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transformer topic 2

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THEORY

An alternating voltage applied at the primary winding causes

an alternating current which in turn produces an alternating flux in

core given by

m sint

...(1)

According to Faradays law electromagnetic induction, the

self induced emf is given by

b

g

e1 N1m sint 90

e1 N1

d

d

N1

m sint N1 m cos t

dt

dt

..(2)

From Eqn. (1) and (2) it may be noted that the self-induced emf

(e1) lags behind the flux ( ) by 90o.

Comparing Eq. (2) with the standard sinusoidal form [i.e. e =

EMsin at f], mamximum value of the induced emf is given by

EM = N1 m

E1

EM

2

N1 m

N1 m 2f

E1 = 4.44 f N1 m volt

(1)

where m is maximum flux in Weber.

Similarly E2 = 4.44 f N2 m volt

(2)

Equations (1) and (2) are called EMF Equation of

Transformer

TRANSFORMATION RATIO (k) :

1

TRANSFORMER

THEORY

E1 = 4.44f N1 m

E2 = 4.44f N2 m

Dividing, we get

E2

N2

E1

N1

Now

V1 E2 and V2 E2

E2

E1

V2

V1

output can be approximately equated

V 1 I1 = V 2 I2

or

I1

V2

I2

V1

K=

E2

E1

V2

V1

N2

N1

I1

I2

K < 1 for step-down Transformer

TRANSFORMER LOSSES :

The main losses in a transformer are COPPER LOSS

and IRON LOSS.

Copper loss :

In a transformer, windings are not ideal and every winding

has some resistance. The loss that takes place due to winding

resistance is called copper loss.

2

TRANSFORMER

THEORY

i.e. I12R1 + I22 R2 = (I12R1 + I22 R2) aH

From above equation we conclude that copper loss is

variable and varies with square of current.

Iron Loss :

Iron Loss consists of Hysteresis Loss and Eddy current Loss.

Hysteresis Losses:

Transformer Hysteresis Losses are caused because of the friction

of the molecules against the flow of the magnetic lines of force

required to magnetise the core, which are constantly changing in

value and direction first in one direction and then the other due to

the influence of the sinusoidal supply voltage.

This molecular friction causes heat to be developed which

represents an energy loss to the transformer. Excessive heat loss

can overtime shorten the life of the insulating materials used in

the manufacture of the windings and structures. Therefore,

cooling of a transformer is important.

Also, transformers are designed to operate at a particular supply

frequency. Lowering the frequency of the supply will result in

increased hysteresis and higher temperature in the iron core. So

reducing the supply frequency from 60 Hertz to 50 Hertz will raise

the amount of hysteresis present, decreased the VA capacity of

the transformer.

Eddy Current Losses:

Transformer Eddy Current Losses on the other hand are caused

by the flow of circulating currents induced into the steel caused by

the flow of the magnetic flux around the core. These circulating

currents are generated because to the magnetic flux the core is

acting like a single loop of wire. Since the iron core is a good

3

TRANSFORMER

THEORY

large.

Eddy currents do not contribute anything towards the usefulness

of the transformer but instead they oppose the flow of the induced

current by acting like a negative force generating resistive heating

and power loss within the core.

TRANSFORMER RATING:

kVA Rating:

During operation of a transformer power losses take place

in the windings and core of the transformer. These power losses

appear in the form heat, which increases the temperature of the

device. This temperature must be maintained below a certain

limiting value as it is always harmful to the transformer.

The output of a transformer is expressed in kVA (i.e. kilo

volt ampere). The rated transformer output is limited by heating

and hence losses in the transformer. i.e. copper loss and core

loss. These losses depend upon the voltage and current, and are

almost unaffected by the power factor of the load. Therefore, the

transformer rated output is expressed in kVA and not in kW.

At a zero power factor also (i.e. delivering zero power), a

transformer can be made to operate at rated kVA.

The kVA rating is given by

kVA

bg

E1 I1 FL

1000

where

bg

E2 I2

FL

1000

4

TRANSFORMER

THEORY

From kVA rating, we can calculate full load currents on

primary and secondary windings. This is the safe maximum

current limit which may keep temperature rise below its limiting

value. So,

bI g

bI g

1 FL

2 FL

E1

kVA rating 1000

E2

maximum values of currents that transformer windings can carry.

i.e. its the maximum load can be connected.

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