inlet manifold) is 1.23 bar. Mean pressure of exhaust gases in the exhaust
manifold is 1.22 bar, and mean temperature is 560 K (267 °C). The indicated mean values are time
averaged mean values.

At the time instant t = 0, an additional ohmic electric load of rated power 3000 kW (load on
diesel engine) was switched on. This additional load represent 68% of engine rated power. Because of
the engine load change, the engine mechanical balance is disturbed. In that very instant, the
instantaneous engine power (1000 kW) was much lower than total engine load (4000 kW). This has
caused the steep lowering of engine speed. In that first phase of load acceptance, the power supply
goes on account of lowering kinetic energy of rotating parts of diesel generating set:

( ) ( ) ∆P
d E
d t
J J
d
d t
J J n
d n
d t
kin
M Lo M
M
M Lo M
M
· − · − + · − +
|
.

`
,

ω
ω π
30
2
( 3.3 )

By lowering the engine speed engine governor react very fast, actuating the fuel rack to
increase fuel supply to the engine cylinders (fig. 3.15). The increased fuel supply to the engine
cylinders results in engine power increase. As the engine power is still lower than load, engine speed
lowers further on. The fuel rack reaches very soon (at t = 0.39 s) the limit position set by charging air
pressure. Engine power has reached 3 239 kW, what is still lower than consumers load (4 000 kW).
The air excess ratio for combustion has fallen to the value of 1.14.

With certain time delay, when compared to the start of fuel delivery increase, start the exhaust
from cylinders which have combusted higher amounts of injected fuel. The mean exhaust gas
temperature in the exhaust manifold rise to the maximum value of 859 K (586 °C) at t = 0.55 s. Mean
pressure of exhaust gas rise to the value of 1.42 bar. By increasing the amount of heat in exhaust
gases, reaching the turbine, turbine power rise up and turbocharger speeds up. This speeding up
starts 0.15 s after first exhaust from the cylinder with increased amount of injected fuel. Result of
turbocharger speeding up is the rise of the charging air pressure. The cylinders are filled with more air
mass. By incrementing charging air pressure, the fuel limit is moved to positions for higher fuel
delivery, enabling greater amount of fuel to be injected and combusted, giving more power to the
engine. During this second phase of the transient operation, engine power is increasing slowly. After
2.35 s the engine power is equal to the load power. In the same time, minimal engine speed is reached
at 457.8 rpm. Engine power rises forward up to the maximum of 4902 kW at time 3.56 s. Engine speed
recovers on account of power surplus and engine governor has started to decrease fuel rack position,
decreasing injected fuel amount in the same time. Engine power was decreased to meet load power at
the time 4.33 s. In the same time engine speed has reached a new steady state value at 492.7 rpm.
Nevertheless engine power and engine speed has reached steady state value, turbocharger has not
still reached his steady state operation. This point as reached after about 6.2 s at 18320 rpm of
turbocharger rotor. The steady state charging pressure is 2.36 bar, mean gas pressure before turbine
is 1.98 bar and mean gas temperature before turbine is 720 K.
88

























































(PMot - engine power, Pgen - generator power (load), nMot - engine speed, xR - fuel rack position, Lambda - air excess ratio,
nTP - turbocharger speed, pL - charging air pressure, mL - normalized air flow through charger, pT - exhaust gas pressure
before the turbine, tT - temperature before the turbine)

Figure 3.15 Engine loading 1000 kW → 4000 kW by switching on electric
ohmic load of 3000 kW
89





































Figure 3.16 Characteristic phases of transient load acceptance
by turbocharged diesel engine






















Fig. 3.17 Cylinder gas pressure during engine loading
90






















Fig. 3.18 Cylinder gas temperature during engine loading






















Fig. 3.19 Change in heat release rate during engine loading


Time needed for transient, when changing engine load from 1000 kW to 4000 kW by
switching-on ohmic electric consumer with power of 3000 kW is (according to the definition in fig. 1.2)
3.926 s. During this time, engine speed has reached the value inside the stability limit of t 1% of new
steady state speed.

Dynamic engine speed change δ
D
+
during engine loading was:

δ
D
t
r
n n
n
+
·

⋅ ·

⋅ ·
min
. .
. 100
5213 457 8
500
100 127% ( 3.4 )

In fig. 3.16 and 3.17 the cylinder gas pressure and temperature changes during engine loading
are presented. If the time t = 0 s indicate the start of engine loading, times of TDC position (when
combustion is in course) of various in-cylinder cycles are:
91


Cycle Nr. 1 - 0.16 s
Cycle Nr. 2 0.07 s
Cycle Nr. 3 0.31 s
Cycle Nr. 8 1.57 s
Cycle Nr. 15 3.39 s

Maximum cylinder pressure of the cycle Nr. 1 is 51.5 bar, and maximum temperature is 1360
K. Cycle Nr. 1 is the cylinder cycle, just before engine loading. During cycle Nr. 1 engine was loaded.
During the cycle Nr. 2, the first cycle after loading, the augmented fuel mass was injected. Maximum
cylinder pressure and temperature are higher. During the cycle Nr. 3 fuel rack has quite reached limit
of position, and the injected fuel mass is much higher. Maximum cylinder pressure has reached 70 bar,
and maximum temperature has reached 2060 K. In the same time the charging air pressure has not
rised significantly, so the pressure curves during compression are the same for the 3 first cycles.

By the time rises slowly the charging air pressure, what is evident from differences in pressure
curves during compression for cycles Nr. 8 and Nr. 15. The cylinder temperature at the start of
compression is a little bit raised because of exhaust gas recirculation from exhaust pipe at the end of
exhaust stroke, so the temperature is higher during compression. Maximum cylinder pressure is higher
and it is 102 bar in the cycle Nr. 15, when engine develops the power of 4796 kW, close to the
maximum value during transient. Maximum cylinder temperature was quite on the same value due to
augmented air mass, admitted to the cylinder. Very soon after the cycle Nr. 15 the injected fuel mass
decrease, and maximum cylinder pressure and temperature are decreased too.

The figures 3.20a to 3.20e present the low-pressure part of engine cycle during engine
loading. The presented curves are for exhaust manifold pressure (pT), for cylinder pressure (pC) and
for charging air manifold pressure (pL). The angles of exhaust valve opening (IO) and closing (IZ) and
inlet valve opening (UO) and closing (UZ) are indicated. In the fig. 3.20a it is possible to notice that
after the inlet valve opens (UO), the exhaust gas flow from cylinder to the inlet air channel because the
cylinder pressure (pC) is higher than charging air manifold pressure (pL). At the end of exhaust valve
closing (IZ) it is evident that the pressure in exhaust gas manifold (pT) is higher than cylinder pressure
(pC) because of the exhaust from cylinder Nr. 4 and exhaust gas flows through the exhaust valve to
cylinder. Both these processes increase the amount of residual combustion gases in cylinder, rising the
gas temperature at the start of compression stroke.























(pT - pressure before turbine, pC - cylinder pressure, pL - charging air pressure, IO - exhaust opens,
UO - inlet opens, IZ - exhaust closes, UZ - inlet closes)
Fig. 3.20a Low-pressure part of engine cycle in the cycle Nr. 1

92























Fig. 3.20b Low-pressure part of engine cycle in the cycle Nr. 2






















Fig. 3.20c Low-pressure part of engine cycle in the cycle Nr. 3


In the cycle Nr. 2 (fig. 3.20b) it is possible to notice the greater amplitude of exhaust gas
manifold pressure, when first cylinders, which have got more fuel due to governor action, deliver
exhaust gas of higher temperature to the manifold. This pressure increase continues in next cycles.
During the cycle Nr. 2, we have still exhaust gas flow from cylinder to the inlet channel at the beginning
of inlet valve opening (UO). Flow from the exhaust gas manifold to the cylinder before the exhaust
valve closes (IZ) is yet greater because of higher exhaust manifold pressure. In the cycle Nr. 3 the flow
of exhaust gas from cylinder to the inlet channel has stopped. By increasing of the charging air
pressure the gas exchange process is more efficient and the cylinder walls cooling is better. At the
same time, because of higher pressure pulses in exhaust manifold the exhaust gas flow from manifold
back to the cylinder at exhaust valve closing is higher. This is evident from cylinder pressure rise,
causing temperature rise at the start of compression stroke.


93






















Fig. 3.20d Low-pressure part of engine cycle in the cycle Nr. 8























Fig. 3.20e Low-pressure part of engine cycle in the cycle Nr. 15


The figure 3.21 present the changes of pressure and temperature in exhaust gas manifold,
together with speed ratio and turbine efficiency for the first 8 engine cycles during engine loading.
During each engine cycle we have 3 pressure waves corresponding to exhaust gas waves from 3
cylinders connected to that manifold. Turbine of the turbocharger is calculated separately for the flow
from each of the two connected manifolds. Turbine power is calculated summing the powers resulting
from flow in both sectors.







94





























































F
i
g
.

3
.
2
1

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h
a
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f

v
a
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n

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a
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t

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a
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i
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l
d

a
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i
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95

From the fig. 3.21 we can notice that with the time delay of about 1 crankshaft revolution the
first changes of pressure in exhaust gas manifold occurs, as the first cylinders, in which has
combusted augmented fuel mass, are in exhaust. Soon after this, other exhaust waves are stronger
because of higher fuel amount as result of engine governor action. This results in higher energy flow
through the turbine. Increase of the exhaust gas energy results in equivalent increase of flow velocity c
(equation 2.116), which rises faster than circumferential velocity. This causes the decrease in turbine
efficiency. Mean value of turbine efficiency increases afterwards by moving the u/c
0
velocity ratio to the
more convenient areas of turbine characteristics (fig. 3.5 and 3.22).
























Fig. 3.22 Change of the operation point in turbine characteristics field
during engine loading
























Fig. 3.23 The changes in turbine efficiency during engine loading


96




































Fig. 3.24 Changes of operation point in charger performance map
during engine loading

The figure 3.24 presents the time history of operation point change in charger performance
map. From the figure it can be noticed the loops done by operation parameters during engine loading.
Density of this loops gives an indication of the speed of movement of operation point in charger
performance map during engine loading. As the air inlet manifold is connected to 6 cylinders, one loop
correspond to 1/3 of crankshaft revolution (6 loops for one engine cycle).

From the figure it can be seen that the operation point has not crossed the surge line, so the
phase of turbocharger speed-up is stable during whole time of engine load acceptance. In the figure
3.30 the curve of mean values of operation point loops is indicated (solid line) for this engine load
acceptance. Width of loops in figure 3.24 define the tolerance for minimum distance of mean curve
from the surge line, as the security that the turbocharger would not go to surging.

From the figure it can be noticed that after the initial time lag of turbocharger reaction it comes
to speed and flow increase with very slight increase of the pressure. The charger flow is increased by
ending of gas flow from cylinder to inlet channel at inlet valve opening and by increasing of the
scavenging. It comes to the initial displacement of operation point mean value to higher flow. By
decreasing the engine speed, charger flow do not increase further with the same rate. Turbocharger
speed is increased in the meantime and the pressure rises up. All further increase of turbocharger
speed goes uniformly up. Air flow is increased by increasing the inducted mass to the cylinder (caused
by higher air pressure) and air mass for cylinder scavenging during valve overlapping. At the end of
load acceptance, the energy content of exhaust gases is decreased and the turbine power decreases
in the same time. Turbocharger approaches slowly the new steady state speed.

97












































P
G
Power of electric generator
I
G
Electric current on generator terminals
U
G
Voltage of electric generator
x
R
Fuel rack displacement
n
M
Engine speed
n
TP
Turbocharger speed
p
L
Charging air pressure

Fig. 3.25 Measured data for load acceptance of diesel engine 16 PA 6V280
by switching-on the ohmic electric load


For the calculated example the measured data of engine load acceptance has not been
available, so only qualitative comparison was done, comparing the calculated values to measured data
for high speed diesel engine 16 PA 6V280 of the same engine producer.

The fig. 3.25 presents the measured data for engine load acceptance of medium voltage DG
set with turbocharged high speed diesel engine 16 PA 6V280. Load was applied by switching-on ohmic
98

electric load. This DG set is intended for emergency power production for nuclear power plants.
Nominal engine power is 3990 kW at 1000 rpm. This diesel engine was equipped with isochronous PID
governor.

At the time t = 0 the ohmic electric load of 2645 kW was applied. The engine load rises very
fast, regarding very fast electromagnetic transients in electric system, and after 0.7 s the maximum
value of 2790 kW was achieved. Engine speed drops from initial 1000 rpm to minimum value of 924
rpm at 1.07 s, recovering after this point to 1055 rpm at 3.38 s and reaching the new steady state
speed of 1000 rpm. The governor reaction was very fast, so the limit value of fuel rack position has
been reached at 0.66 s. Turbocharger speed rises from initial 9180 rpm to maximum value of 22700
rpm at 3.24 s, and decreases later to new steady state speed of 20180 rpm. The generator voltage
drops at the load switching because of increased current from the initial 5400 V to 4620 V at 0.1 s and
recovers after 0.6 s to 5740 V and stabilizes very soon after.

Analyzing the measured data for the diesel engine of the similar power and comparing them to
calculated results it can be deduced acceptable prediction possibility of engine, turbocharger and
governor operation during load acceptance. The lack of accurate models for electromagnetic transients
in electric circuits is evident in different load histories in the first time instances of load application.


3.2.2 SWITCHING-ON THE ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC MOTOR


Same as in the first case, diesel engine is in steady operation at load of 1000 kW. At the time
of t = 0 the squirrel cage asynchronous electric motor, driving cooling water pump, is connected to the
electric grid. The nominal load power of the connected pump set is 3000 kW.

The inductive load acceptance differs from ohmic load acceptance. Soon after switching
electric motor, effective load to diesel engine rises up to 3029 kW, what is determined by previous
load, pulling torque of electric motor and electric current frequency. By increasing speed of electric
motor, electric load rises up with electric motor torque. This goes up until the electric motor reaches
change-over torque (maximum torque) at 1.05 s, resulting the cumulative engine load of 7294 kW.
With further electric motor speed increase, driving torque goes rapidly down, and in the same time
engine load goes down to 3110 kW at 1.23 s. In the same time instant, engine power has raised to
3338 kW. During electric motor speeding, engine speed has gone down, proportionally to power
deficiency, so that minimum was achieved at 444.3 rpm at 1.18 s. By steep motor load decrease, the
engine speed curve bends instantly. As the engine power is greater than load, the engine speed
recovers to the new steady state speed of 494.9 rpm at 3.66 s.

The pump driven by electric motor absorb the power proportionally to the cube of pump speed.
As the electric frequency has fallen proportionally to the engine speed (or generator speed), the pump
power was also lower than nominal. By increasing the engine speed increases the frequency and the
pump power, resulting in increase of engine load. As the engine reaches new steady state speed of
494.9 rpm, what is less than 500 rpm for the frequency of 50 Hz, the absorbed pump power is lower
than nominal power. The engine load stabilize in 3774 kW. The steady state speed of asynchronous
motor is 1461 rpm (instead of nominal 1500 rpm). The figure 3.27 presents the time history of electric
motor speed during this transient. The electric motor has needed 1.13 s to reach 1334 rpm
approaching the instantaneous steady state speed (at lower frequency). By increasing the engine
speed (and in the same time electric frequency), electric motor speed rises further up to the reaching
new steady state speed at new steady frequency.

The duration of transient during engine load acceptance was 3.46 s. Dynamic change of
engine speed during this transient was 15.4% (according to the equation 3.4).








99






















































(PMot - engine power, Pgen - generator power (load), nMot - engine speed, xR - fuel rack position, Lambda - air excess ratio,
nTP - turbocharger speed, pL - charging air pressure, mL - normalized air flow through charger, pT - exhaust gas pressure
before the turbine, tT - temperature before the turbine)

Fig. 3.26 Engine loading from 1000 kW to 4000 kW by switching
asynchronous electric motor of nominal power 3000 kW


100






















Fig. 3.27 Electric motor speeding by switching to the electric main supplied by DG set


In the figure 3.28 are presented measured results of transient on the diesel engine 18 PA
6V280 at switching on an mechanically disconnected asynchronous electric motor. All energy delivered
from diesel engine driven electric generator was used just for speeding electric motor and to cover its
mechanical loses. During the electric motor speeding, diesel engine was overloaded and the engine
speed has fallen steadily. Current in electric system was high during this speeding. By approaching the
synchronous speed, diesel engine was suddenly deloaded, what can be noticed from sudden change
in diesel engine speed curve.





















I
G
Electric current on generator terminals
U
G
Voltage of electric generator
n
M
Engine speed
n
TP
Turbocharger speed

Fig. 3.28 Measured results of 16 PA 6V280 diesel engine loading by switching mechanically
disconnected asynchronous electric motor


101


























Fig. 3.29 Measured results of 12 PC 2-2V400 diesel engine loading by switching mechanically
disconnected asynchronous electric motor /167/


The figure 3.29 presents the measured results for the diesel electric set /167/ very similar to
the calculated sample (driving diesel engine is the same SEMT Pielstick 12 PC 2-2V400). At the time
2.2 s the mechanically disconnected asynchronous electric motor was switched on the electric grid
(like as at the previous example). Electric motor power was 735 kW (1000 HP).

By qualitative comparison of calculated results with measured results in figures 3.28 and 3.29
it can be concluded reasonably good prediction for engine transient during acceptance of inductive
load imposed by switching on of asynchronous electric motor.


3.3 COMPARISON OF TRANSIENTS WITH OHMIC AND
INDUCTIVE LOADING


As it was described in previous samples, differences in engine transients for acceptance of
loads imposed by switching on ohmic or inductive electric load are evident. As the curves presenting
the ohmic load acceptance are smooth, the curves presenting acceptance of inductive load have
breakpoint (corresponding the point when electric motor approaches his synchronous speed).

In the figures 3.30 to 3.33 is presented the comparison of curves for transients with ohmic and
inductive load acceptance. The figure 3.30 presents the operation point change in charger
performance map. In the first part both curves are quite the same. Solid curve representing ohmic load
acceptance changes uniformly, going closer to the surge line. After the engine has reached new steady
state speed and after lowering injected fuel amount, turbine power was also lowered. Turbocharger
speed was lowered to the new steady state speed.






102




































Fig. 3.30 Operation point change in charger performance map during engine loading


The curve for inductive load acceptance is similar to the curve for ohmic load in the beginning.
This agreement between two curves correspond to the first instances, up to the time instant when fuel
rack has reached limit position. Engine load is much higher at the inductive load acceptance because
of electric motor speeding, so the engine speed reduce very fast, decreasing in the same time air flow.
Because of very rapid speed decrease, engine power was lowered. The operation point curve deflects
characteristically toward the surge line, to lower air flow and higher charging pressure. This is
characteristic when engine goes out of operation because of lack of the power (fig. 3.51). At the end of
electric motor speeding, the engine is suddenly deloaded and the engine speed start to increase. The
engine power increases together with speed increase. The pump driving power increases with the
cube of engine speed. The slow increase of turbocharger operation point, quite parallel to the surge
line (fig. 2.21) is evident during this engine speeding and slow pump power increase. At the end the
operation point approaches to new steady state operation point. This point is lower than for the ohmic
load as the results of lower engine load. The steady state load for driving the pump set was 3774 kW,
compared with 4000 kW when driving ohmic load.

The figure 3.31 presents the comparison of the change of engine power depending to the
engine speed during load acceptance. Engine speed lowers in first instances, without increasing of
engine power, up to the point when first cylinder becomes and combusts higher fuel amount due to the
governor action. Engine power rises quite linearly with engine speed decrease up to the time instant
when fuel rack reaches his limit position. Further power increase depends on the rate of charging air
pressure rise. From the comparison it is evident that the speed droop is greater for acceptance of
inductive load. From the curve for inductive load acceptance it is evident that the engine speed
decrease further after the fuel rack has reached limit position, even the engine power was decreased
103

in the same time. By engine deloading after the electric motor has approached his synchronous speed,
engine speed start to recover, together with engine power increase, leading the engine to the new
steady state point. From the ohmic load acceptance curve it can be noticed a steady engine power
increase during transient, leading the diesel engine to new steady state speed, with further power
decrease to meet new steady state operation point.

The figure 3.32 presents the comparison of engine power depending to the charging air
pressure during the engine loading. At the start of the loading, engine power was sudden increased
without charging air pressure increase. The fuel rack has reached his limiting position. Further power
increase is possible only by increase of charging air pressure.























Fig. 3.31 Engine power change depending to engine speed during engine loading























Fig. 3.32 Engine power change depending to charging air pressure during engine loading

104

The figure 3.33 presents the comparison of charging air pressure depending to mean exhaust
gas pressure. It is evident first increase of exhaust gas pressure before turbine and the slow increase
of charging air pressure with further rise of exhaust gas pressure.

All figures present the break in curves for inductive load acceptance, corresponding to the
point of sudden engine deloading when electric motor reaches his synchronous speed. Differing from
this, curves for ohmic load acceptance are smooth and uniform.





















Fig. 3.33 Charging air pressure change depending to mean exhaust gas pressure
during engine loading


3.4 ENGINE DELOADING

The figure 3.34 presents the results of numerical simulation of engine deloading. The diesel
engine was in steady state operation at nominal power 4400 kW at 488.8 rpm. Turbocharger speed
was at 20230 rpm. Mean value of charging air pressure was 2.71 bar. Mean pressure of exhaust gases
before turbine was 2.24 bar, and mean temperature was 791 K (518 °C).

In the time instant t = 0 s the load was suddenly switched off and engine was deloaded. Engine
speed was initially raised and governor started to decrease injected fuel quantity. The higher engine
speed has resulted in initially increased of pressure and temperature of exhaust gases in exhaust
manifold before turbine, and very fast pressure and temperature decrease because of lower engine
fueling. Diesel engine speed was initially raised to maximum value of 529.5 rpm at 0.43 s, and it was
later stabilized on steady state speed of 527.8 rpm for completely deloaded engine. Engine power was
very fast decreased, reaching minimum of -192 kW at 0.47 s (what means that the developed engine
power was not sufficient to cover engine mechanical losses. Engine power was stabilized very soon on
0 kW.

Air excess ratio for full load steady operation was at value of 1.79. Because of governor
reaction (and decreased injected fuel quantity) it was raised to maximum value of 53.7 at 0.47 s. After
that air excess ratio was lowered to value of 22 at 1.15 s and stabilized further to new steady state
value of 11 for completely deloaded engine (because of slower lowering of charging air pressure).

Exhaust gas temperature before the turbine was decreased very fast after deloading to the
value of 478 K (205 °C) at 0.62 s and it was stabilized afterward on he value of 520 K (247 °C). The
mean value of exhaust gases was initially rapidly decreased and stabilized slowly later to the value of
1.12 bar. Because of decreased turbine power, turbocharger speed was decreased and stabilized on
new steady state value of 6500 rpm. Charging air pressure was decreased also to the new steady state
value of 1.14 bar.
105
























































(PMot - engine power, Pgen - generator power (load), nMot - engine speed, xR - fuel rack position, Lambda - air excess ratio,
nTP - turbocharger speed, pL - charging air pressure, mL - normalized air flow through charger, pT - exhaust gas pressure
before the turbine, tT - temperature before the turbine)

Fig. 3.34 Engine deloading from 4400 kW (100%) to 0 kW

106

From the derived results it could be noticed that engine reaction to deloading was very rapid,
what can be regarded to very fast governor action.


3.5 DIESEL ENGINE STARTING


Starting of turbocharged diesel engine is, from the numerical simulation point of view, one of
most difficult phases of transient operation. Unknown mechanical loses at very low engine speeds,
unknown charger and turbine fields of characteristics for very low turbocharger speeds, unknown
details of fuel combustion in engine cylinders are the principal obstacles in numerical simulation of
turbocharged diesel engine starting.

In this work an attempt of numerical simulation of turbocharged diesel engine starting is
presented, just to indicate the possibilities of the developed numerical model. The approach to engine
starting simulation was different of simulations at higher engine speeds. Main difference was in
integrating engine speed value and calculation of engine power. Engine power and crankshaft speed
have been calculated from instantaneous resulting torque on crankshaft lowered for torque of
mechanical loses.

The selected diesel engine was started using compressed air from separate air bottles 2 x 0.5
m
3
. Starting air pressure at the engine starting was 30 bar. Starting air was fed to starting air valves,
controlled by rotary distributing valve. Starting air valves were opened 120 °CA, starting from TDC (at
end of compression stroke). Starting air was fed to engine during the period of 2 s to all engine
cylinders to achieve fast engine starting.

Diesel engine was preheated to 50 °C by appropriate cooling water preheater. It was assumed
that the effective area of piston and piston ring clearance was increased to 1 cm
2
, through which the
cylinder gas has blown to crankcase..

Turbocharger turbine and charger fields of characteristics were extrapolated to rotor zero
speed. It was assumed that diesel engine was in still-stand and the turbocharger rotor was at slow
speed of 30 rpm.

Ignition and combustion of injected fuel to engine cylinders do not start immediately, and it was
assumed that in the first 5 ignition TDC of one cylinder bank we do not have fuel ignition and
combustion.

The torque on engine crankshaft was determined depending on crank angle and cylinder
pressure for all engine cylinders of one cylinder bank. From this torque the mechanical losses were
detracted and the rest was used to increase kinetic energy of diesel generating set rotating parts. From
the energy balance on turbocharger rotor, rotor speed was determined by integration of energy
conservation differential equation.

In the engine start simulation it was assumed that electric voltage was set very fast, so that in
the time instant when diesel engine reaches 520 rpm engine was loaded by ohmic electric load of 3300
kW, representing 75% of engine nominal power.

The figure 3.35 the results of numerical simulations are presented for speed changes of
engine crankshaft and turbocharger rotor during engine start. As the starting time it was assumed the
time instant when starts the compressed air feeding to engine cylinders. As result of air pressure in
engine cylinders, crankshaft starts to rotate, what is clearly visible from the curve for engine speed.
Turbocharger commences to increase his very low initial speed when the first cylinder, becoming the
compressed air, start to exhaust the cylinder content. At the time 1.3 s diesel engine has reached 125
rpm and injected fuel ignition and combustion start in engine cylinders and diesel engine continued in
speeding up. Turbocharger speed was increased too during this time. At the time of 4.25 s the engine
speed reached 520 rpm and ohmic electric load of 3300 kW was switched to the electric mains. In that
time engine governor has lowered engine power to met the new steady state speed for deloaded
engine and turbocharger has started to decrease the speed caused by lower energy content of exhaust
gases. Soon after engine loading, engine speed started to decrease engine governor has increased
107

the injected fuel amount and engine has reached very soon new steady state speed of 498 rpm.
Turbocharger speed was increased as result of higher exhaust gas energy content to met new higher
steady state speed.






















Fig. 3.35 Engine speed and turbocharger speed time histories during engine starting






















Fig. 3.36 Cylinder pressure time history during engine starting

In the figure 3.36 the cylinder pressure time history is presented. The figure 3.37 presents the
pressure for the first 4 engine cycles. During the first cycle there was no ignition. After the compression
stroke, at the TDC position started air delivery to the cylinder during 120 °CA. As the result of air
delivery, cylinder pressure was increased and temperature decreased, as it can be seen in the figure
3.38. During the 2. cycle there started ignition and combustion of injected fuel. Cylinder pressure and
temperature had increased by combustion.. After the pressure decrease during expansion stroke, due
to cylinder pressure lower than starting air delivery pressure, air was fed to the cylinder. Start of starting
air feeding to the cylinder can be noticed by sharp temperature decrease during expansion stroke of
the 2. cycle, up to the angle where finished the starting air delivery to that cylinder. From there, normal
cylinder expansion continues. During the 3. cycle, there was not feeding of starting air to the cylinder,
as the starting air admission was stopped after the time of 2 s. Cylinder process was set in this cycle.
108

Curves of the cylinder pressure during the compression stroke shows clearly the increase of charging
air pressure between two consecutive cycles. Maximum of cylinder pressure during combustion was
decreased by engine speed increasing up to the 4. cycle and it was increased further due to the
charging air pressure increase (figure 3.36). After reaching the engine speed close to the steady state
speed, engine fueling was decreased and maximum cylinder pressure was reduced. Soon after engine
loading, the maximum cylinder pressure was increased further.























Fig. 3.37 The cylinder pressure for the first 4 engine cycles in cylinder Nr. 1 during engine starting























Fig. 3.38 The cylinder temperature for the first 4 engine cycles in cylinder Nr. 1 during engine starting


According to the measured data for the same diesel engine /167/ built in diesel generating set
of higher momentum of inertia for rotating masses, the firing has started after 1.2 s after commencing
of starting air delivery. Nominal engine speed was reached after 8.5 s due to higher momentum of
inertia of rotating masses.

109






























































F
i
g
.

3
.
3
9


M
e
a
s
u
r
e
d

d
a
t
a

f
o
r

1
6

P
A

6
V
2
8
0

d
i
e
s
e
l

e
n
g
i
n
e

s
t
a
r
t

110

The figure 3.39 presents the results of engine starting measurements for diesel generating set
16 PA 6V280. Starting air delivery commenced at 0.5 s (from the start command). Engine firing
commenced at 1.4 s. The engine nominal speed of 1000 rpm was reached at 6 s. Some instant before,
at 5.8 s an ohmic electric load was switched to electric mains. From the curve for fuel rack position x
R
it
can be seen that during the start, fuel rack was at position 27.5 mm. After reaching the nominal speed,
governor has reduced fuel rack position, but soon after engine loading, additional fuel was added to
engine to accept the load and to met new steady state speed.

According to presented numerical simulation results for engine starting it can be stated that
beside the deficient boundary conditions, the qualitative representation of this complex engine and
system operation was quite satisfactory.


3.6 LIMITS OF DIESEL ENGINE LOAD ACCEPTANCE


During this numerical investigations, one question has raised: which is the limit value of
sudden load which can be reliably accepted by turbocharged diesel engine, enabling to the engine to
maintain his operation.

The figures 3.40 and 3.41 presents the results of numerical simulation for sudden load
acceptance of completely deloaded turbocharged diesel engine by application of ohmic electric load for
various loads of 25%, 50%, 75%, 80%, 90% and 100% of engine nominal power.

From the figures it can be noticed that diesel engine has reliably accepted loads up to the 80%
of engine nominal power without going out of operation. The loads of 25 and 50% were accepted
without remarkable difficulties. The change in engine kinetic energy was sufficient to cover the engine
power shortage during the load acceptance. During the acceptation of higher loads of 75% and 80% of
engine nominal power, engine speed was reduced, so the diesel engine has to increase his power
higher than engine load to recover engine speed (to recover the lack of consumed kinetic energy
during load acceptance) and to reach the new steady state speed.

Sudden loads of 90% and 100% engine has not accepted reliably and engine was dropped out
of operation.

The figure 3.42 presents the changes of engine power depending to engine speed during
sudden load acceptance. The loads of 25% and 50% were accepted by turbocharged diesel engine in
the same mode as it would do one naturally aspirated diesel engine. As it is possible to see from the
figure, the limiting value of such mode of sudden load acceptance was at about 2750 kW,
corresponding to 62.5% of engine nominal power. Any higher load is accepted by remarkable reduction
of engine speed and the necessity to subsequently recovering of the engine speed. The sudden load is
now higher than the power that can be developed in diesel engine without increase of charging
pressure. The lack of power has to be increased only by increasing turbocharger speed (that means
the charging pressure), what needs some time. This is evident from the curves for the 75% and 80%
load acceptance. At loads of 90% and 100% of engine nominal power, engine speed had fallen at the
higher rate than it was for the turbocharger speed (and charging air pressure) increase, so the engine
has dropped out of operation.

Engine power can be presented by equation:

P
n V p z
M
M s eff
·
30τ
( 3.5 )

As the piston displaced volume V
s
, engine cylinder number z and number of cycle strokes τ
are constant for given engine, engine power can be represented as:

P K n p
M M eff
· ( 3.6 )



111

























































Loading from 0 to 1100 kW (25%)
Loading from 0 to 2200 kW (50%)
Loading from 0 to 3300 kW (75%)

Fig. 3.40 Sudden load acceptance of turbocharged diesel engine
112

























































Loading from 0 to 4400 kW (100%)
Loading from 0 to 3520 kW ( 80%)
Loading from 0 to 3960 kW ( 90%)

Fig. 3.41 Sudden load acceptance of turbocharged diesel engine
113























Fig. 3.42 Change of engine power depending to engine speed during sudden load acceptance


As the prerequisite for the turbocharged diesel engine to accept the sudden load in reliably
fashion it is necessary that engine power has to be increased steadily (by assumption that the load
power is constant) during the transient up to the engine has reached his new steady state operation.
The necessary condition for this is:

dP
dt
M
> 0 ( 3.7 )

( ) d K n p
dt
M eff
> 0 ( 3.8 )
























Fig. 3.43a Values of equation (3.9) during load acceptance
114


n
dp
dt
p
dn
dt
M
eff
eff
M
+ > 0 ( 3.9 )

The figures 3.43 present the values of the equation (3.9) for the simulated diesel engine load
acceptances.
























Fig. 3.43b Values of equation (3.9) during load acceptance






















Fig. 3.43c Values of equation (3.9) during load acceptance


From the figures 3.43 it is evident that for the loads of 25% and 50% there is a power
increment and stabilization in the first seconds of transient. Engine power was sufficiently increased
only by addition of more fuel to engine cylinders. For the acceptance of loads of 75% and 80% it was
not sufficient to increase the fuel delivery only, so that after the first high values of the equation (3.9)
continue this slower engine power increase by increasing the charging air pressure, up to the time
115

instant when the engine speed has reached new steady state, when the engine power was reduced
(this is visible in negative values of equation 3.9) to meet the load power. In the figure 3.43c for 90%
and 100% load acceptance it is evident that after the first power increase and high values of equation
(3.9), very soon values drop to be negative what results in engine drop out of operation. From the
results presented in figures 3.43 it is evident that the rate of charging air pressure increase has very
important role in reliable load acceptance by turbocharged diesel engines.























Fig. 3.44a Values of equation (3.13) members during 80% load acceptance























Fig. 3.44b Values of equation (3.13) members during 100% load acceptance


The turbocharged diesel engine power can be presented by equation (Pucher /149/):

P
H V n p z
L R T
M
d s M vol IM eff
st IM IM
·
λ η
τ λ 30
( 3.10 )
116


If we assume that the air excess ratio λ and volumetric efficiency λ
vol
would be at constant
values during the turbocharger speeding, the approximate equation for engine power is:

P K n p
M M IM
·
2
( 3.11 )

The necessary condition for engine power steady increase is:

dP
dt
K n
dp
dt
p
dn
dt
M
M
IM
IM
M
· +
|
.

`
,

>
2
0 ( 3.12 )

n
dp
dt
p
dn
dt
M
IM
IM
IM
> − ( 3.13 )

In figures 3.44 the values of the (3.13) equation members are presented. The figure 3.44a
present the values for 80% load acceptance. It is evident that the engine speed decrease rate in the
first time instants was much higher than charging air increase rate. As the fuel rack has approached
his limit position, engine power was increased significantly and engine speed decrease rate was much
lower. Charging air pressure increase rate is higher than engine decrease rate, so the engine power
increase up to the maximum, when steady state engine speed was approached. In the case of 100%
load acceptance (fig. 3.44b) it is evident that the charging pressure increase rate was very low and
engine went out of operation.

In the figure 3.45 it is evident that up to the reaching the limit of fuel rack position the changes
in engine power can be predicted in a very simple manner, while all curves in this part of transient lies
very close. In this part of transient turbocharged diesel engine acts in the same manner as an naturally
aspirated diesel engine do. In the engine cylinders there is an air mass sufficient to combust certain
amount of injected fuel. If this amount of fuel is sufficient to meet the required engine power, engine
transient is very similar to the transient of naturally aspirated diesel engine. This mode of operation has
resulted in early papers to treat turbocharged diesel engine transient in the same manner as the
transient in naturally aspirated engines, relating engine power only to the fuel rack position.

























Fig. 3.45 Changes of engine power depending to fuel rack position during load acceptance


117


























Fig. 3.46 Changes of engine power depending to charging air pressure during load acceptance
























Fig. 3.47 Changes in engine power depending to mean exhaust gas pressure before turbine
during load acceptance


Discrepancies are met when the load power is higher than the power reached only by injected
fuel increase, while for the further engine power increase it is necessary to increase the in-cylinder air
mass by increasing the charging air pressure. That means that turbocharger speed has to be
increased, what needs some time. This is evident in the figure 3.46 where the changes of engine
power depending to the charging air pressure are presented. In the curves for loads of 90% and 100%
it is evident the engine power decrease with increasing the charging air pressure due to very high
engine speed decrease rate. At the 25% and 50% load acceptance, engine power was increased very
118

fast and after some time the turbocharger has reached new steady state operation at constant engine
power. At 75% and 80% load acceptance, engine power was increased higher than load power to
enable engine speed recovery to new steady state speed. after the engine reaches the new steady
state speed, turbocharger continues to meet his steady state speed, increasing further the charging air
pressure (at constant engine power in the same time).























Fig. 3.48 Changes of turbocharger speed depending to mean exhaust pressure before the turbine
during load acceptance
























Fig. 3.49 Changes of charging air pressure depending to the turbocharger speed
during load acceptance


From the figure 3.47 it can be seen that the mean exhaust pressure before the turbine
increases together with engine power, but with some time delay. First part of increase is slow due to
the injected fuel increase and later due to the charging air pressure increase. Turbocharger start to
119

increase his speed only after the increase of the exhaust gas pressure (fig. 3.48). The increase of
exhaust gas pressure is in first part of transient very fast, while it continues with moderate rate due to
slow charging air pressure increase, as it can be noticed in the figure 3.50. The changes of charging
air pressure depending to turbocharger speed is evident from the figure 3.49 and do not show great
differences between curves for various load acceptance.






















Fig. 3.50 Changes of charging air pressure depending to the mean exhaust gas pressure before
turbine during load acceptance


Changes of the charger operation points mean values during various loads acceptance are
presented in the figure 3.51. it is evident initially charger flow increase due to lower exhaust gas flow to
the inlet manifold at higher pressure amplitudes in exhaust gas manifold. After this, an increase of
pressure and flow is evident, continuing up to the new steady state operation point. For the loads of
90% and 100% the curves bend to the surging line and cross this line entering to the instable surging
operation, what contribute faster engine drop out of operation.

The figure 3.52 presents the results of simulation of various loads acceptance to determine the
limit value. The two curves present the transient duration, needed to engine to pass from one steady
state to another one, and the dynamic speed change (according to the figure 1.2), depending on the
applied load. The diagram present also the limit of reliable load acceptance, while at higher loads
engine drops out of operation.

According to the recommendations in figure 1.3, the allowed limit value for reliably sudden load
acceptance for this turbocharged diesel engine with mean effective pressure of p
eff
= 15.6 bar is 50%
of nominal power. When we compare the obtained results of numerical simulations with the diagram
with recommended limit value (figure 1.3) it is evident that this engine would accept sudden loads of
75% of nominal power without difficulties, what is 50% higher than the recommended limit value.

When the diesel engine is in completely deloaded operation (for DG set conditions), in the
engine cylinders there is much higher mass of inducted air than necessary for injected fuel
combustion. Engine has high mass of reserve air needed to combust increased amounts of injected
fuel. As the engine is approaching (under steady state operation) the nominal power operation, air
excess ratio is decreased, what results also in lower air reserve. This fact explain the lower capabilities
of turbocharged diesel engine to accept reliably higher loads only by injected fuel increase, starting
from higher initial loads. This air reserve decrease do not present limiting factor, while at higher engine
initial loads there is lower the possible additional load (just to avoid engine overloading over nominal
power).


120




































Fig. 3.51 Changes of operation point in the charger performance map during load acceptance






















Fig. 3.52 Results of numerical simulations to determine the limit of the reliable load acceptance
for turbocharged diesel engine under investigation

121



The limit value for reliable load acceptance depends on engine design and it has different
values for various engines. For turbocharged diesel engines it depends on many influencing
parameters (as for example rotating masses momentum of inertia, turbocharger characteristics,
engine governor parameters etc.) Its influence is very complex and it is not possible to give simple
equations to predict this influences. Only experiment can substitute the application of numerical
modeling in predictions of this limit valued of reliable load acceptance.





















































122





4 ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCING PARAMETERS TO
TRANSIENTS OF TURBOCHARGED
DIESEL ENGINE DRIVING
SYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC GENERATOR




In the further investigations it is performed the analysis of influences of the most of
turbocharged diesel engine system parameters to the engine transients when driving synchronous
electric generator. As the basis for the comparison the described cases of diesel engine loading
(chapters 3.3.1 and 3.3.2) from 1000 kW to the 4000 kW, by switching on the ohmic or inductive load,
were used. This investigation is reduced to the most important influencing parameters of the system
diesel engine - turbocharger - engine governor.



4.1 INFLUENCE OF MOMENTUM OF INERTIA OF
DG SET ROTATING MASSES



The figure 4.1 presents the results of simulations for engine loading by ohmic electric load for
various momentum of inertia of rotating masses. The momentum of inertia for described normal DG
set was 4500 kgm
2
.

The calculated data for the DG set with 33.3% lower momentum of inertia (3000 kgm
2
)
resulted in drop out of operation. As the momentum of inertia was lower, the accumulated kinetic
energy content in rotating masses was also lower than for standard DG set. This has caused faster
engine speed decrease, resulting in faster engine governor response. This has resulted in faster initial
engine power increase. In the next phase it was necessary to increase the engine power to meet the
load power and to recover the lost kinetic energy by increasing the charging air pressure, what lasts
some time. Because of lower momentum of inertia, engine speed has decreased faster then it was
possible to increase the charging air pressure and the mean effective pressure. By lowering the engine
speed, the pressure of exhaust gases before turbine was lowered too, so the turbocharger speed
increase rate was not sufficiently high. This all has resulted in engine drop out of operation.

In the case of 33.3% higher momentum of inertia of rotating masses (6000 kgm
2
) the engine
speed was decreased much slower. The governor action in the first time instants was slower. As the
engine speed decrease was lower, the engine power has increased faster with increasing charging air
pressure. The exhaust gas pressure before the turbine is higher because of higher engine speed and
the turbocharger speed has increased faster. The resulting dynamic speed change was lower and
transient duration shorter than for normal DG set, what is very convenient from the sudden load
acceptance point of view.

From the results in figure 4.1 it can be concluded that at acceptance of sudden ohmic electric
load it is convenient to have large momentum of inertia of rotating masses. The value of momentum of
inertia has also the limiting parameters. Higher momentum of inertia presents difficulties when starting
diesel engine. Higher momentum of inertia means also larger masses and higher price, higher
transport and erection costs etc. From the figure 4.1 it is evident that the momentum of inertia of
rotating masses has great influence to the dynamic speed change and the transient duration. Lower
value of momentum of inertia puts more severe limits to reduce sudden loads which can be reliably
accepted by turbocharged diesel engine.
123
























































4500 kg⋅m
2

3000 kg⋅m
2

6000 kg⋅m
2


Fig. 4.1 Influence of the momentum of inertia of rotating masses of DG set to the engine acceptance of
ohmic electric load
124
























































4500 kg⋅m
2

3000 kg⋅m
2

6000 kg⋅m
2


Fig. 4.2 Influence of the momentum of inertia of rotating masses of DG set to the engine acceptance of
inductive electric load
125

Note: Symbols in figures 4.1, 4.2, 4.4 to 4.11, 4.13 to 4.19 denotes:
PGen - generator (load) power, PMot - engine power, nMot - engine speed, xR - displacement of fuel rack,
Lambda - air excess ratio, nTP - turbocharger speed, pL - charging air pressure, mL - air flow through charger,
pT - exhaust gas mean pressure before turbine, tT - mean temperature of exhaust gas before turbine


Values of transient characteristics for engine loading by ohmic electric load are presented in
the table 4.1.

The figure 4.2 presents the results for numerical simulation of engine loading by inductive load.
Calculations for various momentum of inertia of rotating masses have been performed, with same
values as in the case for electric ohmic load application. Differing from the previous case, it has not
been noticed greater difference in transient duration for various values of momentum of inertia. Only
the higher difference in dynamic speed changes has been noticed, which was higher for set with lower
value of momentum of inertia.

In the case of inductive loading by switching on an asynchronous squirrel cage electric motor,
driving cooling pump, the DG set having smaller momentum of inertia has a faster engine speed (and
electric frequency) decrease. By lowering the electric frequency the electric motor torque increases
(fig. 4.3) and the electric motor speeding is faster, enabling faster engine deloading when approaching
actual synchronous speed. Because of lower frequency, this speed is lower and electric motor
approaches this speed in shorter time. The absorbed engine power of the pump is lower at this lower
speed. The deloaded diesel engine starts to recover his engine speed increasing in the same time his
power to meet further increasing of pump power.
























Fig. 4.3 Influences of momentum of inertia of DG set rotating masses on
asynchronous electric motor speeding


In the cases of increased momentum of inertia, engine speed drop is smaller. As the
frequency drop was also smaller, the increase of electric motor torque was not so high as in the case
of smaller momentum of inertia. The time needed to electric motor to approach his actual synchronous
speed was longer, and the pump power when reaching this speed was higher.

The values of transient characteristics for engine loading by inductive electric load are
presented in the table 4.2


126
























































J
TC
= J
TC,0

J
TC
= J
TC,0
x 1.5
J
TC
= J
TC,0
x 2.0

Fig. 4.4 Influence of changes in turbocharger rotor momentum of inertia on
engine loading by ohmic electric load
127
























































J
TC
= J
TC,0

J
TC
= J
TC,0
x 1.5
J
TC
= J
TC,0
x 2.0

Fig. 4.5 Influence of changes in turbocharger rotor momentum of inertia on
engine loading by inductive electric load
128



4.2 INFLUENCE OF TURBOCHARGER ROTOR
MOMENT OF INERTIA



The engine power increase rate in the case of higher loads acceptance depends significantly
on the charging air pressure increase rate, which depends on thermodynamical and mechanical
parameters of the turbocharger. The momentum of inertia of turbocharger rotor has very significant
influence on the rate of turbocharger speed increase.

The figure 4.4 presents the results of numerical simulations of engine loading by ohmic electric
load for various moments of inertia of turbocharger rotor. It is evident that the 50% increased moment
of inertia lowers the rate of turbocharger speed increase. Turbocharger speed and charging air
pressure are increased slower than in standard diesel engine. This results in higher engine speed drop
and longer transient duration. Lower engine speed caused the slower increase of exhaust gas
pressure before the turbine, what has additionally prolonged the transient duration.

With the turbocharger rotor of 100% increased moment of inertia, diesel engine has not
succeeded to accept the load and it went out of operation, as shown in the figure 4.4.

From the results it can be concluded that the moment of inertia of turbocharger rotor has
significant influence, not only to the transient duration and dynamic change, but also to the limit value
of sudden loads which can be accepted reliably.

The figure 4.5 presents the simulation results for engine loading by inductive electric load for
engines with various moment of inertia of turbocharger rotor. It is evident from the figure that for all
cases the diesel engine has accepted the sudden load, even in the case of the engine with 100%
increase of moment of inertia of turbocharger rotor when compared to the standard engine. The
differences in dynamic speed changes are small, but the differences in transient duration are high.



4.3 INFLUENCE OF EXHAUST GAS MANIFOLD VOLUME



It is common that pulse charging is favored in diesel engine which are submitted to fast load
changes, to meet faster and reliable load acceptance. Smaller exhaust gas manifold volume, as
needed for pulse charging, can be filled faster by exhaust gases to higher pressures before the turbine.
The result of this higher pressure peaks is in faster turbocharger response and faster charging air
pressure build up.

The figure 4.6 presents the results of numerical simulations for engine loading by ohmic
electric load at various exhaust gas manifold volumes. The exhaust manifold volume of standard
engine was increased by increasing the manifold diameter, while maintaining the same length of the
manifold. By increasing the diameter, the flow speeds and the coefficient of convective heat transfer to
walls are lowered.

From the figure 4.6 it can be noticed that doubling of the exhaust gas manifold volume did not
resulted in significant changes in engine load acceptance. The dynamic speed change is a little bit
greater. The speeding up of turbocharger is slower. Temperature of exhaust gases before the turbine
during the load acceptance is higher than for standard engine.






129
























































V
EM
= V
EM,0

V
EM
= V
EM,0
x 2
V
EM
= V
EM,0
x 5

Fig. 4.6 Influence of exhaust gas manifold volume on engine loading
by ohmic electric load
130
























































V
EM
= V
EM,0

V
EM
= V
EM,0
x 2
V
EM
= V
EM,0
x 5

Fig. 4.7 Influence of exhaust gas manifold volume on engine loading
by inductive electric load
131



The increase of the exhaust gas manifold volume by factor 5 has resulted in significant
displacement of the diesel engine steady state operation point. Turbocharger speed is lower when
compared with standard engine. The air flow through the charger is lowered due to greater part of
residual exhaust gas in cylinders. higher exhaust gas content can be deduced from lower value of the
air excess ratio. Mean pressure of exhaust gas in the exhaust manifold is lower, and mean
temperature is higher, when compared with standard engine. After engine loading by switching on
ohmic electric load, engine power was increased very fast by injecting more fuel to engine cylinders.
Due to lower air reserve in cylinders, this fast power increase was lower than for standard engine. At
increased engine fueling, the amount of rest exhaust gases in cylinder was higher due to the return of
exhaust gases from the exhaust manifold. This is evident in lowered charger flow in first time instants
after loading, as can be noticed at engines operating with constant pressure turbocharging. As the
initial power increase was lower than for standard engine, the engine speed was decreased faster due
to higher power difference between load and engine power. The exhaust gas pressure increase is
slower due to lower mass accumulation in greater exhaust gas manifold volume, resulting in slower
charging pressure increase. As the rate of charging pressure increase was not sufficient, engine power
has decreased in the meantime and the engine went out of operation.

It is necessary to note that the turbocharger and valve timing in this simulation was the same
as in standard engine, and turbine was not selected for constant pressure turbocharging. By increasing
the exhaust gas manifold volume, the amplitudes of exhaust gas pressure pulsations are lowered, and
in the same time the span of operation point displacement of u/c
0
values in the diagram of turbine
characteristics, so the loops of operation points are located in domains with lower turbine efficiencies
(figure 3.22). Valve timing was not accommodated for this kind of operation. Both this conditions have
contributed to the faster engine failure to accept sudden load.

It can be concluded that the higher value of exhaust manifold volume has significant influence
on load acceptance capability and on the choice of optimal turbocharger. Greater exhaust gas volumes
are characterized by longer time delay necessary for pressure build up and by greater degradation of
exhaust gas kinetic energy, what contributes to long times to speed up the turbocharger rotor and to
increase charging pressure and causes longer duration of engine transient.

The figure 4.7 presents the results of numerical simulation of engine loading by inductive load
for engines with various volumes of exhaust gas manifold. The obtained results confirm the
conclusions derived for the case of ohmic electric loading. The duration of engine transient is longer
and dynamic speed changes is greater for the engine having greater volume of exhaust gas manifold.
For such engine the turbocharger speeding up is slower and the engine thermal loading is more
severe.


4.4 INFLUENCE OF EXHAUST MANIFOLD THERMAL INSULATION


To increase the thermal energy transferred by exhaust gases to the turbine it is necessary to
prevent thermal losses by heat transfer to walls of the manifold by using better thermal insulation.

The figure 4.8 presents the results of numerical simulation of engine loading by ohmic electric
load for engines with various wall temperatures of exhaust gas manifold. As the result of better or
worsened thermal insulation of exhaust manifold, the wall temperature was increased and decreased
respectively. Increase or decrease of wall temperature was done for 200 K (more than actually
possible), just to point the influence of thermal insulation.


From the presented results it is evident hat the better thermal insulation (higher wall
temperature) of the exhaust manifold enables faster turbocharger speed up, resulting in faster increase
of engine power and shorter duration of engine transient. Contrary to this, worsened thermal insulation
is resulting in longer times needed to turbocharger speeding and longer transient duration together with
greater dynamic speed change.

132
























































T
w
= T
w,0

T
w
= T
w,0
+ 200 K
T
w
= T
w,0
- 200 K

Fig. 4.8 Influence of thermal insulation of exhaust gas manifold on
engine loading by ohmic electric load
133


As it can be seen from the obtained results, better thermal insulation of the exhaust manifold
contributes to engine to accept sudden loads. The influence of thermal insulation in this engine is not
such significant when compared to other influencing parameters of the turbocharged diesel engine.



4.5 INFLUENCE OF FUEL DELIVERY LIMITS



As to prevent the diesel engine overloading and soot emission due to excessive fuel delivery to
engine cylinders, engines are equipped with devices to limit fuel delivery by limiting the fuel rack
displacement. This limit positions are usually fixed, but they can be also dependent on charging air
pressure (as it is the case with standard engine). In the case where the fuel rack limit position depends
on charging air pressure it is practically possible to maintain the minimum value of air excess ratio
approximately at constant values.

The figure 4.9 presents the results of numerical simulations of engine loading by ohmic electric
loads for engines with various fixed limit positions for fuel rack displacement. The fuel rack
displacement limit was set on 40 mm, 50 mm and 60 mm. The fuel rack position for standard engine
nominal power is 41.2 mm.

From the figure 4.9 it can be seen that for the case of fuel rack limit at 40 mm that the speed
drop is the lowest while the air excess ratio has not fallen under the value of 1, what was not the case
in limits at 50 mm and 60 mm. The combustion was complete in the first case. By increasing the
charging air pressure, the air mass inducted to engine cylinder and air excess ratio were increased.
The combustion could be complete for higher fuel quantities too, so the limit of fuel rack position
prevent to increase further the engine power. This becomes now the limiting factor, which results in
longer transient duration.

In diesel engine with fuel rack limit set on 50 mm the combustion at beginning of engine
loading was incomplete. The engine power increase was lower at beginning, so the speed decrease
rate was higher. By increasing the charging air pressure the inducted air mass in cylinders was
increased and the combustion becomes complete. More energy developed by combustion leads to
higher engine power and faster speed recovery. The transient duration was decreased when compared
with the case with fuel rack limit at 40 mm.

In the case of fuel rack limit at 60 mm, the combustion was initially incomplete and the engine
power was lower. Only after sufficient charging air increase inducted air mass was sufficient for
complete combustion, engine power start to increase. Caused by lower initial engine power and longer
time needed to sufficient increase of charging air pressure, the engine speed was lowered more than
in other cases and the duration of engine transient was longer than in the case of fuel rack limit at 50
mm.

The figure 4.10 presents the results of numerical simulation for engine loading by inductive
electric load for engines with same fuel rack limit positions as in the figure 4.9. The notes derived for
the case of ohmic electric load are of value also in inductive electric load acceptance.

By the analysis of results presented in figures 4.9 and 4.10 it can be concluded that it would be
favorable if we may be in position to maintain such one limit of fuel rack position to be in accordance
with charging air pressure, to enable complete combustion of increased fuel mass at higher charging
air pressures. This must be performed in such manner that the air excess ratio would not fall under
certain minimum values, when combustion start to be incomplete (to prevent thermal overloading of
engine parts and soot emissions in exhaust gases).

The figure 4.11 presents the results of numerical simulation of engine loading by ohmic electric
load for engines with fuel rack limiting devices maintaining various minimum values of air excess
ratios. Standard diesel engine was equipped with the device which limits the air excess ratio depending
on charging air pressure (figure 3.8) enabling the minimum air excess ratio of about 1.
134
























































40 mm
50 mm
60 mm

Fig. 4.9 Influence of limit of fuel rack position on
engine loading by ohmic electric load
135
























































40 mm
50 mm
60 mm

Fig. 4.10 Influence of limit of fuel rack position on
engine loading by inductive electric load
136
























































λ
min
= 1
λ
min
= 1.25
λ
min
= 1.5

Fig. 4.11 Influence of limit of minimum air excess ratio on
engine loading by ohmic electric load
137


From the figure 4.11 it is evident that the increase of minimum value of air excess ratio results
in the increase of the engine transient duration and engine speed drop during this load acceptance.
This is caused by lower heat developed by combustion of less fuel (higher air excess ratio means less
fuel) and in lower temperature of exhaust gas before the turbine. At air excess ratio minimum value of
1.5 the engine was not able to accept the sudden load and went out of operation.

The heat developed in combustion depends on injected fuel quantity and combustion efficiency
(which depends on global air excess ratio):

Q m H
m H
L
comb f d comb
c d comb
st
· ·
+
η
η
λ 1
( 4.1 )

The combustion efficiency depends on global air excess ratio (see the chapter 2.1.1.2). In the
numerical simulation was used the combustion efficiency according to Woschni and Betz /157/ with the
limit value of air excess ratio λ
RB
= 1.5 for limit of soot emission. The heat developed in combustion per
unit of mass of the combustion mixture is:

Q
H
L
comb
d comb
st
,1
1
·
+
η
λ
( 4.2 )

The figure 4.12 presents the heat developed by combustion of unit mass of the combustion
mixture of air and fuel. The limit values are presented too. from the figure it can be seen that the heat
developed in combustion is highest for mixture close to stoichiometric mixture (when air excess ratio is
close to λ ≈ 1. In such combustion conditions the heat added to engine cylinder is the greatest, but in
the same time an excessive soot formation will occur. This soot formation would not harm diesel
engine while the transient duration would be very short.



























Fig. 4.12 Heat added to cylinder gas by combustion depending on
global air excess ratio and the limiting air excess ratio
to prevent soot emission (λ
RB
= 1.1 ... 2.1)


138



4.6 INFLUENCE OF ENGINE GOVERNOR PARAMETERS


The standard diesel engine was equipped with mechanical PD governor completed by
hydraulic actuators. The governor differential equation is:

m
c
d x
dt
d
c
dx
dt
x K V n V
dn
dt
V
dP
dt
R
R
R R
R
R
R R M D
M
R
Cons
2
2
1
+ + · + + +
,
( 4.3 )

m
c
R
R
· ⋅

67771 10
4
. ( 4.3a )

d
c
R
R
· ⋅

3 2548 10
2
. ( 4.3b )

K · 530 ( 4.3c )

V
R
· −1 ( 4.3d )

V
D
· −0 001 . ( 4.3e )

V
R 1
0
,
· ( 4.3f )

Governor amplification factor V
R
determines the proportionality factor of engine speed
(equations 2.175 and 2.176) and speed change at steady state operation (table 1.1). this is the span of
diesel engine speed variation between idle operation and operation at nominal power. Lower value of
amplification factor will give greater changes in steady state engine operation, that means higher value
of the proportionality factor and greater change in electric current frequency between the full load
operation and idle operation. The allowed values of proportionality factor are determined by the class of
diesel generating set and they are presented in the table 1.1.

The figure 4.13 presents the results of numerical simulations for engine loading by ohmic
electric load for various amplification factors of engine governor. It is evident that the engine with least
value of amplification factor has greater difference in steady state speeds before and after load
acceptance. Greater difference in steady state speeds means greater difference in kinetic energy of
rotating masses which is available to diesel engine to help in load acceptance, enabling lower power
consumption when engine speed recovering. This conclusion is evident in curves for least value of
amplification factor.

The available difference in kinetic energy of diesel engine equipped with governor with higher
amplification factor is lower, so more of the engine power has to be consumed for engine speed
recovery. This results in longer duration of load acceptance transient.

From the figure 4.13 it can be seen that it is convenient, from the point of view of load
acceptance capability, that the governor has lower value of amplification factor. This amplification
factor must give the proportionality factor within allowed limit values for certain class of DG set.

The figure 4.14 presents the results of numerical simulations of engine loading by inductive
electric load for various governor amplification factor. It is evident that the duration of asynchronous
electric motor speeding up at lower values of amplification factor is longer due to higher values of
frequency (caused by higher engine speeds) when compared with standard engine. The electric
current frequency was higher and electric motor torque was lower during speeding to the synchronous
speed. Contrary to loading by ohmic electric load, speed recovery was slower and the transient
duration was prolonged (see the table 4.2). The transient duration for engine equipped with governor
having higher amplification factor was shorter.
139
























































V
R
= V
R,0
x 1.0
V
R
= V
R,0
x 0.5
V
R
= V
R,0
x 2.0

Fig. 4.13 Influence of the governor amplification factor on
engine loading by ohmic electric load
140
























































V
R
= V
R,0
x 1.0
V
R
= V
R,0
x 0.5
V
R
= V
R,0
x 2.0

Fig. 4.14 Influence of the governor amplification factor on
engine loading by inductive electric load
141
























































T
R
= T
R,0
x 1
T
R
= T
R,0
x 10
T
R
= T
R,0
x 20

Fig. 4.15 Influence of the governor time constant on
engine loading by ohmic electric load
142
























































T
R
= T
R,0
x 5
T
R
= T
R,0
x 10
T
R
= T
R,0
x 20

Fig. 4.16 Influence of the governor time constant on
engine loading by inductive electric load
143
























































V(dP/dt) = 0 mm⋅s/kW
V(dP/dt) = 0.001 mm⋅s/kW
V(dP/dt) = 0.005 mm⋅s/kW

Fig. 4.17 Influence of the governor feed back on generator load change on
engine loading by ohmic electric load
144
























































V(dP/dt) = 0 mm⋅s/kW
V(dP/dt) = 0.001 mm⋅s/kW
V(dP/dt) = 0.005 mm⋅s/kW

Fig. 4.18 Influence of the governor feed back on generator load change on
engine loading by inductive electric load
145























































V(dP/dt) = 0 mm⋅s/kW
V(dP/dt) = 0.001 mm⋅s/kW
V(dP/dt) = 0.005 mm⋅s/kW

Fig. 4.19 Influence of the governor feed back on generator load change
(only positive trends) on engine loading by inductive electric load

146

The reaction speed of the engine governor can be presented by governor time constant. This
time constant is presented by equation:

T
m
c
R
R
R
· ( 4.4 )

The figure 4.15 presents the results of numerical simulations of engine loading by ohmic
electric load for engines with governors having various time constants. To maintain the same degree of
relative damping, the damping coefficient was corrected too.

In the figure 4.15 it is evident that the increase of the governor time constant results in
increase of transient duration and engine speed drop. It can be noticed various rate of governor action
(in fuel rack position) for the same change in engine speed. For diesel engine it is convenient to be
equipped with faster governor (having lower value of time constant).

The figure 4.16 presents the results of numerical simulations of engine loading by inductive
electric load for engines with governors having various time constants. By comparison of curves for
various governor time constants it is evident that the influence of governor time constant for such
engine loading is very weak.

The engine governor is normally equipped with feedback in engine speed. When applying
sudden electric load to electric generator, the engine load rises very fast, followed by engine speed
decrease. The governor acts only after detecting the change in engine speed, when this speed was
lower than steady for this engine operation point. In the present time, governors are more and more
equipped with additional feedback in engine loading rate. The last term on the right side of differential
equation (4.3) describing governor dynamics, this member is governed by amplification factor V
1,R
for
this feedback. To detect the load change, the measurement of electric current change on generator
terminals was performed. Each change in generator current gives an sudden action of engine governor
on fuel rack.

The figure 4.17 presents the results of numerical simulation of engine loading by ohmic electric
load for various amplification factor of load rate feedback. There is no difference between the two
curves for various amplification factor, while the power change was so high that the fuel rack was in
limit position in both cases. As the electric load was constant, the action of load rate feedback member
ceases and further part of load acceptance was similar in both cases. When comparing with standard
engine, the engine speed drop was smaller in engines with load rate feedback and transient duration
was shorter too.

The figure 4.18 presents the results of numerical simulation of engine loading by inductive
electric load for various amplification factor of load rate feedback. It is evident very fast governor
response immediately at the start of DG set loading. At the time of engine deloading, when
asynchronous electric motor approaches the synchronous speed, the load rate feedback has resulted
in governor action by decreasing the fuel delivery to engine cylinders. Due to such action, all advances
sampled in faster initial action of engine governor have been loosed after the engine deloading. The
result is in even longer duration of the engine transient for higher values of feedback amplification
factor. On the other side, an governor instability had provoked instable engine operation.

To prevent this inconvenience, the correction of differential member in governor dynamics
equation (4.3) was made to the load rate feedback to act only at load increase. It is assumed the
governor load feedback action only at load increase. The figure 4.19 present the results of numerical
simulation of engine loading by inductive electric load for governor with load feedback only for load
increase. The engine transient duration becomes shorter and governor action is stable now.

From the figures 4.17 to 4.19 it is evident the convenience in applying the load rate feedback
member in engine governor. The author recommends the use of load rate feedback only for load
increase.




147

4.7 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCING PARAMETERS


The characteristic values of engine transients during load acceptance for variations of
influencing parameters are presented in table 4.1 for engine loading by ohmic electric loads and in
table 4.2 for engine loading by inductive electric loads. In tables there are indicated engine powers and
times for characteristic points of load and engine power changes. Time to start loading was in all cases
set to t = 0. In the last two columns of tables 4.1 and 4.2 the values of dynamic speed change δ
d
+
and
transient duration t are presented.

The figures 4.20 and 4.21 present the comparison of changes in dynamic speed change and
transient duration with values of standard engine.

The comparison of the results for various influencing parameters and for various arts of loads
gives an conclusion that the application of ohmic electric load is more severe than the application of
inductive load. As we have seen certain parameters have an positive influence when applied ohmic
electric load, but in the same time negative influence in applications of inductive load. Therefore it was
of value to investigate the parameter variations influence in both arts of applied load.

Between the investigated parameters the most significant influence on engine transient during
load acceptance have following parameters:

• moment of inertia of diesel generating set rotating masses,
• moment of inertia of turbocharger rotor,
• volume of the exhaust gas manifold,
• limits in fuel delivery to engine cylinders,
• amplification factor of engine governor.

Other parameters did not have such strong influence on engine transient.

At the end of this analysis it is necessary to note that this investigation was performed on
certain (selected) engine and the results could not be generalized on all engines. Each of investigated
parameters does not have simple influence, while acting together with a complexity of other
parameters influence. This analysis could be used as an orientation in predictions for other engines.
For accurate analysis of influence parameters for certain another engine, same investigation must be
performed for that engine.


4.8 POSSIBILITIES TO IMPROVE TRANSIENT CHARACTERISTICS
OF TURBOCHARGED DIESEL ENGINE DRIVING
SYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC GENERATOR


From the analysis of influential parameters on transient performances of turbocharged diesel
engine system it is deducted the recommendations to improve load acceptance. This
recommendations are presented in the figure 4.22. They serve to improve the sudden load
acceptance, reliability of this load acceptance and transient characteristics when applying high electric
loads.

The recommendations are grouped in five basic groups:

• recommendations to lower engine mechanical loses,
• recommendations to increase the available kinetic energy of DG set rotating masses,
• recommendations for faster increase of fuel delivery to engine cylinders,
• recommendations for faster increase of available air mass in engine cylinders,
• recommendations to achieve the highest possible heat by combustion in engine cylinders.


148






























































149






























































150



















































Fig. 4.20 Comparison of influences on parameter change of diesel engine
system parameters on the transient duration and dynamic
speed change for engine loading by ohmic electric load








151














































Fig. 4.21 Comparison of influences on parameter change of diesel engine
system parameters on the transient duration and dynamic
speed change for engine loading by inductive electric load













152






























































153




5 CONCLUSION



Reliable turbocharged diesel engine operation when driving synchronous electric generator is
the basic security precondition for safe and reliable electric power supply in all operating conditions of
diesel generating set. The possibility to control influencing parameters and to change their values to
achieve faster acceptance of sudden loads is still under investigation. This paper was intended to
contribute to the solutions of this important questions.

The complex zerodimesional model of real engine process for numerical simulation of steady
and transient operation of turbocharged diesel engine driving synchronous electric generator is
presented in the paper. Diesel engine system description is simplified by introduction of model
governing vector of control volume descriptors and matrix of volume connection descriptors. This
integer valued descriptors are used by computer program for engine system description, program
execution control and to control the creation of nonlinear differential equations system. Using this
descriptors it is possible to achieve computer program universality for applications in lot of diesel
engine designs without the need to change resource code.

The selected model is using the minimum number of accepted approximations, just to achieve
higher model differentiation and transparency. The described model offers the application of various
heat release rate laws, various correlations for ignition delay, for engine mechanical loses etc. The flow
between control volumes is done by using the "filling&empting" method. Turbine model comprises the
steady state characteristics, considering the ventilation losses in non-inflowed sectors. New mode of
description for compressor performance map using regression polynomials is presented and applied.
This enables very fast quasi-steady calculations for turbocharger transient operation.

The presented mathematical model enables the numerical simulation of diesel engine loading
by synchronous electric generator supplying electric grid to which various electric consumers are
connected. This consumers may be ohmic (resistive) or inductive (e.g. asynchronous electric motors).
Simple model for electric transient performances of electric system is included in the system model to
predict electric voltage drop, influence of the electric voltage and frequency changes on asynchronous
electric motor performances and the starting of connected electric motor.

Based on the mathematical model, the software program for numerical simulation is worked
out and implemented on personal computer. Differential equations system, describing the system
model, is solved using iterative integration by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg 4th order scheme and predictor-
corrector scheme (based on Euler-Cauchy method) with selective integration step. The solution
convergence to bring engine to desired steady state operation point is performed in the same manner
as it will be done for engine transient. All engine system components are brought to the steady state
operation point under strict control of engine governor. This enables very fast convergence of engine
parameters to the steady state values. When the engine reaches the steady state operation conditions,
the load changes are applied and engine transient is numerically predicted, leading the engine system
to the new steady state operation point (together with applied load).

The described model may be used to determine the most of parameters of the engine steady
state or transient operation, even in the early stages of engine system development phase. The
presented model enables also the detailed prediction of relevant parameters to use later in the
simplified engine transient models, based on idealized theoretical engine cycle as published by some
authors (just to achieve fast calculations for engine control purposes). This enables the adequate
predictions without the necessity for cumbersome and expensive testing on real physical engine
system.

The presented model for simulation of engine operation may be used with adequate, more
detailed model for electrical system simulation, to investigate the transient operation of power systems.
This model can be successfully used also in other fields of turbocharged diesel engine applications, as
for example in ship propulsion, vehicle drive etc.
154


The described model was applied to predict transient operation of turbocharged diesel engine
driving electrical synchronous generator. The model has showed good capability to predict engine
steady state operation even in the start of application. It was achieved a good matching of calculated
and measured data of engine steady state operation in wide span of engine loads.

Numerical simulation of engine loading by various electric loads with detailed analysis of
engine parameters during load acceptance was performed using the presented model. There are
described all characteristic phases of load acceptance, together with the presentation of various
process variables. In separate numerical simulations are analyzed engine loadings by ohmic and
inductive electric loads respectively. Qualitative comparison with published measured data for the
same or similar engines indicate the satisfactory predictions. Numerical simulations were applied to all
characteristic sorts of diesel generating set transient operation, as for example engine start, loading
and deloading.

Using the presented model, the limit of sudden load reliable acceptance was determined. The
reliable sudden load acceptance for the turbocharged diesel engine under investigation was as high as
82% of engine nominal power, much more than recommended sudden load limit of 50% for the same
engine. The analysis points the importance of very fast charging air pressure rise when accepting
higher sudden loads. The criteria to evaluate the reliability of load acceptance by turbocharged diesel
engine was recommended.

In the analyzed application it was shown the universal applicability of the developed numerical
simulation model.

It was performed the analysis of most important engine parameters influence to the transient
performances of turbocharged diesel engine driving electric synchronous generator. The analysis was
performed separately for application of ohmic electric loads and inductive electric loads (asynchronous
electric motor driving centrifugal pump). There were investigated the influences of engine system
moment of inertia, turbocharger rotor moment of inertia, influence of fuel delivery limitations and
influences of engine governor parameters. It was shown that it was very hard to the turbocharged
diesel engine to accept ohmic electric load. The analysis has showed that the greatest impact on
engine transient performances have engine system moment of inertia, turbocharger rotor moment of
inertia, the volume of exhaust manifold (the art of engine turbocharging), limits in fuel delivery and the
amplification factor of engine governor.

Based on the performed analysis, recommendations to improve reliable acceptance of higher
sudden loads by turbocharged diesel engine are presented.

The author wishes to this paper to find his justification through applications in practical
problems.




















155






























































156






























































157



SYMBOLS


a Sound speed, m/s
a Coefficient
A Area, m
2

A
D
Flow area of turbocharger turbine diffuser, m
2

A
T
Flow area of turbocharger turbine, m
2

A
T,geom
Geometrical flow area of turbine, m
2

b Coefficient
B Coefficient, Constant
b
eff
Specific fuel consumption, kg/kWh
c Coefficient
c Stiffness coefficient in governor equation, N/m
c
0
Theoretical conversion speed, m/s c h
s 0
2 · ∆
c
m
Mean piston speed, m/s
c
p
Specific heat at p = const, J/(kg⋅K)
C Coefficient
C Heat capacity, W/K
d Diameter, m
d Coefficient
d Damping coefficient in governor equation, kg/s
F Force, N
f Frequency, Hz
h Specific enthalpy, J/kg
h Displacement, valve lift, height, m
H Specific kinetic energy of electric generator rotor, J/(V⋅A)
H
d
Fuel lower heat value, J/kg
I Index
I Electric current, A
J Moment of inertia, kg⋅m
2

k Heat transfer coefficient, W/m
2

K Constant
L Length, m
L
sp
Specific air consumption, kg/kWh
L
st
Stoichiometric air mass needed for fuel combustion, kg/kg
m Mass, kg
m Vibe's exponent
!
m Mass flow, kg/s
mC Compressor flow (in figures), m
3
/s
M Scale factor
M Torque, Nm
Ma Mach number
Nu Nusselt number
n Revolution speed, min
-1
, rpm
nMot Engine revolution speed, min
-1
, rpm (in figures)
nTC Turbocharger revolution speed, min
-1
, rpm (in figures)
p Number of electric generator pole pairs
p Pressure, Pa
p
eff
Mean effective pressure, Pa
p
ind
Mean indicated pressure, Pa
pC Charging pressure, bar (in figures)
pT Exhaust gas pressure before the turbine, bar (in figures)
P Power, W
PGen Power of electric generator, kW (in figures)
PMot Power of diesel engine, kW (in figures)
158

Pr Prandtl number
q Specific added heat, W/kg
Q Heat, J
R Gas constant, J/(kg⋅K)
R Electric resistance, Ω (active)
Re Reynolds number
s Speed slip of asynchronous electric motor
S Apparent power of electric generator, VA
t Time, s
t Temperature, °C
tT Temperature of exhaust gases before the turbine, K (in figures)
T Absolute temperature, K
T Time constant, s
u Specific internal energy, J/kg
u Circumferential speed, m/s
U Internal energy, J
U Voltage, V
v Speed, m/s
V Volume, m
3

V
R
Engine governor amplification factor, m⋅min
V
1,R
Engine governor load change amplification factor, m/J
V
s
Piston displacement, m
3

W Work, J
x Coordinate along the tube, length, fuel rack position, m
x Relative part of heat release during fuel combustion
X Electric resistance, Ω (inductive)
xR Fuel rack position, mm (in figures)
y Relative time of combustion
z Number of cylinders, Number
Z Number of exposed turbine sectors to gas flow
Z Effective electric resistance, Ω
α Convective heat transfer coefficient, J/(m
2
⋅s⋅K)
α Flow coefficient
β Relative amount of fuel combusted in "premixed" flame
δ Wall thickness, m
δ
st
Proportionality factor
δ
D
+
Dynamic engine speed variation for engine loading
δ
D
-
Dynamic engine speed variation for engine deloading
ε Compression ratio
ε Partiality of turbine admittance
η Efficiency
η Dynamic viscosity, Ns/m
2

κ Adiabatic exponent (specific heat ratio)
λ Air excess ratio
λ Heat conductivity coefficient, W/(m⋅K)
λ
cm
Ratio r/l of cranking linkage
µ Friction coefficient
ν Speed characteristic
π Pressure ratio
π Ludolf number (π = 3.14159....)
ρ Density, kg/m
3

τ Engine stroke number (= 2 or 4)
τ Nondimensional time
ϕ Delivery characteristic
ϕ Crank angle, degrees
ψ Pressure characteristic
ψ Flow function
ω Rotating speed, s
-1
(radians per second)

159




Indices and abbreviations

1.cr First piston ring
1pr One cycle in engine cylinder
A Air, charging air
aA Additional air
ad Admitted
aAiC After air cooler
AAR Additional air receiver
aC After compressor
AiC Air cooler
AM Asynchronous electric motor
amb Ambient state
aT After turbine
bAiC Before air cooler
bC Before the compressor
bT Before the turbine
c Cylinder
C Compressor
C,2 Compressor rotor outlet edge
CH Cylinder head
com Combustion
Con Connection
Cons Consumer
CP Combustion period
crm Cranking mechanism
CV Control volume
CW Cooling water
df "Diffusion" combustion phase
EC Electric consumer
eff Effective
ECh Exhaust channel
ECo End of combustion
EG Electric generator
EM Exhaust manifold
EV Exhaust valve
EVC Exhaust valve closes
EVO Exhaust valve opens
exh Exhaust, exhaust piping
f Fuel
F Filter
fil High pressure fuel injection line
Fp Fuel injection pump
Fr Friction
geom Geometrically
GV Generator voltage
gVT Turbine ventilation losses
gVTp Partial admission turbine ventilation losses
hf "Premixed" combustion phase
i Index
ICh Inlet channel
Id Engine idle state, idling
ID Ignition delay
IM Inlet air manifold
ind Indicated
InD Injection delay
inl Suction
int Internal
160

IVO Inlet valve opens
IV Inlet valve
IVC Inlet valve closes
j Index
k Index
leak Leakage
m Medium
M Engine
max Maximal
mech Mechanical
min Minimal
NL Nominal (full) load
o Nominal operating point
opt Optimal
pc Adiabatic compression
PA Phase angle
Pi Piston
pp Pump
r Relative
R Governor
RB Limit Bosch value for soot emission
red Reduced
ref Referent
res Resulting
s Isentropic
SA Starting air
SC Combustion start
SFD Fuel delivery start
SFI Start of fuel injection
syn Synchronous
sw Swirl
T Turbine
TC Turbocharger
Td Torsional damper
TD Turbine diffuser
tot Total
TW Turbine vanes
V Valve
VC Voltage control
vol Volumetric
VS Valve seat
vt Ventilation
w Wall


















161


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Regulations and recommendations

1. Lloyd's Register of Shipping, Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Ships, Pt. 5.3.1,
1984.
2. Jugoslavenski registar brodova, Točka 2.11.3
3. American Boureu of Shipping, Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vesels, Pt. 35.21.2, 1984.
4. Det Norske Veritas, Pt. E 300, 1977.
5. Verein Deutsher Maschinenbau Anstalten e. V. (VDMA), VDMA 6280, Blatt 1, 2, 3, 4 und 5,
1973.
6. International Standard Organisation ISO , ISO 3046/IV-1978
7. British Standard Institution BSI , BS 5514, Part 4, 1979.

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