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Cost Of Non Efficiency

Dr. Mohamed H. Helal

Egypt street lighting and Governmental buildings are consuming nearly 13 % from the total
generated electric power , only main roads are lighted with over task values while other urban
areas are still in need for public lighting , some main streets in Egypt are turned on at day time
and still no any action from authority to control this flood of wastes , Electric energy is
subsidized from natural gas cost to KW/h cost to overcome social barriers .
Egyptian Government authorized the ministry of Electricity and energy to deal with the situation
in order to minimize the present losses and to turn public lighting to more efficient system.
Egyptian Government has allocated a some of 240 Millions Egyptian Pounds to be spend within 2
years for energy saving street lighting programs, but with deeply disappointment , the Ministry
of Electricity and Energy that lacks of professional expertise didn’t follow any of the standards
basic criteria’s of lighting efficiency , instead they follow a wrong way that will lead to more
losses in future .
While the hole world is getting read of magnetic ballast for HID lamps Egypt will add more
magnetic ballasts to her roads ??
The Egyptian Ministry decided to replace the conventional 250W HPS lamps with 150W HPS
and still use magnetic ballasts ??
The fact reflects that the Egyptian Ministry is not aware of the problem that Egypt is facing and
that decision makers are too far from correct efficiency track , the case has two scenarios , one is
lack of efficiency and technology education , the other is personal interest that involves
promotion and marketing of efficiency disqualified products . 47000 Units of 150 Watt HPS
lamps with magnetic ballast will replace the present 250W HPS lamps and 60000 Units of 100
Watt HPS with magnetic ballast will be installed in side streets .
For non professional people the results is clear there will be 100Watt saving and maybe someone
will announce the results are great .
This article describes for non professionals the cost that Egypt will pay and the lost opportunities

150Watt HPS lamps with magnetic ballast

The high pressure sodium lamps of 150Watt has an initial lumen of 100 ~ 110 ( providing to not increase
the lamp power than nominated power )lamp lumen depreciation and lamp service life depends on
line voltage stability , when line voltage is fluctuating from rated voltage HPS lamps will give
different results all HPS manufactures will mention clearly that HPS lamps are sensitive to line
voltage fluctuation , lumen maintenance is related to that fact too .
Usually lamps life span are made at stabilized line voltage that is totally different than real life
and will not reflect the reality results , lamp voltage need to be between 90 ~ 100 Volt if exceeds
this limits lamp service life and efficacy will drop dramatically !!!
Lumen efficacy has to be tested for the circuit ( Ballast + Lamp ) not for the lamp , when add the
magnetic ballast the initial circuit efficacy will drop to 87 lumen /Watt , with an Ra of 22 a
correction factor of 68% need to be added to reach the usable light level = 59 Lumen/Watt and
when add the 25% average HPS lumen maintenance the final results is 44 Lumen / Watt and not
110 Lumen Watt as some marketing people will sell the product .
The scenario is not finished, this calculation is optimistic still , the fact is totally different and
viciously deceiving , some other consideration to be taken in order to understand :
Street Lights starts at same time during peak load ( 5 Pm in winter and 8 PM summer ) that will
create a line voltage drop ( 5% less in line voltage = 15~ 20 % less in light level ) while at late
night hours , line voltage will rise up to 235 ~243 Volt ,then we come to the sad reality that street
lighting in Egypt are consuming 30 ~ 35% at late night hours while they are giving 15% to 20%
less light when is needed in areas that power is dropping , ( see what will happened when line
voltage is higher than nominated voltage .
The Egyptian Electric Ministry will still do same mistake to compare the 250 HPS
with 150 HPS and not consider the 6 ~ 7 hour’s night losses .
Following are some comparison to show the difference between electronic ballast and
magnetic with same HPS lamp under different voltages scenarios ..

Comparison between Electronic and magnetic HID under different voltages

Electronic HID ballast at 220 Volt Total consumed power = 164.3W , lamp power is 150.3W
Lamp PF : > 96% --PF: > 99%--- THDI: < 10% Wave shape is sinusoidal
Electro Magnetic HID ballast at 220 Volt , Consumed Power is 171 Watt , Lamp Power is 151 Watt
Lamp PF = 83% Circuit PF = 88% THDi = 33.3% wave is distorted and light is non stable .
HID ballast at 256 Volt A/C lamp power is stable – power is 165W all parameters are Fine circuit consumes energy is
voltage is 94.6
Magnetic Ballast 150W sodium at 243V Volt Power factor is 88.8% Wave is distorted THDi = > 32% , Circuit consume
Watt lamp power is 192.7 Watt and Lamp Voltage is 122.5 V
HID Electronic ballast at 160 Volt , Ballast power , power factor , lamp performance is okay

Electro Magnetic ballast will not start ( needs minimum 196 Volt A/C for starting )
Electronic Soft start At 4 seconds start only 2.8Watt and 0.017Ampere
Magnetic start at 4 seconds 1.139Ampere at 222 Volt and 85Watt Power

Why Egyptian Government is using magnetic Ballast while EU decided

to stop the use of magnetic ballast and to replace with electronic???
The answer as I mention can be from lack of efficiency education or from corruption to market
disqualified products that consumes more energy and has no demands in other countries!
In my opinion, both are bad and requires immediate action from our political leaders, wasting of
Egyptian energy need to be stop by all means it concerns our future generations and the future of
Egypt . please refer to :

The main concern of Egyptian officials is the initial cost invested, tenders in Egypt are based on
lower prices with no respect for quality or life cycle cost or savings !!!
It’s a clear reflection of the silly routine that makes our Nation looses millions of US$ that we
could invest them in building our country and to educate our people ..
According to the following study for the only 47000 units or of the 107000 units as first face of the
project when compare electronic to magnetic will be at least 9 Million Egyptian Pounds savings
per year and 72 Millions of Egyptian Pounds during the project life cycle , there are at least 1.8
million units to be replaced , within coming years , maybe the picture is clear now !
For more information’s please contact Dr. Mohamed H. Helal