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LOCATION OF ONSHORE PERTH BASIN

INTRODUCTION OF PERTH BASIN


!

The onshore Perth Basin is bounded in the east by Darling


Fault and in the west by continental shelf. The size of Perth
Basin is 100,000 km2 and 45% of it is onshore. Thus major part
of the basin is in the offshore. The production activities
currently is more focused in onshore compared to offshore.
The main underlying concept in sedimentology is the concept
of uniformitarian. It means the event (sedimentation) that
happened in the past is the same as in the future.
There were four main principles fell under this process [2]:
"
"
"
"

Principle of Superposition
Principle of Horizontal Originality
Principle of Lateral Continuity
Principle of Cross Cutting relationship

References : Donald R. Prothero and Fred Schwab, Sedimentary Geology: An Introduction to


Sedimentary Rocks and Stratigraphy, W. H. Freeman (1996)

TECTONICS OF PERTH BASIN


!

Perth Basin is created from rift system and consists of mainly


continental clastic rock. The rift system suggest a divergent
boundary event took place in the past.
The tectonic pattern in Perth Basin is governed by Darling Fault
which controls the major basin development. The tectonic activity
begun in Early Permian and ceased in Early Cretaceous [1].

STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF PERTH BASIN

PERTH BASIN DIVISIONS


Main sub-basins (onshore, North to
South) [5]:

Irwin Terrace
Greenough / Bookara Shelf
Dongara Saddle
Dandaragan Through
Beermullah Through
Mandurah Terrace
Vlaming sub-basin
Bunbury Through
Collie sub-basin

SOURCE ROCKS
Type of rock suitable for source rock are claystone /
carbonate rock [4]
Mature source rock are widespread [3], same source rock
formation appears in neighbouring sub-basins
(principle of continuity)
Source rock sequence (youngest oldest)[1]
Otorowiri Formation (shale)
Cadda Formation (carbonate shale)
Cattamarra Coal Measures (siliciclastic & coal)
Kockatea Shale (shale sandstone)
Carynginia Formation (shale sandstone)
Irwin River Coal Measures (siliciclastic & coal)
Main source rock for oil Kockatea Shale [3] marine
environment period
Main source rock for gas Irwin River Coal Measures [3]
land environment period

OIL WINDOW
Hydrocarbons are generated by thermal maturation at temperature hotter
than 50C [4]Summary of Petroleum Prospectivity: Perth Basin
Geothermal gradient at 2.5C/100m [1]

>
Thick
sedimentary layer serve 
as main kitchen for hydrocarbon
generation
 
  
Dandaragan
Trough is an example of a large depocenter for sediments,

accumulating sedimentary layers up to 12km thick [1]
+
Oil windows
occurs along Permian to Jurassic sections


 
 

 
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RESERVOIR ROCKS
Requires good permeability for
hydrocarbon migration & good porosity
for hydrocarbon accumulation
Reservoir rock formation:

Yarragadee Formation
o Tight sandstone[3] (bad porosity)

Cattamara Coal Measures


o Coarse grain quartz sandstone[1] (good
permeability)
o Interbedded with coal seams[1] (source
rock)
o Fluvial and deltaic environment [3]

Eneabba Formation
o Porosity 16.2% - 19.8%[3]
o Permeability 1.8 18 mD[3]
o No source rock underneath

TRAPS
Majority of hydrocarbon accumulation is at the northern part of basin [1]
Tectonic history and timing has created various play type for hydrocarbon accumulation
Structural Traps
Trap generation timeline [1] :

Seal rock overlain


rock
Summaryreservoir
of Petroleum Prospectivity:
Perth Basin

Uplift due to tectonic compression




Creation
of tilted faults block due to right lateral movement from Darling Fault

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These events occurring in succession created play types at [1] :


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Permian-Triassic,
Jurassic anticlines (unfaulted)


Permian-Triassic
tilted faults
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Intraformation of shale-rich intervals


such in [1] :
Cattamarra Coal Measures3B3
Irwin River Coal Measures
Dongara Sandstone

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Stratigraphic Traps
Pinching of reservoir rock, overlain by
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LOCATION

Tectonic elements, onshore Perth Basin (from


Mory and Iasky, 1996 and Crostella and
Backhouse, 2000)[6]

OIL & GAS DISTRIBUTION

Location map, Dongara field[6]

STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY
!
!

!
!
!

During the Early Permian, the structural grain was dominated by the N - S
trending Mountain Bridge Fault and the E W trending Allanooka Fault[6]
In the Late Permian, minor uplift and erosion occurred on the Northampton
Block, which removed the Carynginia Fm. and part of the IRCM from the NW
part of the Dongara structure[6]
Uplift and erosion also occurred during the Early Jurassic, coincident with
renewed movement on the Mountain Bridge Fault[6]
In the Early Cretaceous, an inversion event, which severely deformed the
basin as a whole, caused another uplift and erosion[6]
The latest event imposed a strong NW SE left lateral grain and reactivated
the older faults and caused new faults to propagate, primarily in a NW SE
orientation[6]

DONGARA FIELD
Hydrocarbon Generation,
Migration & Accumulation
Process

HYDROCARBON MIGRATION

Oil filled fluid inclusions are present at the detrital quartz/quartz overgrowth boundary
and in fractures in detrital quartz in core samples from the top of the Dongara Sandstone.
Abnormal levels of oil-filled inclusions indicate oil was trap in the structure during quartz
overgrowth development. (8)
Augmentation on the northeast fault to the closure caused oil & gas to leak upwards into
the Arranoo Sandstone Member of Kockatea Shale. (Secondary migration) (8)
Gas migration (from IRCM/Kockatea Shale) filled the closure with gas, partially
displacing pre-existing oil accumulation. (8)
Oil leg is confined to the northern and southern flanks of field. No oil leg in the western
pool. (8)

Trap Mechanism

Accumulations in Dongara Sandstone, Carynginia Formation and IRCM reservoirs are


sealed vertically and laterally across bounding faults by claystones and siltstones of Lower
Triassic Kockatea Shale. (8)
Juxtaposition of Kockatea Shale and intraformational seals of the Carynginia Formation
across several faults that compartmentalise the Dongara field provide partial seals
between fault compartments. (8)
Kockatea Shale provides intraformational seal to the Arranoo Sandstone Member
reservoir. (8)
Diagenesis process of cementing during quartz overgrowth also traps the oil inside the
structure. (8)

Reservoir

Early Triassic Arranoo Sandstones minor oil and less than 1% gas reserves. (9)
Late Permian Wagina sandstone oil (3.5m) & gas (0.9-11m). Porosity: 20%
Permeabilitty: 100mD. (9)
Early Permian Sandstones of Carynginia Formation/ IRCM 5% gas. Porosity: 5.4-9%.
Permeability < 1mD (9)
Gas 96% methane. Oil waxy, 35 API. (9)

GINGIN FIELD

OIL & GAS DISTRIBUTION

Location map, Gingin field[6]

Beermullah Trough[5]

SEDIMENTOLOGY
!

Age Period: Quartenary period (Alluvial Ss)


Middle Late Triassic period (Lesueur Ss)[5]
Bassendean Ss, Yoganup Fm, Lateritic Ss,
Lancelin Fm, Undifferentiated Coolyena Group
overlies Undifferentiated Warnbro Group[5]
Cattamara Coal Measures consists of sandstone
with interbedded shale, siltstone and minor
coal which was deposited in a fluvial to deltaic
environment[6]

GINGIN FIELD
Hydrocarbon Generation,
Migration & Accumulation
Process

SOURCE ROCK
!

Gas & condensate - coal & carbonaceous


claystone of Early Jurassic Cattamara Coal
Measures. Gas generation occurred during
Tertiary. (8)
Oil (not available but most likely)
dominantly Terrestrial organic matter from
Cattamarra Coal Measures. Main
depocentre was mature for oil generation
in Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary. (8)
" Oil - Yarragadee Formation - best
Mesozoic oil-source rock for north Perth
Basin area (Stein et al. 1989)
" The formation is probably sufficiently
deeply buried in the relevant kitchen
area to have reached maturity.

TRAP MECHANISM

Hydrocarbon accumulations on the Cattamarra Coal Measures lenticular sandstone


reservoirs are sealed both vertically and laterally across faults within the closure by the
intraformational claystone, siltstone and coal. (8)
Sealing of individual sandstone reservoirs is dependent on thickness and juxtaposition of
the sealing horizons across the faults. (8)

HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATION

Cattamara Coal Measures has good reservoir potential with


porosity 23% and permeability up to 7870mD. (9)
Yarragadee with porosity up to 35% and permeability up to
3000mD. (9)
Gingin gas is predominantly methane (89.6%), ethane(2.0%)
and propane(1.7%). (9)

REFERENCES
[5] - Perth Basin Biozonation and Stratigraphy (
http://www.ga.gov.au/corporate_data/73734/Chart_39_Perth_Basin.pdf)
[6] - Atlas Of Petroleum Fields, Onshore Perth Basin (
www.dmp.wa.gov.au/documents/PERTH_FIELDSBKMK(5).pdf)
[7] Offshore Northern Perth Basin Well Folio
GA GeoScience Australia web page (
http://www.ga.gov.au/energy/province-sedimentary-basin-geology/
petroleum/offhshore-southwest-australia/perth-basin.html)
[8] Perth Basin Geological Review
GA GeoScience Australia web page (
http://www.ga.gov.au/energy/province-sedimentary-basin-geology/
petroleum/offhshore-southwest-australia/perth-basin.html)
[9] An Evaluation of the Hydrocarbon Potential of the Onshore Northern
Perth Basin Western Australia (
http://dmp.wa.gov.au/documents/
7._An_evaluation_of_the_hydrocarbon_potential.pdf)