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NEWSLETTER

2015

Volume 29
Number 2

Who is at greatest risk in work zones:
WORKERS or drivers?
Rail transit: Sustainable development principals
Impacts AND DESIGN Alternatives FOR
Erosion AND Sedimentation control (E&SC) IN Highway Projects

SUCCESSFUL 4th Anniversary
DECADE OF ACTION FOR ROAD SAFETY: 2011-2020
Congratulations To UPRM Doctoral Student recipients of the
Dwight David Eisenhower Federal grant

UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO,
MAYAGÜEZ CAMPUS

Puerto Rico LTAP
www. prltap.org

PUERTO RICO TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTER

prltap.org

Vol. 29 No. 2, 2015

Who is at Greatest Risk in Work Zones:
Workers or Drivers?

4-5

Congratulations to UPRM Doctoral Student
Recipients of the Dwight David Eisenhower
Federal Grant

6-7

UPRM Outstanding Representation at 2015 TRB
Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C.

8-10

2nd Consecutive Year in which UPRM Students
Receive Prestigious Abertis Award in Puerto
Rico

10-11

Successful 4th Anniversary of the
Decade of Action for Road Safety: 2011-2020

Congratulations to UPRM Doctoral Student Recipients of the
Dwight David Eisenhower Federal Grant

12-13

Status of The DRIVE Act Implementation

13

Safety Village Rolling Park Visits the
Municipality of Mayagüez during the spring of

14

Rail Transit: Sustainable Development
Principals
Puerto Rico Transportation Technology Transfer
Center Participates in the Civil Mega Friday

Pages 6-7

3

Pages 12-13

Message from the Director

PAGE

Successful 4th Anniversary of the Decade of Action for Road
Safety: 2011-2020 in Puerto Rico

15-17

18

Pages 19-21

CONTENT

Source: http://ritewayfencing.com

2

Impacts and Design Alternatives for Erosion and
Sedimentation Control (E&SC) in Highway Projects

Vol. 29 No. 2, 2015

Impacts and Design Alternatives for Erosion and
Sedimentation Control (E&SC) in Highway
Projects

19-21

Know your Trainer: Dr. Walter F. Silva Araya

22

Safety Pledge

23

The Puerto Rico Transportation Technology Transfer Center is
part of a network of 58 centers through the United States that
comprises The Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP) and
The Tribal Technical Assistance Program (TTAP), which enable
local governments, counties, and cities, to improve their roads
and bridges by supplying them with a variety of training
programs, an information clearinghouse, new and existing
technology updates, personalized assistance, and newsletters.

prltap.org

EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.29 NO.2, 2015

3

Message from the Director

W

elcome!
My
best
regards to the great family of municipal and public
state officials in this second edition of the newsletter,
El Puente for 2015. We have redesigned the look of the
newsletter to emulate new trends. We want to be a
part of resource conservation by promoting an ecofriendly culture. The latter is in accordance with the
needs of this new millennium, and by this, the
newsletter, contributes to the creation of awareness
regarding future professionals in the engineering field.
The new image also represents our journey towards
the Puerto Rico LTAP Centers’ 30th Anniversary which
has provided excellence in technical assistance
services to local, municipal and state transportation
officials in Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin
Islands.
The featuring article of this newsletter is dedicated to
one of the third phase initiatives of Every Day Counts,
which is a collaborative work the Center has with the
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Smarter
Work Zones was selected as one of the initiatives to be
implemented in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
and the U.S Virgin Islands Department of Public
Works. This article seeks to present the risk workers
and drivers experience in work zones.
This issue of the newsletter includes articles of
initiatives that contribute to the workforce
development, highlighting the performance of our
future engineers, through programs such as the
Dwight David Eisenhower Fellowship Program and
Abertis Chair. We also emphasize the participation of
these future professionals, along with their advisors at
the Transportation Research Board (TRB) Annual
Meeting.

As spokesmen of the Decade of Action for Road Safety
2011-2020 in Puerto Rico, we reviewed events in
which the Puerto Rico Transportation Technology
Transfer Center has contributed to road safety
campaigns in Puerto Rico. As part of this initiative, we
include the celebration of the fourth anniversary of the
Decade of Action which is dedicated to saving kids
lives. We also include the impact of the Safety Village
Rolling Park visit to the Municipality of Mayagüez.
In addition, The Engineering Director of FirstGroup Plc.,
Clive Burrows, wrote an article which describes the
essential values for a sustainable system in a society.
Finally, Dr. Walter Silva Araya shares an article about
impacts and design alternatives for erosion and
sedimentation control in road projects. The section
Know your Instructor is also dedicated to Dr. Silva
Araya.
I hope the selection of the articles presented in this
edition will benefit my readers and other professionals
in the local transportation agencies in Puerto Rico and
the US Virgin Islands. The electronic version of the
newsletter is available in www.uprm.edu/prt2. I also
encourage you to contact us if you want to submit an
article or technical papers related to transportation for
future editions.

Benjamín Colucci Ríos

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Source: tti.tamu.edu

PUERTO RICO TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTER

Who is at greatest risk in work zones:

Workers or Drivers?

contractors have
reported at least a
crash or incident
involving motor
vehicles in work
zones during the
past year” -AGC

W

ork zone safety remains a priority for professionals in the
transportation field. Particularly, because these areas
generate a number of challenges in terms of safety for workers and
drivers. Construction, repair or installation of utilities on roads, are
considered one of the most dangerous activities in the construction
industry. The risk in work zone areas is evidenced by the annual
injuries and fatalities crash report. This situation is not only
experienced in the United States and Puerto Rico but also
worldwide. We should not forget that work zone areas are roads in
which a series of activities are conducted. These cause changes
either in the geometry, or in the alignment of the road and interfere
with vehicular flow, therefore, creating dangerous situations.
In work zone safety studies, workers have identified a number of
factors, such as speeding,
distracted
driving,
working close to traffic
flow and the process of
installing traffic control
devices or signs, as the
main risks they face on a
daily basis.
Source: www.modot.org/workzones/

“46% of

Every Day Counts Initiative—Smarter Work Zones

4

In a study conducted by
the Associated General Contractors (AGC) between March and
April of this year, it was revealed that 46% of the 800 contractors
surveyed have reported at least a crash or incident
involving motor vehicles in work zones during the
past year. Also, the study showed that 16% of the
workers have been injured and 9% have lost their
lives.

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It is important to emphasize that these incidents not
only, cause damage to the people and property but
also, cause delays to the development of projects.
These delays have adverse implications to the total
duration of a project and its cost. Contractors have
indicated that 26% of reported crashes in work zones
during the last year, have forced them to halt their
construction activities. Consequently, 48% of these
delays lasted two or more days, in which 26% of
them resulted in less than four days of delay, while a
33% of these were less than one day.
In addition, 80% of contractors believe that crashes
in work zone areas are more dangerous than a decade
ago. While 70% of contractors agreed that the
constant training of workers on safety measures in
work zone areas have helped maintain workers safe.
These outcomes have promoted efforts to identify
alternatives to help promote safety to workers and
drivers. Every Day Counts (EDC) initiatives in its 3 rd
phase has selected the technology Smarter Work
Zones
program to be implemented in the
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S.
Virgin Islands Department of Public Works. This
program has established two principle strategies to
minimize the impact caused by work zones to the
drivers and workers, such as road project
coordination and road technology, especially queue
management and speed management. Effective
traffic management is needed during active
construction activities to maintain accessibility to
residences, businesses, among others, while
complying with the stipulated time. To deal with
delays and car speeds, we need to use technology
involving Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS).

EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.29 NO.2, 2015

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Source: ww.roberttamayo.blogspot.com

Different
alternatives to deal
with traffic in
work zone areas
have
been
incorporated
in
different
states
such as Texas,
Dynamic Message Sign
California,
Georgia, Florida. Some technologies these states
have incorporated are Microwave Vehicle Detectors,
Automated Flagger Assistance Devices, Dynamic
Messages Signs, Variable Speed Limits, Queue
Detection
Information, among others.
These
technologies
provide
real-time
information to drivers
through audio, text or
web pages.
Source: http://trafic-innovation.com/en

Furthermore, the study showed that 41% of
contractors reported that drivers and/or passengers
were injured in work zone crashes during the past
year in 2014. While a fatality occurred 16% of the
time. Hence, it is considered that drivers and
passengers are at a greater risk of dying or being
injured in work zones roads than the workers
themselves.

The
Puerto
Rico
Highway
and
Transportation
Authority (PRHTA), is
currently evaluating the
implementation
of
different technologies as
Variable Speed Limits
part of Smarter Work
Zones efforts, on three
future projects, namely Baldorioty Express (PR-26),
the PR-18 and PR-30, and Highway PR-52.

As transportation engineering professionals, we are
encouraged to educate and promote awareness about
the importance of driving safely along work zone
areas, complying with traffic laws and recognizing
our responsibility to prevent work zone crashes. For
more information about EDC3 initiatives, you can
access the website http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/
everydaycounts

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PUERTO RICO TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTER

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Eisenhower Hispanic Serving Institutions Program

Congratulations to UPRM Doctoral Student Recipients
of the Dwight David Eisenhower Federal Grant

From left to right: Dr. Carlos Calero, Dra. Erika Jaramillo,
Dr. Benjamín Colucci and Dr. Carlos Gaviria

O

n June 12, 2015 The University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez
Campus held the 101th Graduation Ceremony. During the ceremony
21 doctoral degrees were awarded, nine in Civil Engineering in
which three of the PhD graduates were from the Transportation
Engineering Area.
At the same time, we recognize that four of the Ph.D. graduate
students were the recipient of the Dwight David Eisenhower
Fellowship Program, at some point during their graduate studies,
and completed their doctoral degree. The graduate students were;
Dr. Carlos Calero, Dr. Carlos Gaviria, Dr. Erika Jaramillo and Dr.
Víctor Uribe. During their academic years, these four students
presented their research and projects in different international
forums to complete the Eisenhower Fellowship Program
requirements. Below we will present a brief overview of their
research studies.
Dr. Carlos Calero’s research entitled Methodology for the
Evaluation of the Design Consistency of Two-Lane Rural Roads,
provided a new dependent variable in two scales for evaluating
geometric design consistency in two-lane rural roads. The new
dependent variable analyzed the horizontal curves by the 85 th
percentile of the speed differences between consecutive points of the

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horizontal curve (Δ85VBP) estimated by an Artificial
Neural Network. For
this variable, two
scales of assessment
were defined, one for
approach
and
departure
tangents,
and one for horizontal
curves sections. They
define three levels of geometric design consistency:
Good, Fair, or Poor. Calero’s advisor was Dr. Ivette
Cruzado.

medelhi.wordpress.com

On the other hand, Dr. Carlos Gaviria’s research entitled
A Computational Framework for Structural Monitoring
of Reinforced Concrete Structures, entails the
development of a computational framework for robust
structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure. This
framework identifies
modal and physical
properties
of
structures from noise
contaminated
signals, location and
quantification
of
damages caused to a
structure in response to an earthquake event. Dr. Luís
Montejo was Gaviria’s advisor.

EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.29 NO.2, 2015

Last but not least, Dr.
Víctor Uribe conducted the research entitled Use of Mass
Transportation to Integrate Pedestrian Path Features to
Work Travel, which determined the important elements
that people seek while traveling to work using the transit

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system. Knowing the importance of increasing the use of
transit system to reduce vehicle congestion and pollution,
will improve the people’s quality of life. Dr. Uribe’s
advisor was Dr. Alberto Figueroa.
Dr. Benjamín Colucci, UPRM program Manager, thanks
the Dwight David Eisenhower Fellowship program for
giving the opportunity to UPRM students to participate in
such a prestigious fellowship program.

Dr. Benjamín Colucci also acknowledges the Civil
Engineering and Surveying Department for supporting
this program for the last 21 years. Finally, the T² Center
family wishes the new transportation professionals the
best of luck in their future endeavors.
Additional information regarding the Dwight David
Eisenhower Fellowship Program can be accessed at
http://prltap.org/eng/?page_id=665.

http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov

In addition, Dr. Erika Jaramillo based her research
entitled Incorporating Safety into the Transportation
Planning Process, in adjusting statistical models used to
incorporate highway safety in the short and long term
strategic planning process. These models can be used to
forecast the rate of crashes for different planning and
conceptual design scenaRíos. They can also be used to
identify municipalities
with high crash rates
(crashes per kilometer/
per population/per year).
Dr. Jaramillo’s graduate
advisor was Dr. Didier
Valdés.

From left to right: Dr. Ricardo López, Dr. Carlos Gaviria,
Dr. Benjamín Colucci, Dr. Carlos Calero, Prof. Ismael Pagán,
Dr. Jairo Agudelo, Dr. Erika Jaramillo and Dr. Didier Valdés

PUERTO RICO TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTER

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UPRM Outstanding Representation on 2015
TRB Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C.
"It’s a fascinating
opportunity” Ivelisse Gorbea

2015 TRB Annual Meeting

8

T

he Transportation Research Board (TRB) celebrated its 94th Annual Meeting
from January 11th to 15th, 2015 in Washington, D.C. This conference brings
together more than 12,000 professionals from 70 countries. Around 5,000 technical
articles in 750 sessions and workshops were presented on the conference addressing
researchers and new developments in transportation at a global level, focusing on the
major topic of the meeting: Corridors to the Future: Transportation and Technology.
For the past 21 years the University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus (UPRM) has
had an outstanding representation and this year wasn’t the exception. The UPRM
participated with a delegation of professors, researchers and students, namely Dr.
Enrique González, Dr. Didier Valdés, Dr. Ivette Cruzado and Dr. Benjamín Colucci,
Director of the Dwight David Eisenhower Transportation Fellowship Program for
Hispanic Serving Institutions (DDETFP-HSI). The student delegation was composed
of Eng. Alex Bermúdez and Plan. Ivelisse Gorbea at doctoral level; Eng. Wilfredo
Cordero, Eng. José González and Eng.
Juan M. Rivera as graduate MBA
students; and Sionel Arocho at
undergraduate level.
Graduate
students
Bermúdez,
Cordero and Gorbea were the
recipients of the 2014-2015 DDETFP
-HSI.
UPRM Students and Professors
Meeting with TRB Participants

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Eng. Alex Bermúdez was selected to present a poster of his
research entitled Speed Variability along Horizontal Curves in
Two-Lane Rural Road in Puerto Rico. It focused on the
changes of the free flow speed in five points of the curve as
drivers are approaching, entering, crossing out and away from
the curve. Bermúdez emphasized that, "Speed depends on many
factors, including sight distance, geometric design,
environment, and human factors that determine how drivers
perceive the curve. Speed is greatly associated to road safety.
Higher speed variation increases crash frequency. The data was
collected at dangerous curves where recent crashes were
recorded, between the municipalities of Ponce and Mayagüez.
This was possible thanks to the data provided by The Puerto
Rico Police Department. A total of 56 curves were chosen in
both directions, which has requires a number of considerations.
The speeds were measured with the rubber tubes called Metro
Counts, followed by statistical analysis". It took him about six
months to approximately collect 165,000 paths at these 56
curves.
Eng. Bermúdez expressed the importance of participating at
The TRB Annual meeting and mentioned that, "You are
exposing the work you have developed to the best professionals
in the area of transportation. They help your research progress
and help you become aware of other fields that you have not
explored yet, allowing you to integrate these into what is your
study.”
Plan. Ivelisse R. Gorbea Class, licensed professional planner
and doctoral student in Transportation Engineering, was
selected by the TRB Technical Activities Division to offer a
presentation of her research entitled, Livability Index for
Transportation Infrastructure as Level of Service Measurement
of Urban Space: Principal Components Analysis and Livability
Index at Tren Urbano Corridor. This presentation was part of
The Doctorate Innovative Workshop in which selected
recipients of the 2014 Dwight Eisenhower Program presented
their research plan. Gorbea emphasized the importance to
identify specific policy actions regarding transportation systems
toward achieving livable places by following the principles of
sustainable communities established by the partnership between
the Department of Transportation, Housing and Urban
Development, and Environmental Protection Agency in 2009.
A thorough literature review allowed her to identify eight
livability indicators and twenty five variables based on the
importance of integrating transportation system and the
livability definitions and guidance established by the Federal
Highway Administration and the Environmental Protection
Agency. Gorbea developed a Livability Index in the Tren

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Urbano Corridor, in Puerto Rico using these livability
variables in a multilayered buffer of quarter a of a mile, half a
mile, and a mile surrounding the stations in the
corridor. Among the variables it included: accessibility to
transit by low income households, non-motorized travels,
walking travel to local transit, carbon dioxide emissions,
vehicle mileage per capita. For the latter, Gorbea used the
principal components analysis to measure the weights of the
normalized variables by Traffic Analysis Zone (397 TAZs in
the total corridor). She compared sub regions or stations’
clusters within the corridor to compare how the livability
conditions vary through the corridor and identify policies
toward improving these conditions.

At the TRB Annual Meeting Plan, Gorbea expressed that "It is
a fascinating opportunity to experience the diversity of subjects
at every level: from materials, safety policies, and to contact
people working in the most innovative trends in the industry. I
am so grateful to the Eisenhower Fellowship and the UPRM,
Civil Engineering Department, and I encourage transportation
students to participate.”
Eng. Wilfredo Cordero, also President of the Institute of
Transportation Engineers (ITE) - UPRM Student Chapter,
worked in a research entitled Consolidation Analysis of Bus
Stops in Puerto Rico of the Metropolitan Bus Authority. Eng.
Cordero mentioned that "It was an experience like no other! As
a graduate student in transportation, I got to understand and
comprehend how extensive and rigorous the transportation area
is. Having the opportunity to attend a vast number of lectures
on various innovative subjects gave me an invigorating energy
to continue learning
more and more. "
Also, the Institute of
Transportation
Engineers
(ITE)
invited the
ITE-UPRM Student
Ivelisse Gorbea with her Professors
Chapter and all other
and Colleagues after her
student chapters to
their headquarters, to
provide them the opportunity to exchange ideas and network
with ITE leaders and other student chapters nationwide.
The students benefited greatly by being exposed to
transportation problems in different environments and cultures.
On June 11, 2015, the UPRM recipients of the fellowship
presented their research results to professors, students, and
staff. Their final report was submitted to the DDETFP

10

PUERTO RICO TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTER

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Universities and Grants Program office. For more details on the Scholarship Program,
you can access: prltap.org, under special projects.

ITE-UPRM students with Dr. Benjamín
Colucci, TRB Representative of UPRM

2

nd Consecutive Year

in which UPRM
Students Receive
Prestigious Abertis
Award in Puerto Rico

Once Again! The award in Transportation Infrastructure
Management is achieved! For the second consecutive year, two
students of our Engineering Faculty of The University of Puerto
Rico at Mayagüez were winners of the Abertis competition in
Puerto Rico. In the Doctoral category, Dr. Erika Cristina Jaramillo
Giraldo was awarded for her research entitled: "Methodology to
Incorporate Highway Safety into Planning using Generalized Linear
Mixed Models". In the Master’s category, Eng. Natalia I. Vázquez

Rivera was awarded for her research entitled "Statistical
Optimization of Pervious Concrete Pavement Containing Fly Ash
and Engineered Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Runoff Quality and
Quantity Controls".
The second contest of Abertis was held on Thursday, April 16 at
The President of the University of Puerto Rico’s Office; and was
announced by Dr. Benjamín Colucci, The Abertis Chair Director
in Puerto Rico and Professor within the Department of Civil
Engineering and Surveying at Mayagüez Campus.

The winners of the second Abertis contest and their
families, together with the Chair Director, UPR
Acting President, Evaluator Committee, Winners’
Advisors and special guests.

The Abertis Chair for Transportation Infrastructure Management
was created by the Abertis Foundation in order to promote the
study and research involving the private sector’s participation in
economic and social growth which arises from the management
of infrastructure. The evaluation committee of the second event
were recognized professionals representing the public, private
sector and academia actively involved in the transportation
infrastructure management in the Island. Dr. Colucci mentioned
that, "The research project of Dr. Jaramillo and Eng. Vázquez are
examples that contribute to advance the mission and vision of
the Abertis Foundation in the transportation infrastructure
management and its related branches.” Gonzalo Alcalde,
Metropistas CEO, in reference to Abertis and the importance of
its relationship with the UPR noted that "The interest of Abertis is
to promote efficient and responsible infrastructure management
to provide optimal service to all citizens by applying the best

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practices available. As the University of Puerto Rico, the
principal knowledge generating institution in the Island,
what better way to advance teaching and learning and
thereby strengthen the institutions capacity to train
professionals and generate competitive knowledge for
the development that Puerto Rico needs? We
congratulate the winners of the Abertis Chair in the
Masters and Ph.D. categories, which in reference to the
mission, vision and values of our group, have contributed
to the research, development and innovation. Their
efforts will positively affect the territory and people”.
The Metropistas CEO also stated: "as part of the
commitment of the social corporative responsibility of
Abertis and following the process of international
expansion, the presence of Abertis Chairs is increasing
and they all contribute to the research on transportation
infrastructure by creating synergies and promoting the
exchange of knowledge.”

Dr. Erika Jaramillo receives the Abertis Award by Dr. Benjamín Colucci. From
left to right Dr. Didier Valdés, advisor; Dr. Delia Camacho, Interim President
UPR.; Eng. Gonzalo Alcalde, CEO Metropistas; and Dr. William Hernández,
representing UPRM Chancellor and Dean of Faculty of Engineering UPRM.

Likewise, Dr. Delia Camacho, Acting President of the
University of Puerto Rico, thanked the Abertis
foundation's partnership with the UPR for promoting
higher education in Transportation Infrastructure
Management, “it is commendable, the social corporate
responsibility and commitment of The Abertis Group to
the environmental and social development of the
countries present; also, we allude the commitment of
the new talent and students who were awarded for their
dedication and work: tools that guarantee success.”
Furthermore, Dr. William Hernández, Associate Dean for
Administrative Affairs of the College of Engineering, who
was representing the Dean of Engineering of UPRM,
emphasised the academic commitment between the

EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.29 NO.2, 2015

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Eng. Natalia I. Vázquez gets the Abertis award by Dr. Benjamín Colucci. From left
to right Dr. Sangchul Hwang, advisor; Dr. Delia Camacho, Interim President
UPR.; Eng. Gonzalo Alcalde, CEO Metropistas; and Dr. William Hernández,
representing UPRM Chancellor and the Dean of Faculty of Engineering UPRM.

Abertis Chair and the Faculty of Engineering: "The Abertis
Chair is an example of how the community, in this case
the Abertis Foundation, can commit to academic and
professional excellence; excellence in the pursuit of
innovation, as demonstrated by the two recipients of this
second contest. This is the excellence that characterizes
the UPR Mayagüez Campus, internationally recognized.
For us it is an honor to host such a prestigious event.”
Prof. Ismael Pagán Trinidad, Director of the Department
of Civil Engineering and Surveying mentioned that "The
knowledge gained through the research sponsored by
Abertis and our institution will have repercussions on our
economy, sustainable development and the public
welfare of our people.” Furthermore, with regard to the
winners of the second contest he expressed, “I can testify
the excellent work done in their careers as students, the
depth and relevance of their graduate research in the
field of transportation; both are models of excellence in
their field.”
The winners of the second contest represented Puerto
Rico in the International Abertis prize competition against
winners of the Abertis Chairs in Spain, France, Chile and
Brazil. The competition was held in May 2015 in
Barcelona, Spain.
For additional information about the international
network of Abertis Chair of Transport Infrastructure
Management access www.catedrasabertis.com or
www.prltap.org/eng/?page_id=2847 link to the Abertis
in Puerto Rico.

PUERTO RICO TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTER

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Successful 4th Anniversary of the
Decade of Action for Road Safety: 2011-2020

Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020

12

Puerto Rico Capitol Illuminated

College of Engineers and Surveyors of
Puerto Rico (CIAPR) Illuminated

D

uring the week of May 11th to 15th of 2015, the Puerto Rico
Transportation Technology Transfer Center celebrated the 4 th
Anniversary of the Decade of Action for Road Safety: 20112020. This worldwide initiative was declared by The United Nations
Organization because of the alarming number of road injuries and road
fatalities. As part of the Global Action Plan, this week consisted of a
series of events with the purpose of creating awareness, reinforcement,
and integration of the five E’s (Engineering, Education, Enforcement,
Emergency/Incident Management and Everyone) with the slogan:
Saving Kids Lives (#SaveKidsLives). This worldwide campaign made a
plea to all the citizens and leaders through the “Child Declaration for
Road Safety”, to reduce the number of fatalities and injuries involving
kids in the roads worldwide, every day. It also summoned citizens to
take action and ensure that all the kids have the opportunity to grow up
and be part of our future.
The week started with the illumination of various distinctive buildings,
with the color yellow allusive to the Road Safety symbol. The north
façade of the Puerto Rico Capitol in San Juan was illuminated as an
indication of one of the E’s, specifically Enforcement, and reaffirms the
commitment that the Senate of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has to
strengthen safety related laws to protect all road users. Afterwards, the
College of Engineers and Surveyors of Puerto Rico (CIAPR, for its
Spanish acronym) headquarters was illuminated, as representation of
Engineering efforts, also reaffirming the commitment of the CIAPR with
entities that promote safety in Puerto Rico.
Puerto Rico’s Senate President approved The Motion 5474, in
recognition to the initiative’s commitment of improving the quality of
life of our citizens, road safety, and the dangers our kids face in the
streets. He also he emphasized
the distinctive administrative,
government and federal agencies, non-profit organizations and

For additional related information on future events of the
Decade of Action for Road Safety in the Commonwealth of
Puerto Rico, please contact Dr. Benjamín Colucci,
Spokesperson for this initiative on the Island. Please refer to
our web page http://prltap.org/eng/ or our Facebook page
www.facebook.com/dasvpr .

www.usatoday.com/story/theoval/2015/01/20/obamadesignated-survivor-state-of-the-union-ernest-moniz-sallyjewell/22051655

13

Fuente:

Fuente:

The 4th Anniversary’s closing ceremony was held in the
Escambrón Beach Club and was dedicated to Eng. Edgar
Rodríguez, President of The College of Engineers and
Surveyors of Puerto Rico (CIAPR), for his genuine
commitment with education and awareness in road safety
initiatives. Likewise, as an essential part of the
#SaveKidsLives campaign and the E for Education, several
students and teachers from The Rafael Martínez Nadal
Elementary School,
David G. Farragut
Elementary School,
Theodore Roosevelt
Elementary School,
and
W.A.L.K.S/
W.E.B.S schools,
located
in
Mayagüez,
were
recognized for their
Presentation of Manifesto to
participation
in
Eng. Edgar Rodríguez
educational lectures
with the purpose of promoting road safety message to the
students. The Municipality of Mayagüez awarded these
schools with a Manifesto, recognizing their participation in
the activities associated to this celebration. A noteworthy
mention, is the presence of a committed group in the area of
road safety, which includes: students and faculty from
renown schools, FIESTA officials from different
universities, Mrs. Francheska Marcial from MAPFRE
Foundation, Eng. Alexis Nevares, representing the ITE
Puerto Rico Chapter, Eng. Michael Avery, The Assistant
Division Administrator, from FHWA , Mr. Luís Salazar
from Luís Salazar Foundation, Eng. Rafael Mangual from
CIAPR, and Eng. Juan Carlos Rivera from Puerto Rico
Highway and Transportation Authority.

EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.29 NO.2, 2015

udot.utah.gov/2011/04/udot-research-leads-totransportation-innovation

professional associations for their contribution. Similarly,
The CIAPR and The Municipality of Mayagüez dedicated a
manifesto in recognition to the effort and commitment of
this initiative to create awareness towards a road safety
culture.

Fuente: http://www.equipmentworld.com/nick-ivanoffelected-2014-2015-artba-chairman/

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Mr. Nick Ivanoff

Atty. Anthony Foxx

Eng. James Christian

ARTBA President

United States Secretary of
Transportation

FHWA

Status of The DRIVE Act
Implementation
The Developing a Reliable and Innovative Vision for
the Economy (DRIVE) Act is the law that aims to
reauthorize the designated funds allocated to the
Federal Highway Administration. This legislation
would assign $ 277.4 billion for highway programs for
the next fiscal years 2016 to 2021. The act consists of
two main parts which are divided into Part A,
“Authorization and Programs”, and Part B,
“Acceleration of Project Delivery”.
The DRIVE Act will provide funding for the following
applications:








National Highway Performance Program
Surface Transportation Program (STP)
Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ)
Program, Highway Safety Improvement Program
(HSIP)
Transportation Alternatives
National Freight Program
Assistance to Major Projects Program

The first four programs would have modest changes
because they were already included in MAP-21. If the
bill is not approved on July 31, 2015, a continuous
resolution will most likely continue for the next three
months. For an update of the bill, refer to: http://
www.pbtransportationupdate.com/

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PUERTO RICO TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTER

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Safety Village Rolling Park Visits the
Municipality of Mayagüez during the
spring of 2015.
Safety Village Rolling Park emerged in 2011 as an
initiative created by the Road Safety Institute of the
MAPFRE Foundation, which later in 2012 joined the
global initiative of the Decade of Action for Road Safety
2011-2020. The park is committed to children between
the ages of 8-12 years old with the purpose of providing a
realistic, educational and preventive experience on how to
drive responsibly and promote a safety culture on our
roads. A press conference was held during MAPFRE’s
visit to Mayagüez in which the achievements of the Park
were presented. The park was located in the parking lot of
the Isidoro García Park from February to May 2015. The
park impacted students from 50 schools in 10
municipalities of the western region, educating a total of
3,913 students. 30 of the schools that participated were
from Mayagüez. Altogether, the park has impacted 33,776
children in Puerto Rico, testifying to the success of this
initiative.
During the activity there were special guests representing
the five Road Safety E’s, Engineering, Education,
Emergency, Enforcement and Everyone, who are part of
the alliance of the Decade of Action for Road Safety in
Puerto Rico.
The presenters were Mr. Miguel Sepúlveda, representing
Hon. José G. Rodríguez, Mayor of Mayagüez; Dr.
Benjamín Colucci, Spokesperson for Decade of Action for

Road Safety in Puerto Rico, Mrs. Belinda Pujols,
representing MAPFRE Foundation, and Dr. John
Fernández Van Cleve, Chancellor of the University of
Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus.
Hon. Efraín De Jesús Rodríguez, District 19
Representative at the Puerto Rico Capitol; Mrs. Lizbeth
Vélez, Safety Village Rolling Park Coordinator; The
Institute of Transportation Engineers Student Chapter at
UPRM with their professor and advisor, Dr. Didier
Valdés; Mr. Gustavo Cortina, Director of the Office of
Quality of Life at UPRM; Mrs. Mariely Vélez, UPRM
FIESTA Program Coordinator; and other supporting staff
of the Safety Village Rolling Park were also present.

From left to right Ms. Belinda Pujols, representing Fundación
MAPFRE, Dr. John Fernández Van Cleve, UPRM Chancellor,
Mr. Miguel Sepúlveda, representing Hon. José Guillermo Rodríguez,
Mayagüez Mayor, Dr. Benjamín Colucci
and Mr. José “Pepe” García, presenter

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EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.29 NO.2, 2015

15

By: Clive Burrows

Rail Transit: Sustainable Development
Principals

Clive Burrows
Engineering Director, First Group Plc

T

he railway industry is responsible for developing a diverse workforce and
to actively consider and address the challenges of the future global labor
market.
According to the Rail Safety and Standards Board (RSSB) in their publication
entitled The Rail Industry Sustainable Development Principles, there exists six
major challenges and opportunities in this millennium which are:
1. Cost – sustainability continues to imply a radical improvement in the
cost-efficiency of the railway to stand up to the competition
2. Carbon – the railway’s carbon “lead” will continue to be challenged and
is already highly dependent on load factor
3. Capacity – growth in passenger & freight demand will require maximum
use of current infrastructure – whether or not we build the new high
speed line, HS2
4. Customers – expect improving standards of reliability, comfort and
accessibility, together with a transformational change in information, all
at reduced cost.
5 & 6. Safety & Security – the railway must maintain current levels of
protection whilst improving performance and reducing the cost of the
system, in the face of changes in technology and in the threats that if
faces.
These challenges and opportunities are known as the 4C's plus S&S. To achieve
an efficient and sustainable development RSSB developed ten key principles,

16

PUERTO RICO TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTER

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which are:
 Customer-driven
 Putting rail in reach of people






Providing an end to end journey
Being an employer of choice
Reducing our environmental impact
Carbon smart
Energy wise
Supporting the economy
Optimizing the railway
Being transparent

FirstGroup is one of the leading companies that are
committed to the compliance and the implementation of
these principles. Privatization provides tremendous
improvements and benefits as well as emphasizing these
challenges. Traffic growth due to the increase in passenger
demand resulted in the need to develop a new system of
interoperable train control and to improve the reliability of
safety systems. Cost constraints increased the need to
increase the capacity of existing infrastructure. The Railway
Technical Strategy is addressing these challenges through a
migration plan and I have been privileged and proud to lead
the strategy Control, Command and Communications of the
rail industry in the UK. Some of the transformational
changes we are making are discussed. FirstGroup has been
able to play a leading role in the development of these
technologies.
Control, Command and Communication (CCC)
CCC systems are a key strategic technological capability for
the delivery of the 4Cs over the next 30 years. New
technologies are challenging the existing principles of how
train movements are controlled. For example, control of the
proximity of trains could allow train convoying. The

improved capacity, decrease traction energy consumption
and carbon emissions, reduce operational costs and provide
better on-board communications for passengers.
Vision
Highly reliable and resilient CCC systems offer network
wide traffic management capabilities for intelligent,
predictive and adaptive operational control of train
movements. The systems track the precise location and
current status of every train on the network. Data for speed,
acceleration, braking and load is available at all control
centers for improved operational decision-making. Train
movements are optimized to meet a variety of goals and
perturbations are resolved rapidly so that there is a minimum
impact on customers.
High-speed, high-bandwidth communications networks are
in use across the rail network and on trains to provide
dependable connectivity for both operational and customerfacing applications used by the railway and customers. Data
is made openly available to support door-to-door journey
information.
In-cab signaling is used instead of line side signals and the
only traditional features of line side signaling are points
operating equipment and level crossings. Signaling system
designs are standardized and the design, testing and
commissioning procedures are automated.
The use of Automatic Train Operation (ATO) is widespread
across the network. Fully automatic operation of trains is
possible on some parts of the network.
Objectives
Benefits from the introduction of the European Rail Traffic
Management System (ERTMS) across the network for incab signaling include:
• Lower capital costs for signaling systems (up to 50%
reduction of capital cost)
• Less need for, and maintenance of, expensive trackbased infrastructure
• Optimized network capacity that is more flexible than
conventional line side signaling systems
• Easier deployment of related technologies, including
intelligent traffic management systems and
automatic train operation (ATO)
Benefits from automation of routine tasks associated with

application of these technologies has the potential to deliver

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traffic management and train driving include:
• Greater capacity from consistently predictable train
movements
• Higher reliability for passengers and freight
• Lower costs through less need for manual intervention
• Quicker and more efficient response to perturbations
• More efficient use of energy, infrastructure and rolling
stock
Intelligent traffic management systems are highly flexible
and capable of optimizing the railway operations at network,
route and individual train levels. Objectives for a variety of
traffic types can be met at different times of the day.
Capacity, speed, timekeeping, energy savings, operating
costs and asset management can be prioritized in real-time
according to requirements. The systems are highly reliable
and resilient to support the delivery of normal or nearnormal services during all but the most exceptional
circumstances.
Mobile communication providers, in association with
railway operators, offer dependable high-speed, highcapacity, seamless communications for customers across all
modes of transport. These systems use standard commercial
products to reduce capital costs and the risk of obsolescence.
Similarly, standard commercial communications systems
support a wide range of data and communications intensive
applications to be used on the rail network for both
operational and asset management purposes.
Strategy
Introduce Driver Advisory Systems (DAS) to make a
significant contribution to railway operational efficiency,
offering benefits including:
• Traction energy and fuel savings
• Improved customer satisfaction through trains being
stopped less frequently, for example at red signals
• Reduced risk of signals being passed at danger
• Minimization of acceleration and braking demands,
reducing the related wear and tear on track and
trains
• Optimized use of traction energy power supplies at
peak times without risking overload
• Enhanced route knowledge through provision of route
information in the cab.
ERTMS Level 2 without line side signals should be

EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.29 NO.2, 2015

17

deployed across the network to replace line side signals.
Level 3 to be introduced on selected routes to eliminate the
need for track-based train detection equipment and to offer
significant further benefits in maintenance costs and
reliability. At the same time, the rail industry in Great
Britain should continue to work with the European Railway
Agency and others on the technological development of
ERTMS and the evolution of Command, Control and
Signaling
(CCS)
Technical
Specifications
for
Interoperability (TSI).
Developments should include:
• Increasing the system capacity on routes where there
are large numbers of traffic movements in small
geographical areas, for example stations
• Deployment of 4G/LTE4 mobile communications to
replace GSM-R, which is currently used for
ERTMS data
• Technological and functional convergence with
communications based train control systems
(CBTC) that are currently in use on metro systems.
Conclusion
The Rail Industry Sustainable Development Principles
represent core values of the rail industry and are
fundamental to delivering a sustainable railway at the center
of the transport system that meets the travel needs of our
society without compromising future quality of life.
Enablers of the various transformational strategies such as
the Control, Command and Communication Strategy will
play a significant role in ensuring the innovations in the Rail
Industry lead towards achieving these sustainable goals.
First International Plc,
is proud to champion these
principles and will continue to play our part in delivering
transport solutions for an increasingly congested world
keeping people moving and communities prospering.

Source: http;//inhabitata.com/san-juan-puerto-rico-to-get-green-urban-design-upgrade/

San Juan, Puerto dream of a walkable city illustration.

18

PUERTO RICO TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTER

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Puerto Rico Transportation Technology Transfer
Center Participates in the Civil Mega Friday

C

ivil Mega Friday, known in Spanish as Mega Viernes Civil, is the most important event of the Institute of Civil Engineers
of Puerto Rico, which have several modules related to different areas of civil engineering and in which seminars are offered to
contribute to the continuing education of engineers. Dr. Benjamín Colucci Ríos was in charge of the coordination and logistics of
the transportation module. The morning session focused on presenting initiatives and programs of the Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA), that are being implemented in Puerto Rico. Dr. Colucci served as the moderator and described the
role of the Transportation Technology Transfer Center and its joint work carried out in implementing the program Every Day
Counts (EDC). In this module, the staff of the FHWA and the Puerto Rico Highway and Transportation Authority (PRHTA) also
participated .
The session began with the presentation of the initiatives of the FHWA by Eng. James Christian,
Division Administrator of Florida, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands of that
agency. Then, the participants had the opportunity to learn details of the EDC program and its
initiative implementation in Puerto Rico by Eng. Maribell Pérez, the Coordinator of EDC from the
FHWA in Puerto Rico. Eng. Andrés Álvarez (FHWA), presented the achievements of the
implementation of the Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) initiative in Puerto Rico. Success stories of the
implementation of the Safety Edge initiative and future projects for the initiative Road Diet was in
charge of Eng. Juan Carlos Rivera (ACT). Finally, Eng. José Pagán (PRHTA) presented the
achievements of the initiatives of Adaptive Signal Control Technology and Traffic Incident
Management.
Eng. James Christian (FHWA) In the afternoon session, the participants had the
with Dr. Colucci
opportunity to listen to the Secretary of
Transportation Eng. Miguel Torres Díaz and the
Executive Director, Eng. Carmen Villar Prados, speak about the initiatives for
the implementation of the Puerto Rico Strategic Highway Safety Plan 20142018. Students from several university organizations were at the event
representing student chapters, such as the Institute of Transportation Engineers
Student Chapter of the University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus.
Dr. Colucci and Eng. James Christian (FHWA)
with ITE_UPRM Students

EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.29 NO.2, 2015

Source: Dr. Walter F. Silva Araya

By: Dr. Walter Silva - Araya

Impacts and Design
Alternatives for Erosion
and Sedimentation
Control (E&SC) in
Highway Projects

Source: http://ritewayfencing.com

Responsible
engineering practices
should be applied
during and after
construction for
sustainable
development

19

Source: Dr. Walter F. Silva Araya

prltap.org

I

nadequate design or construction of erosion and sediment control measures
during highway projects could result in serious environmental effects and
expensive mitigation costs for contractors. Water pollution, ecological impairment,
hydrologic modifications, property damage, delays in construction schedule and
lawsuits are some of the impacts expected when failures occur.

Several regulations are in effect to protect natural resource during construction
periods. These regulations address handling of harmful materials such as sediment,
dust, erosion, industrial discharges and hazardous waste discharges. The cost of
erosion related pollutants cost to the United States between $3.2 billion and $13
billion each year (Forrest, 1990). Pollutants directly associated with construction
activities include sediment, nutrients and hydrocarbons. Sediment loading produced
by top soil removal is up to 20 times greater than natural erosion from land covered
with vegetation. Nutrients from fertilizers used to aid vegetation establishment
during construction are carried downstream increasing biomass, extracting oxygen
from water, and endangering fish and other organisms. Another source of pollution
at construction sites is the use of substances rich in metals. Almost all metals are
toxic to plants, animals and fish. Galvanized metal, paint and preserved wood are
sources of metal compounds with potential to contaminate water. Oil leakage from
heavy equipment, failure of hydraulic lines, spills during refueling operations, wash
water from concrete mixers, wastes from cleaning of vehicles, and inappropriate fluid
disposal are cause for contamination, particularly when they are washed by runoff.
It is common engineering practice to provide measures to reduce erosion and
sedimentation at construction sites. Comply with regulations is a matter of concern
for project engineers. The following is a list of regulatory requirements from the
Federal Government:







The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
The Clean Water Act (CWA)
The Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZMA)
The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (WSRA)
The Endangered Species Act
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act

20

PUERTO RICO TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTER

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All federally funded projects in the United States and its
territories must comply with these federal acts. The
Environmental Quality Board of Puerto Rico is the local agency
in charge of compliance with the Non-Point Source
regulations. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) sets limits to the amount of pollutants
permitted from point sources.
Discharge permits and
compliance for point sources in Puerto Rico are provided by
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Construction
activities disturbing one or more acres require a NPDES permit.
At minimum, these permits require a site-specific Storm Water
Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) covering construction and
post construction phases.
Several penalties, including
imprisonment and elevated fines, are established by the Clean
Water Act (CWA) for non-compliance with the SWPPP. Local
regulations also apply, particularly the submission of a
Sediment and Erosion Control Plan which is required by the
Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board.

Erosion and sedimentation
The previous introduction emphasizes the importance of using
good engineering practices in design and construction to
employ erosion and sediment control measures. Erosion is the
process of displacement of soil particles by water or wind.
Water erosion depends on the rainfall energy, intensity, and
duration. The amount of soil eroded depends highly on
topography. Once the soil particles are detached, they become
sediment. The sediment is
transported by water or
wind. Not all the eroded soil
moves the same distance.
Part of the material is
deposited. This process is
called sedimentation. The
Puerto Rico Erosion and
Sediment
Control
Source: Dr. Walter F. Silva Araya
Handbook for Developing
Areas (PRE&SC Handbook) (Puerto Rico Environmental Quality
Board & USDA, 2005) provides guidance and
recommendations on erosion and sediment best management
practices. However, no specific design procedures are
presented. Several of the following ideas were extracted from
this reference.

Erosion and sedimentation control
practices
Erosion and sedimentation control practices are divided in
primary and secondary. Primary are those aimed at keeping
soil in place and protecting it from erosive forces. Secondary
are attempts to control sediment. Another classification is
structural, which are those mostly oriented to control runoff
that require design and installation, and non-structural
oriented to prevent soil erosion and sediment generation by
using mainly vegetative measures. The type of measure
recommended depends on the type of problem and is site
specific.
Erosion control practices should minimize the impacts of
raindrops, prevent concentrated flows and protect against
wind detachment and transportation of soil particles
(Goldman, Jackson, & Bursztynsky, 1986). Vegetative practices
are used for soil stabilization preventing erosion and reducing
sediment losses to a minimum. There are different vegetative
practices. Two important ideas to keep in mind are that
vegetative cover should be implemented as soon as possible,
and that land clearing areas in projects should be kept to a
minimum or done on a series of small sections. The PRE&SC
Handbook mentions ten possible practices.
In addition to vegetative cover, storm water management
practices are also required for effective erosion control.
Runoff control measures include vegetative strips and
conveyance systems. A 6.6 m wide vegetative strip reduces
between 76% and 93% of sediment. Silva-Araya and Detrés
(2015) experimented with halophytes as vegetative barriers
for coastal zones and found that vegetation densities larger
than 65% removed more than 90% of sediments. They used
three different species of halophytes available in Puerto Rico
and the US Virgin Islands.
Conveyance channels and storm drains are commonly used for
storm water control and distribution. Hydraulic design
methods are available for sizing these structures.
Bioengineering techniques are nowadays used to design
vegetative channels. Design methods for sizing channels with
rip-rap and other revetments are available. Permissible
stresses are the recommended criteria for these designs. This
approach consists of comparing the maximum permissible
shear stress on the bottom and sides of a channel with the
maximum applied shear stress during the expected maximum
discharge (FHWA, 2005).

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One highly sensitive and risky situation occurs when soil cover
is removed and bare soil remains exposed. Examples are slope
erosion due to cuts, stockpiles and surface clearing. Measures
to reduce sediment loads into receiving waters from exposed
surfaces are: sediment barriers; such as, hay bales and
geotextile fences; sediment detention ponds, and stream bank
protection. Hay or straw bales and geotextile fences (also
called silt fences) are
commonly used in Puerto
Rico;
however,
these
measures require continuous
monitoring and frequent
maintenance or replacement.
Be aware that, since 1992
bale barriers have not been Source http://water.epa.gov/
recognized by the EPA as an
“appropriate” measure to reduce sediment in runoff waters
and “alternatives to straw or hay bales should be used
wherever possible” (EPA, 2015). They are inexpensive;
however, they also are probably the most common cause of
failures and often lead to legal actions against contractors due
to property damage when failure occurs. Frequent repairs and
replacement, low efficiency, non-compliance with EPA’s
recommendations and possible legal issues justifies
consideration of alternatives to straw or hay bales. Sediment
control barriers made of synthetic materials are a possible
alternate solution for temporary sediment control measures.
Hydraulic design and effectiveness of cylindrical barrier is easy
to estimate. Design criteria
includes frequency of storm
events, contributing area,
volume of seepage through
the barrier, surface slope and
barrier height.
Barrier
separation and contained
water volume are the result
for engineering decisions.
Source: Dr. Walter F. Silva Araya
Similar procedures exist for
design of check dams in swales, gullies and small drainage
ways.
Sediment containment systems, usually as detention ponds,
are very effective sediment control structures. These
structures retain water temporarily and release it under
controlled conditions. Return period of design storms and size
of minimum particle to be removed are parameters used to
obtain the dimensions for these structures. These structures

EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.29 NO.2, 2015

21

could be designed in series or parallel in order to increase
effectiveness and adapt to space constraints.

Major improvements on estimating soil losses have been
obtained with recent advances of the Universal Soil Loss
Equation (USLE) which evolved into a useful computer
application for guidance in the estimation of annual soil losses
by means of comparing different scenaRíos in construction
sites. This tool is RUSLE2 .

Conclusion
Environmental impacts and hazards by excessive sediment
delivery from construction sites have serious consequences
for the ecosystem, the quality of water and the project
success. Engineering methods have been developed for the
design of E&SC practices; as well as, storm water management
for construction projects. Design and construction engineers
have a handful of techniques and methods to quantify the
impacts of different alternatives for selection of the most
efficient and appropriate solution at construction sites. Even
though enforcement of regulations is not effectively done in
many cases, responsible engineering practices should be
implemented during and after construction for sustainable
development and future generations.

References
EPA, E. P. (2015, March). Best Management Practices.
Retrieved from EPA.gov: http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/
npdes/swbmp/Straw-or-Hay-Bales.cfm
FHWA. (2005). Design of Roadside Channels WIth Flexible
Linings, Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 15, 3rd Ed. U.S.
Department of Transportation.
Forrest, C. (1990). Erosion Control in the United States Today:
An Overview. Proceedings of Conference XXI of the
International Erosion Control Association.

Goldman, S., Jackson, & Bursztynsky, T. (1986). Erosion and
Sediment Control Handbook. New York: Mc. Graw Hill.
Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board, & USDA, N. R.
(2005). Puerto Rico Erosion and Sediment Control
Handbook for Developing Areas.
Silva-Araya, W., & Detrés, J. (2015). Establishment of Salt Flats
Vegetative Buffers for Soil Erosion Protection. In progress.

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PUERTO RICO TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTER

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Know you Trainer:

Dr. Walter F. Silva Araya
Dr. Walter F. Silva Araya was born in the port of
Puntarenas on the pacific coast of Costa Rica. In 1982,
he completed his studies leading to a Bachelors degree
in Civil Engineering at the University of Costa Rica. In
1984, he obtained the Master of Science in Civil
Engineering at the University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez
Campus (UPRM), with concentration in Water
Resources.
Dr. Silva completed his doctoral degree in Civil
Engineering with a concentration in Hydraulic
Engineering from Washington State University in 1993.
Dr. Silva worked for the Costa Rican Institute of
Aqueducts and Sewers and the University of Costa Rica
before starting graduate studies in Puerto Rico.

and proceedings of several conferences in hydraulics,
hydrology and agriculture. He has been a reviewer for the
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (ASCE) and Journal of
Hydraulic Research (IAHR).

In teaching and education, Dr. Silva offers undergraduate
courses in water resources and created advanced courses in
hydraulic transients and unsteady open channel flows. He
has offered professional development courses in
hydraulics, hydrology and sediment transport in Puerto
Rico, Dominican Republic, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guatemala
and Costa Rica. He has prepared courses at the request of
United States Army Corps of Engineers and the Federal
Highway Administration. His research has helped more
than 20 students from Puerto Rico and other countries to
He is currently Professor of the Department of Civil complete their masters and doctoral degrees; as well as,
Engineering and Surveying at the University of Puerto many undergraduate students who have benefited from
Rico in Mayagüez. Besides his dedication to teaching research experience during their studies at UPRM.
and research, during his years of service to the UPRM,
Dr. Silva has been appointed to several administrative His experience as a consultant includes the preparation of
positions. Dr. Silva was a member of and presided hydrologic / hydraulic studies, hydrodynamic studies for
various departmental and faculty committees, was bridge scour, erosion protection studies and, studies of
Director of Department of General Engineering, waterhammer in hydraulic pressure systems. Dr. Silva has
Director of the Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, done projects for the Puerto Rico Aqueducts and Sewer
Associate Director of the Center for Hemispheric Authority (PRASA), for the Department of Environmental
Cooperation (CoHemis) and Director of Research and and Natural Resources of Puerto Rico and several private
Development Center (R&D Center). Since 1995 he has companies.
been appointed Associate Director of the Puerto Rico
Water Resources and Environmental Research Center The collaboration of Dr. Silva with the Transportation
Institute of Puerto Rico.
Technology Transfer Center began in 2014 offering a
workshop on Impacts and Design for Erosion and
His research includes hydraulic and unsteady open Sedimentation Control. Recently he offered a workshop on
channel flow, mathematical modeling of hydraulic Urban Drainage Design in the U.S. Virgin Islands and
systems, sediment transport and soil erosion studies.
Puerto Rico, and wrote an article in this issue of El Puente
entitled Impacts and Design Alternatives for Erosion and
In 2009, Dr. Silva was an invited researcher at the Sedimentation Control (E&SC) in Highway Projects.
University of South Carolina. The result of this
sabbatical period was his participation in various The Transfer Center recognizes in El Puente newsletter the
international conferences on levee and dam breaches valuable contribution and excellence of Dr. Walter Silva
held in Egypt, New Zealand, Belgium and the United Araya as part of the Family Center instructors.
States. Dr. Silva has publications in refereed journals Congratulations!

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EL PUENTE NEWSLETTER VOL.29 NO.2, 2015

Together we can save millions of lives!
I, ___________________________, pledge to do my part to help save lives on the road.

I pledge to:
____ 1. Not text while driving.
____ 2. Obey the traffic laws applicable to drivers.
____ 3. Comply with the speed limits.
____ 4. Pass the key if I am under the influence of alcohol.
____ 5. Have no distractions while driving a motor vehicle.
____ 6. Share the road with pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists.

____ 7. Always buckle my safety belt.
____ 8. Require my vehicle occupants to always buckle the safety belt.
____ 9. Always buckle my children with a safety belt.
____ 10. Use the protective safety devices while on a motorcycle,
bicycle or motor vehicle.

Mothers Against Drunk Driving

Fundación Luís A. Señeriz

http://prltap.org/

Traffic Safety Commission

Administration of Automobile Accident Compensation

23

PRLTAP Center Staff

PUERTO RICO TRANSPORTATION
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CENTER
University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez
Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying
Call Box 9000, Mayaguez, PR 00681

787.834.6385 PHONE
787.265.5695 FAX

www.prltap.org

Director & Editor
Benjamín Colucci Ríos

Editor Assistants
Irmalí Franco Ramírez
Ivelisse M. Ramos López

Administrative Staff
Jesenia Carrero Lorenzo
Adlín Santos Vélez
Grisel Villarubia Echevarría

Student Staff
Marivic Hernández Quezada
Karla E. Matos Velázquez
María Torres Rodríguez
Maribel Turner Ríos
Wilmarie Valentín Medina
Jonathan Ambrose Torres

El Puente Newsletter
Vol.29, No. 2, 2015

EL PUENTE is published by the Puerto Rico Transportation Technology Transfer
Center located at the Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying

The opinions, findings or recommendations expressed in this newsletter are those of the Center Director and Editors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the
Federal Highway Administration, the Puerto Rico Department of Transportation and Publics Works, the Puerto Rico Highway and Transportation Authority, or the U.S
Virgin Islands Department of Public Works.