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One of the major issues of urban development is sustainability.

Environmental problems facing major

cities and medium and even small towns include ineffectiveness and inefficiency in water resources
utilization, massive and uncontrolled land conversion, land subsidence due to heavy building construction
and uncontrolled underground water pumping, solid waste and liquid waste management which is beyond
the ability of most city and district governments and inadequate green open spaces.
The pattern of ribbon development (sprawl) in urban areas has resulted in traffic congestion along the
main arterial roads as well as a longer vehicle trip, which could emit more gas. The urban development
has to deal with the inadequate infrastructure and urban facilities.
Meanwhile, development of new towns, luxury apartments and super malls is increasingly sharpening the
dualistic socio-economic conditions in the cities, which in turn will lead to segmentation of urban space.
Another problem to address is violations of urban spatial planning for development of these activities for
several reasons, including an increase in regional revenue.

Seventh, in the euphoria of political reform many city and district governments suffer from the syndrome
of regional egoism. This includes inward looking, in which they do not see the city as part of the wider
region. Such a narrow viewpoint would be a constraint for urban development.
Today the need for the presence of inter-city cooperation for development purposes is even more pressing,
while their experience remains very limited. There is an urgent need for good transformative leaders who
can translate their broad vision into applicable development programs. Fortunately, there are only a few
regional heads with such qualities.

Djoko (menteri PU)

Demographically, Indonesia is the worlds fourth most populous country after China, India, and the
United States of America, with population of more than 230 million people, composed of more than 300
ethnic groups scattered throughout the regions. Almost 60 percent of the population resides in the island
of Java which only accounts for 7 percent of the area.
In 2008, for the first time in Indonesias history half of the countrys population resides in urban areas. By
2025 it is estimated that about 65 percent of Indonesias population or 180 million people will occupy
urban areas, primarily in 16 large and metropolitan cities.
Regrettably, such urbanization creates severe environmental degradation in urban areas, particularly in
large cities and their surroundings. The needs of space for shelter has led to substantial loss of green open
space and been generating unwanted development of slums area in every corners of the city. In addition,
the excessive demand for transport that grows beyond the existing network capacity has caused severe
traffic congestion, loss of productivity, and inefficiency of energy. Severe air pollution and water
contamination from domestic and industrial waste are also common in our cities.
This environmental degradation is compounded by the fact that millions of countrys population are still
in acute poverty with great deficit of basic infrastructure. Urban poverty remains a big issue for many
developing countries; they mostly live under substandard facilities without sufficient access to sanitation
and clean water infrastructure.
In terms of productivity, we know that global economy is experiencing a huge stress at the moment and
there is no single city in the world that is not linked to global economy. So do our cities. Major economy
capitals have, to some extent, marginalized the local economy, creating greater gaps between various
groups of community in our cities. Whereas, the small-medium enterprises (SMEs) and the informal
sector, account for almost 70% of city productivity, are left behind and tend to be marginalized.
In terms of global warming, climate change issue will certainly amount to further stress to our cities. Poor
communities will be hit first and hardest by climate change. Worse still, should the sea level increase by
30 centimeters by 2030, Indonesia is threatened to lose more than 2000 islands including some of its
coastal cities and most outer islands.
Politically speaking, since 1998, autonomy in the development policies has been transferred from central
government to local governments. The central government is no longer responsible for aspects other than
foreign policy; defense and security; religion; fiscal and monetary; as well as law and justice. These
political reforms led to major changes in the decision making process, not only from central to local, but
also from previously executive heavy to legislative from government to community and followed by
liberalization of all aspects in the administration system including the spatial development planning

Indonesia clearly needs a set of clear policies and programs if we wish to put urban development path into
the sustainability. This consideration brings us to consider a legal basis as top priority of our responses to
deal more effectively with rapid urban development.

For this purpose, several laws have been promulgated: the Building Law (28/2002); the Regional
Autonomy Law (32/2004); the Spatial Planning Law (26/2007); and the Disaster Management Law
(24/2007). But, apart from these laws, there are newly established sectoral laws, such as law on Water
Resources Management (7/2004), Road Development (38/2004), and Solid Waste Management (2007). In
terms of strategic urban policies, the Ministry of Public Works has also passed a National Policy and
Strategy for the Urban Development (KSNPP) in order to provide operational and sectoral basis for urban
related improvement and development programs.
These strategic laws and policies are mutually complementary, and evidently signify important steps in
urban policy reform in Indonesia. However, solid regulation and strict law enforcement are further
necessary in order to maintain urban development in the right direction.
The strategic vision of the policies in general is to achieve safe, comfortable, productive and sustainable
regional and urban development. Productive and sustainable means that development should provide
effective and efficient infrastructure to facilitate the production and distribution process of the economy to
increase added value, achieve community welfare and enhance competitiveness; while at the same time
provide better quality of environment not only for current generation but also for the future generation.

Facing these clear challenges today is timely us to rethink and reshape our urban development policies
and programs, taking into account as much lessons as possible from the past and the demand of the future.
Hence, to gear the path towards sustainable urban development through balancing economic, socialcultural and environmental dimensions, we will emphasis our efforts on several elements as follows:
First, capacity building for key stakeholders must be enhanced. By this, we mean to improve key
stakeholders awareness, education and training in the development, use, operation and maintenance of the
infrastructure and its related services.
Second, Indonesia firmly believes in active public participation since the initial stage of the urban
development process. Through this principle, urban development will not solely be measured by its
product, but also by its process from the early stage of urban planning.
Third, the solution for urbanization and poverty alleviation should also address its main source namely
the rural area. Rural areas, as the last resort in these urban decades, must be protected from continuous
massive conversion for the reason of urban sustainability.
Fourth, strong leadership and clear urban development policies are keys to successful urban
development. Within the urban policy framework, the global issues like poverty alleviation must be
appropriately addressed. Therefore, local governments should have a clear policy to protect the poor and
local informal economy
Fifth, climate change should be put in the mainstream of development policies, since it is no longer be
sufficiently driven should be put in the mainstream of development policies, since it is no longer be
sufficiently driven by environmental concern alone. Instead, we need positive actions based on
comprehensive and mutually-beneficial cooperation between developed and developing countries, like

Sixth, in compliance to the sustainability urban development plan should seek to engage multiple actors
from industrial, institutional and non-governmental sectors and provide opportunities to make them grow
in harmony. Urban community should therefore be empowered to promote community reliance to reduce
vulnerability and mitigate natural hazards in the disaster prone area.
Last but not least, we firmly believe that the future of urban development policies must also consider the
disaster mitigation and vulnerability reduction at the top agenda. This brings us to realize the
importance of a disaster-mitigation protocol which should be adopted by all cities in order to create more
safer and prepared cities.

Apart from the constraints and limitations, Indonesia has always been part of early adopter countries for
many global initiatives with regard to achieving urban productivity and sustainable development
Our local city governments, such as the city of Surakarta, in Java, has been very successful in developing
a pro-poor and informal sector protection policies. In the housing sector, we are trying to change the
slums into more civilized shelters by developing 1000 tower policy for what we called RUSUNAWA
(rented flat unit) and RUSUNAMI (owned flat unit). A housing finance policy has been formulated to
increase the urban poors affordability in the form of housing subsidy through banking and non banking
institutions. On top of this, since 2004 Indonesia Government has successfully managed to facilitate the
development of more than 360 thousands subsidized housing units that particularly targeted to the lowincome households in the urban area.
In terms of harmony with nature and environment, we have developed more parks and pedestrian friendly
environment in our cities like Jakarta and managed to preserve historical roots and soul of the cities in the
old town center like in Semarang, Sawahlunto and Sunda Kelapa (old Jakarta).
In order to improve urban mobility and accessibility of the public and to discourage the use of private
cars, we have supported local governments to improve the public transport facilities such as busway in
Jakarta and Bus Rapid Transit in Yogyakarta.
In order to be able to respond to this big challenge, we underline that reliable government, strong and
clear urban development policies, capacity building for key stakeholders and active public participation
are crucial elements that must be put in place.
In the future, these require more creative and innovative urban development practices towards
sustainability, then it is time to move onto implementation side of urban development agendas.

Waste Management System

The considerable numbers and the high growth of Indonesians population have increased
the volume of waste. Furthermore, the consumption pattern in the community have given
significant contribution in the production of various types of waste, such as, waste with
hazardous packaging and/or and not easily decomposed by natural processed.
So far, most of the people still consider waste as unusable remnants, not as beneficial
resources. In waste management, community still depends on end-of pipe approach i.e:
waste is collected, transported, and disposed to the waste final processing. While, waste
collection with huge quantity could produced methane (CH4) that could increase
greenhouse gas emission and it contribute to global warming. Natural processing could
decay the collection of waste and it needs a longer period of time with a great amount of
financial resources to process.
The end of pipe approach waste management should be changed by a new paradigm of
waste management. The new paradigm considers waste to have economic value and it
could be utilized as energy, compost, fertilizer and industrial raw material. Waste
management is carried out comprehensively from the upstream before it become a product
potentially will become waste. Up to the downstream or the stage where products were
used to produce waste, and it could return back to the environmental media safely.
The new paradigm of waste management is implemented with waste reduction and waste
handling. Waste reduction includes limitation activities, reusability, recycling, while waste
handling includes segregation, collection, transportation, processing, and final processing,
Article 28 H paragraph (1) of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia granted right for
every person to acquire good and healthy environment. The constitution gave
consequences to the government to provide public service in waste management. It also
bring about legal consequences that the government is the entity which has the authority
and responsibility on waste management, even though in the implementation, the government
could do partnership with business entity. In addition, waste organization
could also take part in the activities of waste management.
In the implementation of integrated and comprehensive waste management, fulfilling the
right and the responsibility of community, as well as the task and the authority of the
government and local government to provide public service, it is necessary to have legal
basis in the form of act. The legislation of waste management in this act is based on the
responsibility, sustainability, benefit, justice, awareness, togetherness, and safety, security,
and economic value.
Based on the thought as mentioned above, the issuance of this act is needed for:
a. legal assurance for people to acquire the service of good and environment oriented
waste management.
b. straightforwardness on the prohibition to bring in and to import waste to the area of the
State of the Republic of Indonesia;
c. orderly in the implementation of waste management
d. clarification of the task, authority, and responsibility of the government and the
regional government in the waste management, and
e. clarification of meaning between waste legislated in this act and waste as legislated in
the act on environmental management.

Open Green Space

Green Space Rules" in Spatial Planning Law

Response to urbanization is one of the important issues in the new Spatial Planning Law (Law
No.26/2007) and the law requires spatial plans of the cities to include plans on allocation and usage of
green space, network of public transport and foot traffic network and matters related to informal sector
(these are not always necessary in spatial plans of the regencies). Also the law stipulates that at least 30%
of the area of the city should be secured as green space (park, green path, cemetery, etc.) to which
responsible officials seem to be struggling in dealing with the task.
The spatial planning law requires that the planning, utilization and control of urban
space involve all stakeholders in the process, by applying the principle of efficiency
and effectiveness, transparency and accountability, which are principles of good
governance. This will be a new exercise for most of the local governments. There is
also a need to enhance the capacity of the city government to improve the
provision of public services and to deal with poverty.

Green Transportaion System

Indonesia's transport system has been shaped over time by the economic resource base of
an archipelago with thousands of islands, and the distribution of its more than 200 million people
highly concentrated on a single island which is Java.[1]
All transport modes play a role in the countrys transport system and are generally
complementary rather than competitive. Road transport is predominant, with a total system
length of 437,759 km in 2008. The railway system has four unconnected networks
in Java andSumatra primarily dedicated to transport bulk commodities and long-distance
passenger traffic. Sea transport is extremely important for economic integration and for
domestic and foreign trade. It is well developed, with each of the major islands having at least
one significantport city. The role of inland waterways is relatively minor and is limited to certain
areas of Eastern Sumatra and Kalimantan. The function of air transport is significant, particularly
where land or water transport is deficient or non-existent. It is based on an extensive domestic
airline network where all major cities can be reached by passenger plane.

Roads and highways

Transjakarta bud rapidtransit

A wide variety of vehicles are used for transportation on Indonesia's roads. Bus services are
available in most areas connected to the road network. Between major cities, especially on
Sumatra, Java, and Bali, services are frequent and direct; many services are available with no
stops until the final destination. In more remote areas, and between smaller towns, most
services are provided with minibuses or minivans (angkut). Buses and vans are also the primary
form of transportation within cities. Often, these are operated as share taxis, running semi-fixed
Many cities and towns have some form of transportation for hire available as well such as taxis.
There are usually also bus services of various kinds such as the Kopaja buses and the more
sophisticated Transjakarta bus rapid transit system in Jakarta. Many cities also have
motorized autorickshaws(bajaj) of various kinds. Cycle rickshaws, called becak in Indonesia, are
common in many cities and provide inexpensive transport. They have been blamed for
causing traffic congestion and banned from most parts of central Jakarta. Horse-drawn carts are
found in some cities and towns.
Due to the increasing purchasing power of Indonesians, private cars are becoming more
common especially in major cities. However the growth of the number of cars increasingly
outpaces the construction of new roads, resulting in frequently crippling traffic jams in large
parts in major cities especially in Jakarta, which often also happen on highways.
The AH2 highway is one of Indonesia's main highways. The other one is AH25 in Sumatra.

Indonesia has about 213,649 km of paved highways and about 154,711 km of unpaved
highways (As of 2002 estimate).
Indonesia has some highways, some of them are National Routes (25, currently only in Java),
and some of them are freeways. All the freeways are tolled (toll road). The most expensive is
the Cipularang Toll road that connects Jakarta and Bandung.
For land transportation (including trains), Indonesia will adopt an Intelligent Transportation
System (ITS) gradually since 2012. ITS Indonesia was formed in April 26, 2011

1.Energy Diversification
Existing Gas for Transport (CNG);
Bio fuel (Biosolar and Bioethanol) for motor
Waste Cooking Oil (BDF in Bogor);
LPG introducing this year.
2.Encourage the use of Non Motorized Vehicle
Development of Regulations
Development of pedestrian fasilities
Development of bike line
Development of facilities for disable person
3.Traffic Safety
Policy :
Increasing for transport user safety
1. Increasing for facilities and
infrastructure safety standar
2. Development of safety information
3. Supporting for partnership scheme

- Operating Urban Mass Transport,

* as a new transport mode,

* More comfortable (air
conditioned buses)
- New professional management
* Smart Card Ticketing System
* Scheduled Services
- Using Biofuel (Waste Cooking oil)

Operating Urban Mass Transport,
* as a new transport mode,
* More comfortable (air conditioned buses)
b. Operated By a Consortium Company
c. New professional management
* Smart Card Online Ticketing System
* Scheduled Services
* Public Private Partnership
* Local governments coordination

Peds. Facilities &
Integrated Network for
Pedestrians & NMV
Pedestrian Walkways,
Curbs, Peds-Crossing
Facilities for Diffable
People & Senior People
Electronic Road Pricing
Parking Management/
Car free day event
TTrraaffffiicc RReessttrraaiinntt
TransJakarta Busway
(Bus Rapid Transit)
Monorail Light Rail

Mass Rapid Transit
Maassss TTrraannssiitt
Pollution Emission Control
Air pollution in metropolitan and medium-size cities
has become a chronic issue as a threat to the urban
peoples health and economic. The problem is due
mainly by population concentration, a drastic increase
in traffic volume, exhaust emission from motor
vehicles, and industries.
In Metropolitan Cities, transport sector gives
proportion to air pollution about 60 to 80%, followed
by industry and household sectors.

4. The BLUE SKY Cities

Evaluation PROGRAM
Indonesian Clean Air at the year of 2020
Compliance of Ambient air quality
standard for SO2, NOx, CO, HC, PM10,
O3, Pb at least 340 days/yr that will be
achieved round about 2015
Improving urban air quality through
implementation of environmentally sustainable
transport policy
National Strategy and Action Plan for Urban Air
Quality Improvement a working document which
provides a basis for various institutions to implement
actions that directly or indirectly will improve urban air
- Cooperation with Vehicle Sole Agent Association and
Indonesian Industry Automotive Association :
* Jakarta - Bali Bio Premium Road Show, December
2007 (as a part of supporting UNFCC activities)

* Environmental Sustainable Transport to evaluate

and green city award (Blue Sky City Award)
- Industrial performance rating indicator (Proper
Program) for stationary sources
- Towards green Indonesia (MIH)

Access to housing and related services

Kebijakan dan Strategi Nasional Perumahan dan Permukiman (KSNPP)

Sumber: Keputusan Menteri Permukiman Dan Prasarana Wilayah Selaku Ketua Badan
Kebijaksanaan Dan Pengendalian Pembangunan Perumahan dan Permukiman Nasional (BKP4N)
Nomor : 217/KPTS/M/2002 Tentang Kebijakan dan Strategi Nasional Perumahan dan Permukiman

Access to basic health services

National policy on HIS, only been established in 2002, with the Minister of Health Decree
No. 511/MenKes/SK/V/2002. This document represents as a legal document concerning
Policy and Strategy on HIS Development. The document also includes all components as
members of HIS Networks. The link among components can be seen in the diagram of HIS
institution. However, the strategic planning and operational guidance as essential parts of the
document, has not been developed yet.
Private health sectors have less participation in the existing HIS. As a result, very little
data/information are generated from these sources.
This year (2007), NHIS online has been introduced as one of operational targets of MOH
new Vision and Mission. However, this initiative is in an early stage of implementation.
The HIS assessment result revealed that although there is legislation on HIS, it is not yet
strongly enforced. HIS strategic planning is still being developed.
Integration of information was inadequate. Overlap in the flow of information, poor analysis,
and duplication of reports, has caused reduced quality of information.
Co-ordination between National Bureau of Statistics and MOH has been in existence,
however, it was being done mostly in an ad hoc basis when issues of immediate intervention
were needed.
It was also noted that there is no regular meeting or assessment to monitor the achievement
of HIS and its sub-systems. At regional level, although instruments to monitor performance
of HIS including Health Systems performance are available, they have not been implemented

on regular basis.
Table below illustrates the summary of policy and planning result.
Policy and Planning Present but not adequate 48 %

5.1.2 HIS institution, human resources, and financing HIS institution
Diagram of Ministry of Health Organisation Structures with the Centre for Data and
Information as responsible unit to run the HIS, can be seen in the Annex 4
Diagram concerning the relation between all stakeholders committed in HIS, can be seen in
the ANNEX 6
HIS institution in the MOH by health administrative level.

National level
At National level, there is one specific unit responsible for HIS i.e. The Centre for Data and
Information. This unit is under the MOH Secretary General. Please refer to the Diagram of
Ministry of Health in the annex.
The unit has responsibility to develop HIS, information management, bank data development
and management, and monitoring and evaluation of HIS.
Apart from the above unit, every unit in MOH also has its own division dealing with data and
Province level
At Province level, the attachment of HIS unit varies from one province to another. It
depends on the local view of the importance of HIS. For example, some of them attached at
the Planning unit, while others are attached to Health promotion unit. This condition is due to
lack of technical guidance on how the unit should be integrated, therefore, resulting in
varying attachment of HIS unit.
District/ City level
The variation in HIS unit attachment is also found in the District/City level. The
implementation of Decentralisation in 2001, has also affected the information flow or
reporting system from District/City to Province level. The reporting system from
District/City to Province level is considered as voluntary, therefore it is not continuous.
Health services level
Although HIS is implemented at the health centres, there is no specific unit or personnel
responsible for the HIS. In the hospitals, HIS is implemented, but mainly for the purpose of
medical records and billing system. Human Resources
Human resources in HIS have not been of optimal quality. This is due to low appreciation of
the importance of information and therefore, human resources assigned to the unit were also
those of lower quality compared to those in other units. Less fulltime HIS personnel and
rapid turnover rate have also added to the existing problems.
In terms of quantity, there is a lack of the number of HIS personnel and some of them are
also representing as personnel of other health programmes.

Raising healthcare spending

However, a new health law passed in late 2009 commits the government to lifting its
health spending
substantially. The law is still being implemented, but it mandates that 5% of the central

budget and 10% of all provincial and district government spending be directed to
healthcare. The move is
not before time. When comparing government spending on health relative to GDP,
Indonesia is among the
lowest in Asia
Much of that spending increase will go towards
supporting a new health insurance scheme called
Jamkesmas. Set up in 2008, it is an expansion
of an existing scheme called Askeskin that was
introduced in 2004. Askeskin was targeted at
Indonesias poorest citizens, but has grown under
the new Jamkesmas format to include many of the
countrys near-poor, taking in 76m people, or onethird
of the population.
Other insurance schemes also exist, such as
Askes, a health insurance scheme for civil servants,
Asabri, one for the military, and Jamsostek
mandatory health insurance for employees at firms
with 10 or more staff. Nonetheless, the total number of people covered by all the
schemes is still less
than 50% of Indonesians, meaning that OOP payments continue to be unacceptably
high. Many of the
countrys workers are employed by small companies with fewer than 10 staff, or else
work in the informal
sector, and so are exempt from existing insurance cover.
In the coming years, the government intends to keep expanding Jamkesmas until it
covers the entire
population. The goal is widely applauded, but important questions remain, including
how best to roll out
the programme. For example, which segments of the population should be next in line
to join the scheme
and when? Just as important are questions over what package of benefits the scheme
should include,
what role the private sector will play in providing services under the scheme, and how
the government will
manage the escalating costs.

Access to basic education

The right of education for all in Indonesia has been mandated in some articles of the Indonesian
constitution. Article 31 the 1945 Constitution states that Every citizen is entitled to basic education
and the government shall be obliged to finance such education. Similarly, in article 34 of law 20 of
2003 on the National Education System, it is stated that The central government and local
governments shall guarantee the implementation of compulsory basic education at least to the level
of basic education without charging any fees. To fulfil this mandate, the Indonesian government
emphasises the implementation of the compulsory basic education program for all children. This is

also in line with the international agreement on the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which
has as a goal that all children by 2015, wherever, men and women, can complete their basic
Since it was launched in 1994, the implementation of the Compulsory Nine-year Basic Education
Program has had its ups and downs. At first, the government hoped that it would be completed by the
end of 2003. However, because of the effects of the financial crisis in 1998, the completion date was
shifted to 200809. Quantitative goals to be met, among others, are that the Net Enrolment Ratio
(NER) for elementary schools and, equally, that the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) for junior high
schools be equal to or more than 95 per cent.
In July 2005 the Government of Indonesia introduced the Free Basic Education policy
(FBE). Under this policy school fees are to be abolished in primary and junior
secondary school. Financed through controversial fuel subsidy reductions, the
objectives of the FBE policy are twofold. First, the FBE is to support the 9 year
mandatory basic education program by relieving the poor from education costs.
Despite strong improvements in school enrolment over the last 30 years, disparities in
education attainment between the rich and poor remain large, especially at junior
secondary level. In addition, the FBE is one measure by which the poor are to be
compensated for the subsequent increase in fuel prices.
The FBE school fee waivers cover the annual enrolment fee and all other monthly
fees. However, the FBE is a voluntary program, in that schools are left free in
adopting this policy. Those schools that adopt the FBE are required to exempt all their
students from paying school fees. In return, the schools receive block grants that
compensate for the reduction in revenue. Schools that do not opt for the FBE do not
receive the block grants.
There are two main arguments for reallocating energy subsidy funds into the
education sector. The first is that investments in education are generally considered to
be a key strategy for reducing poverty and transmission of poverty from one
generation to another.1 Many empirical studies have stressed the importance of
investments in human capital for increasing future productivity and economic
The second argument is a targeting issue. Public spending in education is likely to be
targeted more pro-poor than energy subsidies. Lanjouw et al. (2002) argue that the
poor will be the main beneficiaries of increased public spending on primary
education, and to a lesser extent for secondary education. Moreover, price elasticitys
of demand for education are generally higher for the poor then for the non-poor. 3 This
suggests that a policy of broad targeting, such as abolishing school fees, would indeed
be effective in increasing enrolment amongst the poor.

Migration Control

The transmigration program (Indonesian: Transmigrasi) was an initiative of

the Dutch colonial government, and later continued by Indonesian government to
move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less

populous areas of the country. This involved moving people permanently from the
island of Java, but also to a lesser extent from Bali and Madura, to less densely
populated areas including Papua, Kalimantan, Sumatra, and Sulawesi. The
stated purpose of this program was to reduce the
considerable poverty and overpopulation on Java, to provide opportunities for
hard-working poor people, and to provide a workforce to better utilize the natural
resources of the outer islands.
The stated purpose of the program, according to proponents in the Indonesian
government and the development community, was to move millions of
Indonesians from the densely populated inner islands of Java, Bali and Madura
to the outer, less densely populated islands to achieve a more
balanced population density. This would alleviate poverty by providing land and
new opportunities to generate income for poor landless settlers. It would also
benefit the nation as a whole by increasing the utilization of the natural resources
of the less-populous islands. The program may have been intended[according to whom?] to
encourage the unification of the country through the creation of a
single Indonesian national identity to augment or replace regional identities. The
official position of the Indonesian government is that there is no separation of
"indigenous people" and settlers in Indonesia, because Indonesia is a country "of
indigenous people, run and governed by and for indigenous people". It argues
instead for the use of "vulnerable population groups" which can include both
tribal groups and the urban poor

Conservation of cultural heritage

An example of such a program on building awareness is the Municipality Network of

Heritage Cities, or in short JKPI, a network consisting of 48 municipalities committed to
preserving historical buildings and landscapes in their cities. BPPI has assisted JKPI
since 2010 in e.g. organizing capacity building courses in various cities for government
officials. It will of course take several years for a substantial group of government
officials with awareness about heritage conservation to arise, but the first steps have
been taken.

The hope was expressed that the shared cultural heritage could be preserved and passed on to
next generations in good condition, without loss of value. Whenever possible, heritage objects
should be given a new use adapted to the modern age, and with that, a new lease of life

Tujuan Tahun Pusaka Indonesia 2013 adalah sebagai berikut:


Terus meningkatkan kepedulian masyarakat dan berbagai kalangan termasuk

pemerintah dan swasta dalam kegiatan pelestarian pusaka.


Menyiapkan strategi untuk pelaksanaan kegiatan pelestarian pusaka yang

mampu berperan untuk mensejahterakan kehidupan masyarakat.


Mendorong pelibatan PPP (Public Private Partnership) dalam pelestarian



Meningkatkan koordinasi dalam pelestarian pusaka di berbagai jejaring tingkat

lokal, nasional maupun internasional.



Tahun Pusaka Indonesia 2013 mengusung tema Pusaka untuk Kesejahteraan

Rakyat Heritage for Community Welfare.
pada tanggal 13 Desember 2003 diluncurkan Piagam Pelestarian Pusaka Indonesia (Charter
for Indonesian Heritage Conservation) oleh JPPI bekerja sama dengan Kementrian Pendidikan
dan Kebudayaan serta ICOMOS Indonesia. Piagam ini adalah sebuah piagam pelestarian
pusaka yang pertama kali dimiliki Indonesia.
In 2003, Indonesia Network for Heritage Conservation (INHC) in collaboration with
International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) Indonesia and Ministry of
Culture and Tourism in Indonesia Heritage Year 2003 (theme: Celebrating Diversity)
declared Indonesian Charter for Heritage Conservation 2003 which among other
shares the understanding that:
1. The heritage of Indonesia is the legacy of nature, culture and saujana, the weave
of two. Natural heritage is the construct of nature. Manmade heritage is the
legacy of thought, emotion, intentions, and works that spring from over 500
ethnic groups in Tanah Air Indonesia, singularly, and together as one nation, and
from the interactions with other cultures throughout its lengths of history.
Saujana heritage is the inextricable unity between nature and manmade
heritage in space and time.
2. Cultural heritage includes both tangible and intangible legacies;

3. Heritage, bequeathed from the generations that precede us, is the vital
foundation and initial capital for the development of the Indonesian nation in the
future, and for these reasons, must be conserved and passed along to the next
generation in good condition, without loss of value, and if possible with an
enhanced value, to form heritage for the future

The rapid physical development in the cities has put

great pressures to the historic urban areas. It has caused
deterioration, or even, loss of historic fabric. At present, those
problems are also being experienced by Surakarta, which is
popularly known as Solo, the second largest city in Central Java
Province. This city is chosen as a case study considering the
historical and cultural values that it has

Some historic inventories were completed, which were then

legally enhanced through the passing of the Mayors Decree
No. 646/116/I/1997, concerning the designation of historic
buildings and areas for conservation. There are seventy historic
buildings, monuments and urban sites that have cultural
significance to the city listed in the Decree and are protected
under Cultural Property Law. The cultural heritage is arranged
into six categories: 1) areas or districts, 2) traditional
buildings, 3) colonial buildings, 4) religious buildings, 5)
gates, memorials, bridges and street furniture, and 6) parks
and open public spaces.