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English Syntaxfor Spanish Speakers:

A Comparative Introduction
Concha Castillo

A 388254

PETER LANG
Bern Berln Bruxelles Frankfurt am Main New York Oxford Wien

Contents

Page
Preface
Introduction

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1. The Domain of Syntax


1.1 Introduction
1.2 Categories andfunctions
1.2.1 Subcategorisation
1.2.2 Functions of constituents
1.3 The mechanism of X '-Syntax: constituency and hierarchy
1.3.1. Functional projections
1.3.1.1 ThestructureoflP
1.3.1.2 ThestructureofDP
Exercise Section

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2. Declarative Affirmative Sentences (I)


2.1 Introduction
2.2 The merger of I and V: I-movement vs. V-movement
2.2.1 Lexical verbs and auxiliary verbs
2.2.1.1 The verbs be and have
2.2.2 Chainsofauxiliaries
2.2.3 Dummy do: emphatic declarative affirmatives
2.3 A comparison with Spanish
2.3.1 Spanish auxiliaries
2.3.2 Modal verbs in Spanish
Appendix Section
Appendix I. English verbal paradigms and the contents of
English I(nflection)

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Appendix II. English modal auxiliaries


Appendix III. References of non-modal auxiliaries
Exercise Section

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3. Declarative Affirmative Sentences (II)


3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Thematic properties
3.1.1.1 Ataxonomyof verbs
3.1.2 Case properties
3.1.2.1 Defective case-assigners
3.2 The order SVO and the VP-Internal Subject Hypothesis
3.2.1 Subject-raising
3.3 Expletive constructions
3.3.1 Dummy it: a typology
3.3.2 Existential sentences
3.3.3 Presentational sentences
3.4 The activation of the CP node
3.4.1 Topicalisation and focalisation
3.4.2 Locative inversin and predicative inversin
3.4.3 ThearticulationofCP
3.5 A comparison with Spanish
3.5.1 Non-ergative structures
3.5.2 Ergative structures
3.5.2.1 Existential structures
3.5.2.2 Non-existential structures
3.5.3 Topicalisation and focalisation in Spanish
Exercise Section

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4. Declarative negative sentences


4.1 Introduction
4.2 Negation as a functional projection
4.2.1 The structural position of NegP
4.2.2 The mechanism of do-support
4.2.3 Emphatic declarative negatives

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4.2.4 The verbs be and have


4.2.5 Negation and modals
4.2.5.1 Mixed modals
4.3 Not outside the verbal component: constituent negation
4.3.1 Negated constituent preposing
4.3.1.1 Theanalysis
4.4 Assertive, negative, and non-assertive quantifiers: the
systemof English indefinites
4.4.1 Non-assertive quantifiers and the relation of
c-comand
4.4.2 The tripartite system of indefinites: taxonomy and
characterisation
4.4.3 Generic or universal any
4.5 Co-occurrence of negative elements
4.5.1 Two Neg heads in a simple sentence
4.5.1.1 Adverbs and negation
4.5.2 Double negation
4.5.2.1 Two negative elements in a simple sentence
4.5.2.2 Two negative elements in a complex
sentence
4.6 A comparison with Spanish
4.6.1 The structural position of NegP
4.6.2 The structural position of negative quantifiers
4.6.3 Non-assertive quantifiers
4.6.4 The system of Spanish indefinite quantifiers: a
taxonomy
4.6.5 Other locations for the Neg head in Spanish
Appendix Section
Appendix I. English verbal paradigms
Appendix II. The semantics of English modals
Exercise Section

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5. Interrogative and Exclamative Sentences


5.1 Introduction
5.2 Abasic typology of questions

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'

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5.3 The phenomenon of T/-movement and the phenomenon


of inversin
5.3.1 Subject questions
5.3.2 Preposition stranding vs. pied-piping
5.3.3 Mltiple questions
5.3.4 Themechanism of fo-support
5.3.5 The verbs be and have
5.3.6 Interrogative negative sentences
5.4 TheCP-domain
5.5 yes/wo-questions
5.5.1 Tag-questions
5.6 f^A-questions
5.6.1 Echo-questions
5.6.2 A characterisation of w/?-items
5.7 Exclamative sentences
5.8 A comparison with Spanish
5.8.1 PFft-movement and inversin in Spanish
5.8.2 The CP-domain in subordnate clauses
5.8.3 The position of the subject
5.8.4 Spanish indefinite quantifiers
5.8.5 Spanish gw-items
5.8.6 Spanish exclamatives
Appendix Section
Appendix I. English verbal paradigms
Appendix II. The semantics of English modals
Exercise Section
6. Imperative Sentences
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The paradigm of the imperative
6.3 The structure of imperatives
6.3.1 Dummy do vs. the rest of verbs
6.3.2 Imperatives with a subject
6.4 Grammatical let
6.5 The subjunctive
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6.5.1 The syntax and contexts of use of the present


subjunctive
6.5.2 The syntax and contexts of use of the past
subjunctive
6.6 A comparison with Spanish
6.6.1 The structure of imperatives
6.6.2 The Spanish subjunctive
Exercise Section
Bibliography

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