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CONCEPT MATRIX: The Benefits of Renewable Energy for the Government.

TITLE OF ARTICLES
Optimal Renewable Energy
Systems for Regions

Socio-economic Benefits of
Wind Power in Brazil

THESIS STATEMENT/
CONTROLLING IDEA

Setting up renewable energy


structures for various regions.

AUTHORS:
As In-text citation

Kettl, Niemetz, Eder &


Narodoslawsky
(2014)
(Kettl, Niemetz, Eder &
Narodoslawsky,2014)

Wind power is the main


contributor for renewable energy
economic in Brazil.
Simas & Pacca(2013)
(Simma & Pacca,2013)

References

Objective of the study

Hypothesis

Methodology

Economic effects of renewable


energy expansion: A modelbased analysis for Germany
Economic applications of
renewable energy in Germany.

A review of the potential benefits


and risks of photovoltaic hybrid
mini-grid systems
Pros and cons of photovoltaic
hybrid mini-grid systems.

Electrification using Decentralized Micro


Hydropower Plants in North-eastern
Afghanistan
The status and impact of Micro Hydropower
Plants in Afghanistan.

Blazejczak, Braun, Edler &


Schill(2014)
(Blazejczak, Braun, Edler &
Schill,2014)

Hazelton, Bruce & MacGill


(2013)...
(Hazelton, Bruce & MacGill,2013)

Bhandari, Richter, Moller & Oswianoski(2015)


( Bhandari, Richter, Moller & Oswianoski,2015)

Kettl, K.-H., Niemetz, N.,


Eder ,M. & Narodoslawsky,
M.(2014).Optimal Renewable
Energy Systems for Regions,
Journal of Sustainable
Development of Energy, Water
and Environment Systems.,
2(1), pp 88-99,(2014),
http://dx.doi.org/10.13044/j.sd
ewes.2014.02.0008
To give the calculated
structure to renewable energy
framework era on a local level,
taking into record the
obligation of districts to give
products and administrations
to the bigger society and to
bolster urban focuses.

Simas, M., Pacca, S., Socioeconomic Benefits of Wind


Power in Brazil, Journal of
Sustainable Development of
Energy, Water and Environment
Systems., 1(1), pp 27-40, (2013),
http://dx.doi.org/10.13044/j.sde
wes.2013.01.0003

Blazejczak,J., Braun,F.G.,
Edler,D.& Schill,W.P. Economic
effects of renewable energy
expansion: A model-based analysis
for Germany, Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews
40(2014), pp10701080.

Hazelton,J., Bruce,A., & MacGill,I.


A review of the potential benefits
and risks of photovoltaic hybrid
mini-grid systems. Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews (2013)
pp 1-8

Bhandari, R., Richter, A., Mller,


A.&Oswianoski, R.-P. Electrification using
Decentralized Micro Hydropower Plants in
North-eastern Afghanistan, Journal of
Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and
Environment Systems., 3(1), pp 49-65, (2015),
http://dx.doi.org/10.13044/j.sdewes.2015.03.0004

To evaluate the social and


economic benefits of renewable
energy technologies specifically
the effect of wind energy
industry on the rapid growth of
job creation in Brazil.

To examine and evaluate the net


balance of economic impacts
related to renewable energy
application in Germany.

To present a preliminary review of


the existing literature to identify
claimed and demonstrated benefits
and risks of photovoltaic hybrid
mini-grid systems.

The main objective of this paper is to identify the


status of Micro Hydropower Plants(MHP) that
were installed mainly under National Solidarity
Program(NSP) in four North-eastern provinces of
the country: Badakhshan, Baghlan, Balkh and
Takhar .

Using regional renewable


resources lead to considerable
chances for increasing regional
revenue while cutting
ecological impact
dramatically.
The first method that was used
in this case study is the

No hypothesis

No hypothesis

No hypothesis

No hypothesis

Employment assessment has


targeted jobs created in activities

The net economic balance of the


various effects associated with a

A literature review was based on


selected papers from academic

This paper limits its scope of analysis only in


these four provinces mentioned above and only to
the MHP plants. The questionnaires were

Process Network Synthesis


(PNS) using the P-Graph
method. This method derives
maximum structures
(encompassing all feasible
structures fulfilling the given
boundary conditions) via
combinatorial rules using the
bipartite graph representation
of processes, arriving at
optimal structures (that
optimizes a given target
function e.g. value added
generated by the process
network) using a branch-andbound optimization routine.
The second method that was
used is The Sustainable
Process Index (SPI). This
index describes the aggregated
ecological pressure of a certain
process by the area needed to
embed this process sustainably
into the ecosphere, rendering a
kind of ecological footprint.
The SPI identifies the area
(Atot) necessary to embed a
life cycle providing a certain
goods or service sustainably
into the ecosphere. The life
cycle comprises all activities
from raw material generation
to the final conversion and,
when applicable, end use of a
product. A(tot) is calculated
according to:A(tot)=A(r)+A(e)+A(l)+
A(s)+A(p)

directly related to wind power


production. Employment in wind
turbine manufacturing, wind
farm construction, and operation
and maintenance (O&M) have
been quantified. All jobs are
quantified in jobs per year.
Employment data were obtained
through interviews with
companies from the different
activities. 20 representatives of
companies that act throughout
the whole life cycle of a wind
power project: manufacturing of
major components, transport of
equipment, construction and
installation, O&M, project
planning and management,
environmental agencies, and
industry associations have been
interviewed. Onsite data for 6
wind farms in operation and 4 in
different stages of construction
have been collected. The amount
of jobs occupied in the activities
have been calculated with the
following assumptions:
a.)For manufacturing activities,
the total employments at annual
full production capacity have
been divided by the maximum
amount of product.
b.) For construction activities,
the amounts of workers in
construction and installation for
a period of one year have been
normalized. The average
construction period was found to
be 18 months.
c.) For O&M activities, an
average of workers per mega
watts (MW) installed based on
operating wind power plants
have been considered. It

renewable expansion strategy is


obtained by applying model- based
scenario analyses. These model
include the SEEEM model that
describes a renewable energy
expansion in Germany and another
run with a counterfactual scenario
without any renewable
deployment. The second model is
the sectoral model for Germany. It
computes key variables, including
gross output, gross value added
and employment.

databases, online reports,


conference proceedings from the
largest industry conference focusing
on Photovoltaic Hybrid Mini-Grid
systems (PVHM)- the European
Conference on PV Hybrids and
Mini-grids, and the International
Energy
Agency (IEA) Photovoltaic Power
Systems (PVPS) Task 11 on PV
Hybrid Systems within Mini-grids.
This review focused on Project
Simulation and Operational
Experience papers as these were
deemed to be most relevant to
project implementation and system
ownership. The papers were
reviewed with an aim to identify
benefits and risks.

developed by the authors or under the direct


supervision of the authors. For the survey,
qualified local electrical engineers were hired and
sent to the villages with necessary knowledge and
equipment. They were trained on the data
collection and field monitoring procedure before
they went to the fields. The survey questionnaire
comprised altogether 47 points to support the
data analysis afterwards.

involves not only the workers


strictly responsible for O&M,
but also the ones responsible for
the maintenance of the facilities,
such as
security guards, cookers,
cleaners, and drivers

Results

From the result of the study


the authors have reported
according to the SPI and PNS
methods, wood will become
the base for heat provision in
the region which means that
all measures to mobilize wood
resources and establish energy
logistics for wood are safe
decisions for the region.
District heating should be
developed to capacity.
Photovoltaic as well as wind
and hydro power should be
developed to capacity.
Insulating all buildings to low
energy standards is necessary
to gain energy efficiency.
Biogas mobility shows great
potential in all scenarios; this
means that logistics for this
form of fuel as well as
measures to increase the car
fleet that may use bio-methane
as fuel are safe decisions for
the future. Thus, the results
have supported the hypothesis.

Authors Conclusion

From the result of the research,


districts will get to be the real
choice levels for the energy
change important in the 21st
century. Using renewable
resources to increase local
income while applying least
environmental weight will
dependably require mechanical

It has been assumed that for


simplification that the increase
of capacity in a year would
create, in the same year, the
related jobs in manufacturing,
construction and O&M. For the
first year of the project then, the
manufacturing stage would
account for 30% of total
employment generation, while
construction would sum up to
65%, and O&M, only 5% of the
jobs created. However, while
employment in manufacturing
and construction stages would
only occur during the first year
of the project, jobs created in
O&M will persist for the whole
lifetime of the projects, usually
for 20 years Between 2012 and
2016, wind power can create
almost 90,000 jobs-year
in manufacturing, construction
and O&M.

Overall, the model results reveal


that the deployments of renewable
energies lead to positive net
economic effects in Germany.
According to the model results, the
net employment effect in the
renewable energy expansion
(EXP) scenario is positive, but
small in magnitude. In 2010,
employment is about 43,000
persons greater compared to
NULL. These initial job gains,
however, decline over time, but
still remain positive. Stronger
economic activity and output
growth related to renewable
energy expansion, hence, do not
translate into major employment
effects. Instead, we observe a rise
in labor productivity that goes
along with the increase in the
Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Benefits of PVHM systems in the


research include improved
electricity service and lower
operating costs. Due to an
improvement to electrical services
customers may have demonstrated
greater satisfaction with energy
services and have been found to be
more willing to pay for the service.
Commonly identified risks of
PVHM systems include load
uncertainty, lack of effective
business models and power quality
issues.

The discussed survey gave an overview on the


current status of the installed MHP plants in the
four provinces studied. The following summary
has been drawn from the survey:
a.) Almost 80% of the Afghanistan population
still lack access to grid electricity supply.
Decentralized power plants, mainly those based
on hydro and solar resources, could play a vital
role to supply these people with electricity;

Results from the study show that


the estimated wind power
growth will generate over
80,000 jobs per year. To achieve
the benefits of job creation, the
national industry must be
strengthened and there must be
incentives for the consumption
of national inputs.

The expansion of renewable


energy in Germany has a positive
net effect on economic growth.
The main reason for this outcome
is increased investment activity.
Unlike previous studies which
only focuses on the gross
economic effects, authors of this
journal have concentrated on
evaluating the net economic

Photovoltaic Hybrid Mini-Grid


Systems in general are expected to
play a big role in providing rural
electrification, but there are few
obvious barriers in their application.
The most commonly identified
benefits are those that are easy to
measure like cost reduction and
provision of improved electrical

Rural electrification using micro hydropower is


important in Afghanistan villages, but it can
contribute to the local socio-economic
development effectively only when the use of
electricity is expanded beyond mere lighting to
entrepreneurial uses. This ensures also the
techno-economical sustainability of rural
electrification projects.

b.) If the large number of rural electrification


projects that have been installed in the country
were functional, would supply the electricity
needs of countrys 7% population.
c.) Most of the plants are not operated round the
clock, as there is no demand for electricity. Most
of the plants supply electricity for lighting. The
revenue from the power plants depends on the
electricity sales, thus idling the plants most of the
time is not economically sound. Additional
entrepreneurial demand should be created for the
electricity to ensure the necessary repair
maintenance of the plants whenever necessary as
well as to boost the local economy

Unifying theme
Keywords

frameworks as opposed to
outcomes by applying a fully
services. The major risks identified
integrated global economical
single advancements, taking
included incorrect system sizing
model that takes account of
into record the system and
due to load uncertainty, challenges
various interrelated economic
limit conditions coming about
related to community integration,
mechanisms, including trade,
because of the natural,
equipment compatibility issues,
competitiveness, and international
logistical, sparing and societal
inappropriate business models and
price effect.
parts of using renewable assets
risks associated with geographical
as examined in this paper.
isolation.
Renewable energy holds the potential to stimulate the economy, decrease the trade deficit and produce job opportunities across the globe ranging from manufacturing and construction to maintenance.
Process Network Synthesis,
RES, regions, Sustainable
Process Index

Wind power, employment, socioeconomic benefits, sustainable


development, renewable energy
technologies, local development

Electricity supply, Field survey, Hydropower,


Renewable energy, Rural electrification,
Productive use.