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1. The relative volatility of A in a mixture with B is AB = 2.0. The equilibrium
vaporization ratio of B is KB = 0.7. (a) What is the value of BA? , (b) What
is the value of KA?
2. Consider equilibrium in the ternary system of benzene (1), toluene (2) and
o-xylene (3). Given: T = 393 K, P = 1.2 bar and x3 = 0.2. Is the system
completely defined?
3. (a) The overall mole fraction of benzene in a mixture of benzene and
toluene is zF = 0.3 at 1 atm total pressure and 95C. Then the mixture is
(i) a liquid (ii) a vapour (iii) a two-phase mixture. (b) What is the minimum
temperature at which a vapour of this composition can exist at 1 atm total
4. Water (1) and formic acid (2) form a higher-boiling azeotrope. At 1 atm
total pressure, the azeotropic composition is x = 0.409. Then which of the
following is correct? (i) 12 = 1, at x = 0.409 (ii) 12 > 1, at x = 0.617 (iii)
12 < 1, at x = 0.803 (iv) 12 < 1 at x = 0.205.
5. The relative volatility of A in a mixture of A and B is AB = 1.5. What is the
mole fraction of B in the first droplet of liquid condensed from an
equimolar saturated vapour mixture of A and B?
6. A binary totally miscible mixture forms a maximum boiling azeotrope at x
= xa. Two sets of equilibrium data points for the system are (x 1, y1*) and
(x2, y2*). If x1 < xa < x2, identify the correct inequalities. (i) x1 < y1* (ii) x2 <
y2* (iii) y1* > y2*
7. A mixture of compounds A and B forms a higher-boiling azeotrope at x =
0.75 at 1 atm total pressure. A solution of this composition has a bubble

point Tb and a vapour same composition has a dew point T d. Then: (i) Tb >
Td (ii) Tb = Td (iii) Tb < Td
8. Consider a mixture of 40 mole% benzene (1), 40% toluene (2) and 20% pxylene (3). The solution is approximately ideal. The following relative
volatility values are know 1 atm total pressure: 12 = 2.4 and 32 = 0.43.
(a) the value of 31 is (i) 0.18 (ii) 1.03 (iii) 5.58
(b) And the mole fraction of toluene in the equilibrium vapour at 100C is
(i) 0.688 (ii) 0.277 (iii) 0.743
(c) Given the values K1 = 1.67 and K2 = 0.688, the value of K3 is (i) 1.15
(ii) 2.43 (iii) 0.296
9. One mole of a solution of A and B (enthalpy = 900 kcal/kmol; x = 0.4) is
mixed two moles of another solution of the components (enthalpy = 1200
kcal/kmol, x = 0.8) Calculate the enthalpy and composition of the
10. A ternary solution of n-hexane (20 mole%), n-heptane (40 mole%) and noctane may be considered to be ideal. The equilibrium vaporization ratios
are: K1 = 2.25, K2 = 1.02, and K3 = 0.6 at 1 atm total pressure. The
solution is (i) below its bubble point (ii) saturated (iii) above its bubble
11. A student was asked to do flash calculation of an ideal mixture of four
components having an overall composition (in mole fraction) of w1 = 0.2,
w2 = 0.15, and w3 = 0.40. At the condition of the flash drum, the
equilibrium vaporization ratios were: K1 = 2.1. K2 = 1.02, K3 = 0.6, and
K4 = 0.2. The student reported that 38 mole% of the feed vaporized on
flashing. (a) Was the calculation reasonably correct? (b) What was the
value of relative volatility a43? (i) 0.33 (ii) 3.1 (iii) 0.4

Equilibrium in a binary mixture
Mixtures of n-hexane and n-octane form essentially ideal solutions. (a)
Prepare the bubble point, dew point and equilibrium curves (Txy and x
y plots) at 1 atm total pressure. (b) Calculate the values of the relative
volatility of n-hexane and n-octane in mixtures containing 10 mole% and
90 mole % hexane using vapour pressure equations. Do these values
suggest that the solutions may be ideal? (c) A solution of concentration x
= 0.2 is slowly heated. What is the composition of the initial vapour
formed if the total pressure is (i) 1 atm, (ii) 2 atm? (d) If a vapour of
composition as in part (c) (ii) above is cooled at 2 atm total pressure and
a differential amount of vapour is formed from the condensate, calculate
its composition. How can the quantities be calculated using the Txy
and xy data?
Bubble point/dew point calculation, ternary mixture
Calculate the bubble point of a mixture of 30% methanol, 30% ethanol and
40% n-propanol (all in mole%) at 1 atm total pressure. Also calculate the
dew point of a vapour of the above composition at 1.5 atm total pressure.
Assume ideal behaviour of the solution.
Equilibrium in a multicomponent heterogeneous system
A heterogeneous mixture containing benzene (0.025 gmol), toluene (0.025
gmol) and water (0.05 gmol) is heated slowly at 1 atm total pressure. The
vapour generated remains in equilibrium with the liquid. Calculate (a) the
temperature at which boiling starts, (b) the composition of the initial
vapour, and (c) the temperature at which vaporization is complete.
Use of enthalpy-concentration relations

The molar enthalpies of saturated liquid and vapour mixtures of A and B at 1

atm total pressure (reference temp. = 5C) may be expressed as: HL =
9000 + 1000x kJ/kmol; Hv = 35,000 + 8000y kJ/kmol. The relative
volatility is otAB = 1.8. (a) Calculate the molar heats of condensation of
saturated pure vapours of compounds A and B at 1 atm. (b) We have one
kmol of a liquid (x = 0.3, HL = 8500 kJ/kmol), and one kmol of a vapour (y
= 0.5, Hv = 40,000 kJ/kmol). What is the condition of the liquid
(subcooled, saturated or superheated) and the condition of the vapour
(saturated or superheated)?