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Ideal Fluid Flow-engineering

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LEARNING OUTCOMES

Identify the importance of ideal fluid flow

analysis

Discuss various ways to visualize flow fields

Explain fundamental kinematic properties of

fluid motion and deformation

Discuss the concepts of vorticity, rotationality

& irrotationality

Describe simple ideal flows

Describe and sketch combined flow patterns

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Ideal fluid

Real fluid

Imaginary

Real or

practical

Incompressible

Compressible

Non-viscous

Viscous

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INTRODUCTION

without considering the forces and moments

which create the motion.

According

to

the

continuum

hypothesis

the local velocity of fluid

is the velocity of an

infinitesimally small fluid

particle/element at a

given instant t. It is

generally a continuous

function in space and

time.

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FLUID FLOW

Lagrangian Description

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FLUID FLOW

Eulerian Description

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FLUID FLOW

Eulerian Description

Pressure field p = p(x,y,z,t)

Velocity field

Acceleration field

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VELOCITY

Directions

Velocity components

dx/dt

dy/dt

dz/dt

V ui vj wk

V u v w

2

r xi yj zk

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Ex 1

The velocity components expressed in m/s in a

fluid flow are known to be u = (6xy2+t),

v = (3yz+t2+5), w = (2+3ty) where x, y, z are

given in metres and time t in seconds.

Set up an expression for the velocity vector at

point P (4, 1, 2) m at T = 3 S. Also determine

the magnitude of velocity for this flow field at

the given location and time.

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10

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11

Kinematic Description

In fluid mechanics, an

element may undergo four

fundamental

types

of

motion.

a)Translation

b)Rotation

c)Linear strain

d)Shear strain

Because fluids are in

constant motion, motion

and deformation is best

described in terms of rates.

TRANSLATION

+

x

dy

dx

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13

TRANSLATION

+

x

dy

vdt

B

dx

udt

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14

ROTATION

+

x

dy

dx

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15

ROTATION

Angular rotation of element about z-axis is

defined as the average counterclockwise

rotation of the two

sides BC and BA

D

A

+

x

db

dy

dx

da

C

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16

ROTATION

1

d z da db

2

u

dydt

y

db

da

v

dxdt

x

C

dydt

u

1 y

db tan

dt

dy y

dxdt

v

1

x

dt

da tan

dx

x

d z 1 v u

dt

2 x y

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17

+

x

D

dy

dx

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18

A

D

horizontal side of the element

y

+

dy

dx

u

dx

dxdt

x

dx dxdt dx

u

x

dt

dt

WCDKF-KDU xx

dx

x

19

SHEAR STRAIN

+

x

dy

dx

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20

SHEAR STRAIN

Defined as the average decrease of the angle between two lines which

y are

initially perpendicular in the unstrained state (AB and BC)

+

x

db

dy

da

B

dx

Shear-strain increment

Shear-strain rate

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1

da db

2

1 da db

xy

2 dt dt 21

v

dxdt

x

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22

DISTORTION

2 x

y

1 v u

Mean rate of rotation

2 x y

x y

( ).

=

v u

For irrotational flow, = 0

0

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x

v u

x y

23

CLASSIFIED AS POTENTIAL FLOW.

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24

CIRCULATION

Circulation is the line integral of tangential

velocity around a closed contour in the flow

field.

A measure of the rotation within a finite

element of a fluid

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25

CIRCULATION

Circulation is

considered

positive in an

anticlockwise

direction.

V d l V cos a d l

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26

with area xy

v

u

udx vdy u x v x y u y x v y

x

y

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27

v

u

udx vdy u x v x y u y x v y

x

y

v u

xy

x y

v u

lim

relative vorticity

xy x y

xy 0

A

Circulation per unit area equals the vorticity in flow.

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28

Ex 2

Determine the circulation around a rectangle

defined by x=1, y=1, x=5 and y=4 for the velocity

field u = 2x + 3y and v = -2y.

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29

FLOW VISUALIZATION

Flow visualization is the visual examination of

flow-field features.

Important for both physical experiments and

numerical (CFD) solutions.

Numerous methods

Streamlines and streamtubes

Pathlines

Streaklines

Timelines

Refractive techniques

Surface flow techniques

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30

STREAMLINES

A line in the fluid whose tangent is parallel to

at a given instant t.

Steady flow : the

streamlines are

fixed in space for

all time.

Unsteady flow :

the streamlines

are changing from

instant to instant.

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31

STREAMLINES

A Streamline is a

curve that is

everywhere tangent

to the instantaneous

local velocity vector.

dx

dy

dz

u

,v

,w

dt

dt

dt

Equation of a general

streamline

dx dy dz

u

v

w

STREAMLINES

For 2-D flow,

dx dy

u

v

dy v

dx u

particle will have two velocities at the point of

intersection.

The flow is only along the streamline and not

cross it.

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33

STREAM-TUBE

is the surface formed instantaneously by all

the streamlines that pass through a given

closed curve in the fluid.

penetrate the

streamlines, the flow

passing through

each of the sections

would be same.

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34

PATHLINE

A line traced by an individual fluid particle

For a steady flow the pathlines are identical

with the streamlines.

A Pathline is the

actual path traveled

by an individual

fluid particle over a

time period.

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35

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36

STREAKLINE

A streakline consists of all fluid particles in a

flow that have previously passed through a

common point. Such a line can be produced

by continuously injecting marked fluid (smoke

in air, or dye in water) at a given location.

For steady flow : The streamline, the pathline,

and the streakline are the same.

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37

STREAKLINES

A Streakline is the

locus of fluid particles

that have passed

sequentially through

a prescribed point in

the flow.

Easy to generate in

experiments: dye in a

water flow, or smoke

in an airflow.

COMPARISON

For steady flow, streamlines, pathlines, and

streaklines are identical.

For unsteady flow, they can be very different.

Streamlines are an instantaneous picture of the

flow field

Pathlines and Streaklines are flow patterns that

have a time history associated with them.

Streakline: instantaneous snapshot of a timeintegrated flow pattern.

Pathline:

time-exposed flow path of an

individual particle.

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39

Ex 3

Determine the equation of streamline for a two

dimensional flow field for which the velocity

components are given by

i. u = a and v = a where a is a non-zero

constant. The streamline passes through the

point (1, 3).

ii. u = y/b2 and v = x/a2. The streamline passes

through the point (a, 0).

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40

Ex 4

In a steady fluid flow, the velocity components

are u = 2kx, v = 2ky, w = -4kz. Find the

equation of streamline passing through the

point (1, 0, 1).

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41

Imagine that a function exist such that its

derivative in any direction gives the velocity in

that direction

v

y

function and lines of constant potential

function are termed equipotential lines.

42

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Since is a function of x and y alone,

d

dx dy u.dx v.dy

x

y

u.dx v.dy 0

v.dy u.dx

dy

u

dx

v

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43

v u

x y

x y y x

0

xy yx

Hence the velocity potential function,

exists when the flow is irrotational.

2

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44

The fluid is continuous both in space & time.

For an incompressible fluid, the density

would be constant.

For 3-D incompressible flow

u v w

0

x y z

For 2-D incompressible flow

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45

When exists,

0

x x y y

2

2

x

y

2

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46

Ex 4

Which of the following velocity fields pertain

to the motion of steady, two-dimensional flow

of an incompressible fluid

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47

STREAM FUNCTION

Mathematically, the stream function for a flow

in the x y is defined as a function of x and y

such that the velocity components are given by,

u

y

v

x

where is the value of stream function.

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48

STREAM FUNCTION

Considering the continuity of flow

u v

0

x y

0

x y y x

2 2

0

xy yx

2

2

xy yx

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49

STREAM FUNCTION

Show that satisfies the Laplace Equation for

irrotational flow

v u

0

x y

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50

Ex 5

A fluid flows along a flat surface parallel to the xdirection. The velocity u varies linearly with y,

the distance from the flat surface and u=Ay

a) Find the stream function of the flow

b) Determine whether the flow is irrotational

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51

Ex 6

If =3xy, find x and y components of velocity at

(1, 3) and (3, 3). Determine the discharge

passing between streamlines.

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52

PROPERTIES OF AND

Property

Continuity

equation

Irrotationality

condition

Automatically

satisfied

Satisfied if

..

WCDKF-KDU

Satisfied if

Automatically

satisfied

53

PROPERTIES OF AND

Streamlines and equipotential lines are

orthogonal to each other.

the gradient of a stream line = v/u

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54

WCDKF-KDU

55

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