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Dr WCDK Fernando

LEARNING OUTCOMES
Identify the importance of ideal fluid flow
analysis
Discuss various ways to visualize flow fields
Explain fundamental kinematic properties of
fluid motion and deformation
Discuss the concepts of vorticity, rotationality
& irrotationality
Describe simple ideal flows
Describe and sketch combined flow patterns
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WHAT IS AN IDEAL FLUID?

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Ideal fluid

Real fluid

Imaginary

Real or
practical

Incompressible

Compressible

Non-viscous

Viscous
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INTRODUCTION

Fluid Kinematics deals with the motion of fluids


without considering the forces and moments
which create the motion.

According
to
the
continuum
hypothesis
the local velocity of fluid
is the velocity of an
infinitesimally small fluid
particle/element at a
given instant t. It is
generally a continuous
function in space and
time.

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FLUID FLOW

Lagrangian Description

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FLUID FLOW
Eulerian Description

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FLUID FLOW
Eulerian Description
Pressure field p = p(x,y,z,t)
Velocity field
Acceleration field

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VELOCITY

In the rectangular coordinate system,


Directions

Velocity components

dx/dt

dy/dt

dz/dt

V ui vj wk

V u v w
2

r xi yj zk
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Ex 1
The velocity components expressed in m/s in a
fluid flow are known to be u = (6xy2+t),
v = (3yz+t2+5), w = (2+3ty) where x, y, z are
given in metres and time t in seconds.
Set up an expression for the velocity vector at
point P (4, 1, 2) m at T = 3 S. Also determine
the magnitude of velocity for this flow field at
the given location and time.
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ROTATIONAL & IRROTATIONAL FLOWS

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Kinematic Description
In fluid mechanics, an
element may undergo four
fundamental
types
of
motion.
a)Translation
b)Rotation
c)Linear strain
d)Shear strain
Because fluids are in
constant motion, motion
and deformation is best
described in terms of rates.

TRANSLATION

+
x

dy

dx

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TRANSLATION

+
x

dy
vdt
B

dx
udt

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ROTATION

+
x

dy

dx

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ROTATION
Angular rotation of element about z-axis is
defined as the average counterclockwise
rotation of the two
sides BC and BA
D
A

+
x

db

dy

dx

da

C
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ROTATION

1
d z da db
2

u
dydt
y

db

da

v
dxdt
x
C

dydt

u
1 y

db tan

dt
dy y

dxdt

v
1

x
dt
da tan
dx
x

d z 1 v u

dt
2 x y

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EXTENSIONAL STRAIN (DILATATION)


+

x
D

dy

dx

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EXTENSIONAL STRAIN (DILATATION)

Extensional strain in x-direction is defined as the fractional increase in length of the


A
D
horizontal side of the element
y
+

dy

dx

u
dx
dxdt
x

dx dxdt dx
u
x

Extensional strain rate in x-direction

dt

dt
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dx
x

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SHEAR STRAIN

+
x

dy

dx

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SHEAR STRAIN
Defined as the average decrease of the angle between two lines which
y are
initially perpendicular in the unstrained state (AB and BC)
+
x

db

dy

da
B

dx

Shear-strain increment
Shear-strain rate
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1
da db
2
1 da db
xy

2 dt dt 21

DISTORTION OF A MOVING FLUID ELEMENT

v
dxdt
x

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DISTORTION

Average angular displacement 1 v dt u dt


2 x
y
1 v u
Mean rate of rotation
2 x y

The quantity v u is known as the Vorticity


x y
( ).

=
v u
For irrotational flow, = 0
0
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x
v u

x y

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A STEADY IRROTATIONAL FLOW IS


CLASSIFIED AS POTENTIAL FLOW.

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CIRCULATION
Circulation is the line integral of tangential
velocity around a closed contour in the flow
field.
A measure of the rotation within a finite
element of a fluid

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CIRCULATION
Circulation is
considered
positive in an
anticlockwise
direction.


V d l V cos a d l
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Calculate the circulation within a small fluid element


with area xy

v
u

udx vdy u x v x y u y x v y
x
y
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v
u

udx vdy u x v x y u y x v y
x
y

v u
xy
x y
v u

lim

relative vorticity
xy x y

xy 0

A
Circulation per unit area equals the vorticity in flow.
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Ex 2
Determine the circulation around a rectangle
defined by x=1, y=1, x=5 and y=4 for the velocity
field u = 2x + 3y and v = -2y.

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FLOW VISUALIZATION
Flow visualization is the visual examination of
flow-field features.
Important for both physical experiments and
numerical (CFD) solutions.
Numerous methods
Streamlines and streamtubes
Pathlines
Streaklines
Timelines
Refractive techniques
Surface flow techniques
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STREAMLINES
A line in the fluid whose tangent is parallel to
at a given instant t.
Steady flow : the
streamlines are
fixed in space for
all time.
Unsteady flow :
the streamlines
are changing from
instant to instant.
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STREAMLINES
A Streamline is a
curve that is
everywhere tangent
to the instantaneous
local velocity vector.
dx
dy
dz
u
,v
,w
dt
dt
dt

Equation of a general
streamline
dx dy dz

u
v
w

STREAMLINES
For 2-D flow,

dx dy

u
v
dy v

dx u

Streamlines do not cross, otherwise the fluid


particle will have two velocities at the point of
intersection.
The flow is only along the streamline and not
cross it.

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STREAM-TUBE
is the surface formed instantaneously by all
the streamlines that pass through a given
closed curve in the fluid.

Since no fluid can


penetrate the
streamlines, the flow
passing through
each of the sections
would be same.
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PATHLINE
A line traced by an individual fluid particle
For a steady flow the pathlines are identical
with the streamlines.
A Pathline is the
actual path traveled
by an individual
fluid particle over a
time period.

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STREAKLINE
A streakline consists of all fluid particles in a
flow that have previously passed through a
common point. Such a line can be produced
by continuously injecting marked fluid (smoke
in air, or dye in water) at a given location.
For steady flow : The streamline, the pathline,
and the streakline are the same.

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STREAKLINES
A Streakline is the
locus of fluid particles
that have passed
sequentially through
a prescribed point in
the flow.
Easy to generate in
experiments: dye in a
water flow, or smoke
in an airflow.

COMPARISON
For steady flow, streamlines, pathlines, and
streaklines are identical.
For unsteady flow, they can be very different.
Streamlines are an instantaneous picture of the
flow field
Pathlines and Streaklines are flow patterns that
have a time history associated with them.
Streakline: instantaneous snapshot of a timeintegrated flow pattern.
Pathline:
time-exposed flow path of an
individual particle.
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Ex 3
Determine the equation of streamline for a two
dimensional flow field for which the velocity
components are given by
i. u = a and v = a where a is a non-zero
constant. The streamline passes through the
point (1, 3).
ii. u = y/b2 and v = x/a2. The streamline passes
through the point (a, 0).

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Ex 4
In a steady fluid flow, the velocity components
are u = 2kx, v = 2ky, w = -4kz. Find the
equation of streamline passing through the
point (1, 0, 1).

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VELOCITY POTENTIAL FUNCTION


Imagine that a function exist such that its
derivative in any direction gives the velocity in

that direction

v
y

The function is called the velocity potential


function and lines of constant potential
function are termed equipotential lines.
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VELOCITY POTENTIAL FUNCTION


Since is a function of x and y alone,

d
dx dy u.dx v.dy
x
y

For an equipotential line ( = constant), d = 0


u.dx v.dy 0
v.dy u.dx
dy
u

dx
v
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VELOCITY POTENTIAL FUNCTION


v u

x y

x y y x
0

xy yx
Hence the velocity potential function,
exists when the flow is irrotational.
2

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Differential Equation of Continuity


The fluid is continuous both in space & time.
For an incompressible fluid, the density
would be constant.
For 3-D incompressible flow
u v w

0
x y z
For 2-D incompressible flow

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When exists,

0
x x y y

2
2
x
y
2

satisfies the Laplace Equation


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Ex 4
Which of the following velocity fields pertain
to the motion of steady, two-dimensional flow
of an incompressible fluid

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STREAM FUNCTION
Mathematically, the stream function for a flow
in the x y is defined as a function of x and y
such that the velocity components are given by,

u
y

v
x
where is the value of stream function.
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STREAM FUNCTION
Considering the continuity of flow
u v

0
x y


0
x y y x
2 2

0
xy yx
2
2

xy yx
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STREAM FUNCTION
Show that satisfies the Laplace Equation for
irrotational flow

v u

0
x y

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Ex 5
A fluid flows along a flat surface parallel to the xdirection. The velocity u varies linearly with y,
the distance from the flat surface and u=Ay
a) Find the stream function of the flow
b) Determine whether the flow is irrotational

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Ex 6
If =3xy, find x and y components of velocity at
(1, 3) and (3, 3). Determine the discharge
passing between streamlines.

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PROPERTIES OF AND
Property
Continuity
equation
Irrotationality
condition

Automatically
satisfied
Satisfied if
..

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Satisfied if

Automatically
satisfied

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PROPERTIES OF AND
Streamlines and equipotential lines are
orthogonal to each other.

The gradient of the equipotential line = -u/v


the gradient of a stream line = v/u
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FLOW THROUGH A BEND

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