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GIIPFA

andFailureAnalysis
Centerfor MaterialProcessing
Indonesia
Universitas

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TechnicalReport
DocumentNo: L-0161/SNCMPFAnU 5

Crack ldentificationof ERWSteelTube


Preparedfor: PT. lndonesia Steel Tube Wotus(lSfW

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Office addrea:
Lab UjiMetalurgi(LUM)
Departemen
TeknikMetalurgidan lvlaterial
FakultasTeknikUniversitas
lndonesia
K?mpusBaruUl DeDok16424
-78888'1
Telp:021-786351
0, 78849045Fax:02'1
11
e.mail:lum@metal.ui.ac.id

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Center fol Materials ProcessinE and Failure Aralysi$


Univrsilas lndone.sia

Technical Rcfort

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No. : L-016l /SA/CMPFA/2015

GITIPFA

R-gportDocumenlldeEtiligs
DocumentNo"
No.Dokumen
ReportTitle
JudulLaporan
Dateof lssue
Tanggal Selesai

ServiceUser
PemakaiJasa
UserAddress
Alamat PemakaiJasa
Material
Bahan
Materialldentities
ldentitasBahan
TestinqTvpes
Jenis Pengujian
TestinqApparatus
Alat Uji
Testinq Standards
StandardUji

5
L-016'1/SfuCMPFAJ2O,1
of ERWSteelTube
Crackldentification
April21"r,2015
Works(ISTW;
PT.Indonesia
SteelTube
PuloGadung
Fe-Based
SteelTube
Metallographic
(EDS)
X-RaySpectroscopy
EnergyDispersive

sEtvl
EDSEDAXAppolloX
ASTME3
ASTME4O7
Repod lssuance

S.T
BintangSuryoHeidiansyah,
or waffanties,either exprcssedor implied,
Meta urgy and Mateial Depaftmentnakes no representations
ptovicles
"as
is' basedon the infoffiation provjdedby client.
the rcsultsof this repoft
and specificatly

Phone:021-7863510,78849045
Fax 021-76EE8'111E-mail:lul(iloClaluilg jd

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Ccnterfor MaterialsPrucssinlland FailureAnalysis


Univensitashdonesia

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TechnicalReport

No. : L-0 16I /SA,/CWFA,/201


5

SIP-EA

l. Background
PT. ISTW requestedlab analysisfor their productseen in figure '1.The clientinformed
that the crackis foundon the surfaceof the product.The analysisis performedto identify
the possiblecauseof crackwhichoccurredin the weldseamafterthe exoansionDrocess.

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Figure l. As ReceivedSample

ll. Scopeof Testing


The analysisis caniedout at CMPFAlab, Universitas
Indonesia.The scopeof testingis as
follows:
.

MicrostructureObservationby Light Microscope

Chemicalcomposition
by EDS

lll. TestingResultand Discussion


lll.l Microstructure
Testby SEM
Microstructure
testingis performed
to observethe microstructure
of the tubeusingSEM.
Observation
is doneto the thleesamDles
as illustrated
in TableL SamDle1 is takenat
thecrosssectionof the crack,sample2 is takenat the surfaceof thecrackandsample3
is takenat the undeformed
lield area.Themicrostructure
of thetestresultsby usingSEM
areasfollows(seeTablel).

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Phone:021-7863510,78849045
Fa* 021-7888811'lE-mail:
Page3ofT
lum@metal.ui.ac.

Centerfor ilaterials Prucesdngand Failurc /lnalysls


Urdve|.sihslndonosia

TeohnioalReport

As receivedSample

No. : L0 161/S-4/CWFA./2015

Tablel. Microstructure
TestResultby usingSEM
TestedSample
Observation
Microstructure

Microstruc{ure
of SamDleI

Microstruc{uF
oi SamDle2

Microstructure
of SamDle
3
t

Phone:021-7863510,
78849M5 Fax 02'1-78888'111
E-mail:lll!]@EqblUEqu

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Centerfor MatsrialsPrucssingard F&ilureAnalysis


Univorsitashdolesia

TechnicalRcport

No. : L-016lEACWFU29I5

lll.2 ChemicalCompositionby EDS


EnergyDispersive
(EDS)is performed
phase(inclusions)
Spectroscopy
on the suspicious
foundnearbythe crack.The locationtestareaandtest resultsfor EDSare presented
in
table2.
Table2. Elements
foundintheinclusions
afterEDStest.

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Phone:021-7863510,78849045
Fax 021-78888111E-mait:IUI@EetaLqEe.ilL

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Cnterfor MaterialsProcessingand Faihre Analysis


UnivrsitasIndonesia

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TechnicalReport

lV. Discussion

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In the ERW process,strip is fed into a formingmill, shapedinto a cylinderand passed


through an inductioncoil or under contacts (figure '1a). The magneticfield around
inductioncoil causescurrentto flow on the edgesof the strip.The edges,in turn,heat up
due to resistanceto the flow of current.The hot edgesare forgedtogetherin the weld rolls
and a weld is achieved.The weld is a true forgeweld in that no fillermetalis addedand, if
doneproperly,no moltenor oxidizedmetalis left on the bondplane.Figur 1b showsthat
all of the liquidusand metal oxides are squeezedout of the weld as the edges pass
betvveen
the weld rolls.

No.: L-0161/SA./CWFA/2015

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It is found that the possibleoccurrenceof certainkindsof weld defectsis determinedby


duringwelding:A possiblewelddefectis a coldweld
the typesof phenomenaencountered
and a penetrator.The cold weld is composedof a colonyof oxideswhichare formedon
the edge surfacesand remainbecausethey are not squeezedout from betweenthem.
The penetratorby natureis a slag inclusionproducedwhen moltenslag is drawn into a
gappedzoneby the actionof surfacetensionand capillaryeffectsin a returningprocessof
the moltenbead.
A cold weld occursuniformlyover a wide rangealongthe weld line, and any accidental
ohenomenaare not consideredto accountfor the cold weld.A numberof extrusionsare
point.
to the V-convergency
observedto be formedon boththe edgesurfacesapproaching
These extrusionswere sandwichedbetweenthe edges when they were welded. lt is
consideredthat the extrusionsconsistmostlyof oxides.The reasonfor this is that it should
pressureif the
not be possibleto form such extrusionsagainststrongelectromagnetic
extrusionsconsistof metal.Thus,the cold weld is a colonyof oxidesformedon the edge
surfacesthat remainbecausethey were not squeezedout from betweenthem; this has
beenconceivedto be a mechanismof producingall welddefectsin ERW.
SEM observationresullat the sample1 and sample2 showsthat inclusionswere found
nearbythe crack (table 1). The inclusionwas then checkedusing EDS, the test result
Phone:021-7863510,78849045
Fax:021-78888111
E-mail:um@metaul.acid

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Centerfor aterials ProcessinEand FailuroAnalysis


Univensitas
lndonesia

TeohnicalReport

No. : L-016l /SACMPFA/2o


I5

CIUPFA

showsdominantelementof Carbon,Oxygen,Manganese
and lron.Carbonmay come
from dirt or organicmatter.lron and Manganesetogetherwith Oxygenmay form Oxides.
The metaloxidemay havebeentrappedon the bondplaneinsteadof beingsqueezedout
with the moltenmetal.Theseoxidesare formedon the surfaceof lhe moltenmetaledges
in the vee. In the vee, if the approachvelocityof the stripedgesis less that the melt rate,
i.e.,the edgesare meltingfasterthantheyare beingsqueezed,a pocketforms(figure 3a)
behindthe vee apexwill containbothmoltenmetaland metaloxides.The normalsqueeze
out does not completelyremovethe largerthan normalliquidvolumeand an entrapment
results(figure 3b).
Pockelbehindapex

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Oxides
and
L'quid

Centerline
of
weldrolls.

(Penetrators)
Entrapments

Figure3, Schemaljc
Oxjdes

V. Conclusion
Visually,crackis foundat one areaof the expandedtube.No crackis foundon otherarea.
After cutting,the crackis analysedwith SEM and inclusionsare foundaroundthe crack.
These inclusionsare not found at the good weld line on other area. The inclusionis
composedof manganeseand oxygenin dominantquantity,lt ls confimed that the crack
was found after expansionand was caused by lhe presenceof manganeseoxides
inclusion
in theweldline.

Phone:021-7863510,7A8/9045Fax 021-7888811
1 E-mail:lurn@meta.!aci.l

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