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TRANSFORMER

THEORY

EMF EQUATION OF TRANSFORMER

An alternating voltage applied at the primary winding causes
an alternating current which in turn produces an alternating flux in
core given by

m sint

...(1)
According to Faradays law electromagnetic induction, the
self induced emf is given by

b
g
e1 N1m sint 90

e1 N1

d
d
N1
m sint N1 m cos t
dt
dt

..(2)

From Eqn. (1) and (2) it may be noted that the self-induced emf
(e1) lags behind the flux ( ) by 90o.
Comparing Eq. (2) with the standard sinusoidal form [i.e. e =
EMsin at f], mamximum value of the induced emf is given by

EM = N1 m

Now RMS value of induced emf in primary winding is given by

E1

EM
2

N1 m

N1 m 2f

E1 = 4.44 f N1 m volt
(1)
where m is maximum flux in Weber.
Similarly E2 = 4.44 f N2 m volt
(2)
Equations (1) and (2) are called EMF Equation of
Transformer
TRANSFORMATION RATIO (k) :
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TRANSFORMER

THEORY

E1 = 4.44f N1 m
E2 = 4.44f N2 m
Dividing, we get
E2

N2

E1

N1

Now
V1 E2 and V2 E2

E2

E1

V2

V1

Considering transformer losses are negligible. The input and

output can be approximately equated
V 1 I1 = V 2 I2
or

I1

V2

I2

V1

K=

E2
E1

V2
V1

N2
N1

I1
I2

K > 1 for step-up Transformer

K < 1 for step-down Transformer
TRANSFORMER LOSSES :
The main losses in a transformer are COPPER LOSS
and IRON LOSS.
Copper loss :
In a transformer, windings are not ideal and every winding
has some resistance. The loss that takes place due to winding
resistance is called copper loss.
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TRANSFORMER

THEORY

Primary copper loss + Secondary Copper loss = Total Cu loss

i.e. I12R1 + I22 R2 = (I12R1 + I22 R2) aH
From above equation we conclude that copper loss is
variable and varies with square of current.
Iron Loss :
Iron Loss consists of Hysteresis Loss and Eddy current Loss.
Hysteresis Losses:
Transformer Hysteresis Losses are caused because of the friction
of the molecules against the flow of the magnetic lines of force
required to magnetise the core, which are constantly changing in
value and direction first in one direction and then the other due to
the influence of the sinusoidal supply voltage.
This molecular friction causes heat to be developed which
represents an energy loss to the transformer. Excessive heat loss
can overtime shorten the life of the insulating materials used in
the manufacture of the windings and structures. Therefore,
cooling of a transformer is important.
Also, transformers are designed to operate at a particular supply
frequency. Lowering the frequency of the supply will result in
increased hysteresis and higher temperature in the iron core. So
reducing the supply frequency from 60 Hertz to 50 Hertz will raise
the amount of hysteresis present, decreased the VA capacity of
the transformer.
Eddy Current Losses:
Transformer Eddy Current Losses on the other hand are caused
by the flow of circulating currents induced into the steel caused by
the flow of the magnetic flux around the core. These circulating
currents are generated because to the magnetic flux the core is
acting like a single loop of wire. Since the iron core is a good
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TRANSFORMER

THEORY

conductor, the eddy currents induced by a solid iron core will be

large.
Eddy currents do not contribute anything towards the usefulness
of the transformer but instead they oppose the flow of the induced
current by acting like a negative force generating resistive heating
and power loss within the core.

TRANSFORMER RATING:
kVA Rating:
During operation of a transformer power losses take place
in the windings and core of the transformer. These power losses
appear in the form heat, which increases the temperature of the
device. This temperature must be maintained below a certain
limiting value as it is always harmful to the transformer.
The output of a transformer is expressed in kVA (i.e. kilo
volt ampere). The rated transformer output is limited by heating
and hence losses in the transformer. i.e. copper loss and core
loss. These losses depend upon the voltage and current, and are
almost unaffected by the power factor of the load. Therefore, the
transformer rated output is expressed in kVA and not in kW.
At a zero power factor also (i.e. delivering zero power), a
transformer can be made to operate at rated kVA.
The kVA rating is given by
kVA

bg

E1 I1 FL
1000

where

bg

E2 I2

FL

1000

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TRANSFORMER

THEORY

(I2)FL = rating full load secondary current

From kVA rating, we can calculate full load currents on
primary and secondary windings. This is the safe maximum
current limit which may keep temperature rise below its limiting
value. So,

bI g

bI g

1 FL

2 FL

E1
kVA rating 1000
E2

Full load primary and secondary currents indicate safe

maximum values of currents that transformer windings can carry.
i.e. its the maximum load can be connected.