You are on page 1of 5

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

Volume 6, Issue 8, Aug 2015, pp. 01-05, Article ID: IJCIET_06_08_001


Available online at
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JTypeIJCIET&VType=6&IType=8
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
IAEME Publication
___________________________________________________________________________

STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF
CONCRETE WITH WASHED BOTTOM ASH
PARTIALLY REPLACED FOR FINE
AGGREGATE
Prasanna.V
P.G. Student, Structural Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering,
Sathyabama University, Tamilnadu, India
A.Annadurai
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Sathyabama University, Tamilnadu, India
ABSTRACT
This paper was investigated on the possibilities of using Washed Bottom
Ash (WBA) and its influence in mechanical properties of concrete. The
experiment was done on normal strength concrete with grade chosen as M25.
In order to find mechanical properties such as Compression, Splitting tension
and flexure, Cubes, Cylinders and Prisms were cast respectively. Washed
Bottom Ash was partially replaced for fine aggregate in percentages of 10%,
20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by weight. The usage of WBA on normal strength
concrete was showed considerable improvement in compression and flexural
properties. All tests and discussions are elaborated better.
Key words: Washed Bottom Ash, Compression, Flexure
Cite this Article: Prasanna.V and A.Annadurai. Strength Characteristics of
Concrete with Washed Bottom Ash Partially Replaced For Fine Aggregate.
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 6(8), 2015, pp.
01-05
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JTypeIJCIET&VType=6&IType=8
_________________________________________________________________

1. INTRODUCTION
Concrete is the most extensively used material in structural areas across the world.
Concrete constitutes binder material l (cement), aggregates and water for mixing. Out
of the above, aggregates form the major constituent of more than 65% [1]. Power
plants generate coal ash, which has become an important issue both in economical and
environmental aspects. Traditional land fill option has become a environment hazard

http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp

editor@iaeme.com

Prasanna.V and A.Annadurai

because of the large production rate. Large amount of Fly ash has already been used
and being used in construction industries as a cement replacement material. Bottom
ash is collected at the bottom of the furnace as coarse sand to fine gravel sized
material. Basically, they are used as a structural fill in constructions [2]. The use of
bottom ash in normal concreting is a new dimension and a great boon to the
construction industry [4].

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
M.P.Kadam and Y.D.Patil [1] investigated on the usage of sieved coal bottom ash in
varying percentages for M35 grade concrete resulting an increase in strength in a
replacement of 20%. P.Sruthee and M.lalitha [2] studied experimentally on the
flexural strength of concrete with replacement of bottom ash in 10%, 20%, 30% and
40% and concluded that their flexural strength increased by 8% when sand was
replaced by bottom ash in about 30%.Ratchayut and Somnuk [3] investigated the
properties of self-compacting concrete with fine aggregate replaced by bottom ash in
percentages upto 30% out of which 10% proved to be optimum. P.Aggarwal and
Y.Aggarwal [4] carried out experiments on the effects of use of bottom ash as
replacement of fine aggregates. They concluded that workability decreased with
addition of bottom ash due to increase in water demand.

3. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
The materials that are used in this experimentation are explained better.

A. Cement
Ordinary Portland cement of grade 53based on IS 12269: 1987 was used as the binder
material. The specific gravity of cement was found to be 3.15.

B. Coarse Aggregate
Crushed angular granite of size 10mm- 20mm was used throughout the project as per
IS 383:1970.The specific gravity of coarse aggregate was found to be 2.67 and bulk
density of 1554 Kg/m3. Sieve analysis was done and fineness modulus was found to
be 7.20.

C. Fine aggregate
Sieve analysis was done on fine river sand under the guidelines of IS 383: 1970 and
sand was categorized under Zone II, with a fineness modulus equal to 2.865. The
specific gravity was found to be 2.54 and Bulk density of 1716.66 Kg/m3.

D. Washed Bottom Ash


In our case, Washed Bottom ash was obtained from thermal power plant, Chennai. It
is a non-combustible material obtained as by-product at the bottom of the furnace.
The physical and chemical properties of WBA is explained in the following Table 1.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp

editor@iaeme.com

Strength Characteristics of Concrete with Washed Bottom Ash Partially Replaced For
Fine Aggregate
Table 1- properties of WBA
Physical properties
Color

Chemical properties %
Silica (SiO2)

41 80

Bulk density
Specific gravity

Whitish grey to
Blackish grey
1140 Kg/m3
2.15 2.50

Alumina (Al2O3)
Ferric oxide (Fe2O3)

23 35
0.65 4.5

Fineness modulus

3-0 3-60

Calcium oxide (CaO)

2.80 -18.0

Magnesia (MgO)
Loss of Ignition

1.50 5.0
3.50

E. Water
Potable water as per the guidelines of IS 456:2000 was used throughout the
experiment.

F. Casting details
Casting was done with required materials in proper mix proportions. The mix
proportions were calculated under the guidelines of IS 10262: 2009. WBA was
partially replaced for fine aggregate in percentages of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%
by weight of fine aggregate. The specimens were prepared based on IS 516: 1999.
Cubes of size 150mm x 150mm x 150mm, cylinders of height 300mm and diameter
150mm and prisms of size 100 mm x 100mm x 500mm were taken. Concrete were
thoroughly mixed in dry state and then with calculated quantity of water. They are
then poured into specimen and compacted in three layers and are removed from their
moulds, 24 hours after casting. They are placed in fresh water curing tank and taken
on the day of testing. The mix proportions of control mix are tabulated below in
Table 2.
Table 2 Control mix proportions
Cement
(Kg/m3)

Fine aggregate
(Kg/m3)

Coarse aggregate
(Kg/m3)

WBA
(Kg/m3)

Water
(liter/m3)

440

755.55

963.40

200

G. Testing
Specimens were taken out of the curing tank on their 14th and 28th days for testing.
The specimen to be tested was taken out from the curing tank and dried for about four
hours. Its surface was cleaned for dust. Cubes and cylinders were tested on
Compression testing machine and prisms were tested on flexure testing machine.
Prisms were considered to be simply supported and loading setup was based on twopoint loading. The various results on 14th day testing are tabulated below in Table 3
and 28th day testing on Table 4.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp

editor@iaeme.com

Prasanna.V and A.Annadurai


Table 3 Testing done on 14 days
Compressive strength Split tensile strength Flexural strength
(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)

Mix ratio
Control mix
Mix1 (10% WBA)
Mix2 (20% WBA)
Mix3 (30%WBA)
Mix4 (40% WBA)
Mix5 (50% WBA)

27.76
27.82
26.68
24.43
23.67
23.10

5.12
5.27
4.83
4.47
3.65
3.12

5.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
3.0
3.0

Table 4 Testing done on 28 days


Compressive strength Split tensile strength Flexural strength
(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)

Mix ratio
Control mix
Mix1 (10% WBA)
Mix2 (20% WBA)
Mix3 (30% WBA)
Mix4 (40% WBA)
Mix5 (50% WBA)

33.67
34.79
32.64
31.46
30.67
28.32

6.78
7.13
6.96
6.45
5.78
4.83

7.0
8.0
7..0
6.0
5.0
5.0

40
30
20

14 days

10

28 days

0
control mix

mix 1

mix 2

mix 3

compressive strength

mix 4

mix 5

(N/mm2)

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

14 days
28 days

Control mix

mix 1

mix 2

mix 3

mix 4

mix 5

Split tensile strength (N/mm2)

http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp

editor@iaeme.com

Strength Characteristics of Concrete with Washed Bottom Ash Partially Replaced For
Fine Aggregate

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

14 days
28 days

control mix

mix 1

mix 2

mix 3

Flexural strength

mix 4

mix 5

(N/mm2)

4. DISCUSSIONS
From the 14 days testing in compression, Washed Bottom Ash imparts both positive
and negative effects on concrete. Addition of the above does not promote early
strength when added more than 20% by weight. While coming to 28 days, it provides
considerable strength when 10% WBA is replaced for sand. Regarding flexure, there
is considerable increase in early strength but strength does not increase rapidly within
28 days of testing.

5. CONCLUSION
The above investigation was concluded based on the test results obtained. The
Washed Bottom Ash can be effectively added to normal strength concrete in small
fractions between 0% and 20%. WBA has a great demand for water and hence, use of
admixture is highly advisable. Further, investigations may be done for above
parameters and specimen may be tested for 56 days and 90 days.

REFERENCE
[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]
[5]

M.P.Kadam and Y.D.Patil, The effect of sieved coal bottom ash as a sand
substitute on the properties of concrete with percentage variation in cement,
American journal of Civil engineering and Architecture, Vol 2(5), 2014, PP.160166.
Sruthee and M.Lalitha-Flexural behaviour of concrete using bottom ash as partial
replacement of fine aggregate, International journal of advanced Scientific
research and Technology, Vol 3, June 2012, pp 346-348.
RatchayutKasemchaisiri and SomnukTangtermsirikul, Properties of selfcompacting concrete incorporating bottom ash as a partial replacement of fine
aggregate, Science Asia 34 (2008): 087-095.
Effect of Bottom ash as replacement of fine aggregate in concrete by P.Aggarwal,
Asian Journal of Civil engineering, Vol 8, 2001, pp 49-62.
Mathiraja.C- Mechancial properties of concrete using bottom ash, manufacturing
sand and metallic fibers, International journal of Innovations in Engineering and
Technology.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp

editor@iaeme.com