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FLUID MECHANICS II

CE 2033

Dr WCDK FERNANDO
Department of Civil Engineering

COURSE CONTENT
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1. Dimensional and Hydraulic Model

Analysis
2. Ideal Flow
3. Boundary Layer Theory
4. Hydraulic Machines

INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES


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Apply the principle of similitude to prepare true

and distorted models in model testing


Sketch streamline plots for common, simple flow
field combinations (eg. Uniform flow and source /
sink, doublet) and estimate the location of
stagnation point/s
Explain concepts of momentum thickness and
displacement thickness to solve problems in laminar
and turbulent boundary layers
Compare the performance characteristics of
centrifugal pumps and calculate efficiency and head

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
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Semester end Examination 70%

Assignments 20%

Practical 10%

TYPES OF ASSIGNMENTS
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Class test
Group work
MCQ

RECOMMENDED READING
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Douglas, J. F., Solving Problems in Fluid

Mechanics, Volume 2, ELBS.


Khurmi, R. S., A textbook of Hydraulics, Fluid
Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines, S. Chand &
Company

DIMENSIONAL & HYDRAULIC


MODEL ANALYSIS

1.1 INTRODUCTION
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Dimensional analysis is a mathematical method of

obtaining the equations, changing units, determining


a convenient arrangement of variable of a physical
relation.
In an equation expressing a physical relationship
between quantities, absolute numerical and
dimensional equality must exist.

MODEL ANALYSIS
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DIMENSIONS AND UNITS


A dimension is a measure of a physical quantity

(without numerical values), while a unit is a way to assign


a number to that dimension.

Note: All nonprimary dimensions can be formed by some


combination of the seven primary dimensions.

1.2 APPLICATIONS
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It helps to check whether an equation of any physical

phenomenon is dimensionally homogeneous or not.


It helps to determine the dimensions of a physical
quantity.
Dimensional homogeneity helps to convert the units
from one system to another.
The concept of dimensional homogeneity is a step to
dimensional analysis which is fruitfully employed to
plan experiments and to present the results
meaningfully.

DIMENSIONAL HOMOGENEITY
The law of dimensional homogeneity, stated as
Every additive term in an equation must have the same dimensions.

An equation that is not dimensionally


homogeneous is a sure sign of an error.

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND SIMILARITY


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Primary purposes of dimensional analysis


To

generate non-dimensional parameters that


help in the design of experiments (physical
and/or numerical) and in reporting of results.
To obtain scaling laws so that prototype
performance can be predicted from model
performance.
To predict trends in the relationship between
parameters.

1.3 DERIVED DIMENSIONS


Quantity
Area
Volume
Velocity
Acceleration
Density
Force
Discharge
Shear stress
Dynamic viscosity
Kinematic viscosity
Pressure
Work /Energy
Power
Surface tension

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Symbol

Dimension

1.4 BUCKINGHAMS THEOREM


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If there are n variables in a problem and these

variables contain m primary dimensions (for


example M, L, T) the equation relating all the
variables will have (n-m) dimensionless groups.

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Let A1, A2, A3, ..An be the parameters involve such

as pressure, acceleration, velocity etc.


All these parameters are known to be essential to the
solution & hence a fundamental relationship of
functions A1, A2, A3, ..An should exist.

f A1 , A 2 , A 3 .....A n 0
If the number of dimensions involve with this set of

parameters is m, there should be (n-m) number of


non-dimensional quantities.

SUMMARY OF STEPS
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Select the relevant variables.


Write down the functional relationship.
Find the dimensions involved in the process.
Select

the repeating variables. These variables


collectively should contain all the dimensions
involved in the process.
Find the number of non-dimensional parameters
using the Buckinghams pi theorem.
Write Pi parameters in terms of unknown exponents
by combining repeating variables with the remaining
variables.

SUMMARY OF STEPS
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For each expression, write the equation of

exponent so that the sum of exponents of each


dimension will be zero.
Establish the functional relationship in terms of pi
parameters.

Ex 1
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The resistance force F of a ship is a function of its

length L, velocity V, acceleration due to gravity g and


fluid properties like density and viscosity .
Formulate a relationship between these variables
using Buckinghams Pi theorem.

Nondimensionalization of Equations
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Dimensional homogeneity every term in an

equation has the same dimensions.


nondimensional divide each term in the
equation by a collection of variables and constants
whose product has those same dimensions.
Nondimensional parameters are named after
a notable scientist or engineer (e.g., the Reynolds
number and the Froude number).

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF DIMENSIONLESS QUANTITIES


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Reynolds number,

Fi
R e
Fv
2

l
2 l
Fi l 2 l l 2 v 2
t
t
v 2
Fv l vl
l
2 2
l v
vl
Re

vl

FROUDE NUMBER
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Fi
Fr
Fg
2

Fi l v

Fg l g
2

l v
Fr

3
l g

v
v

gl
gl

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Euler number
Mach number
Weber number

1.6 THEORY OF HYDRAULIC MODELS


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Model
-Is generally a
small
scale
system of the
prototype.
Prototype
- Is the full size
structure
employed
in
the
actual
engineering
design.

OBJECTIVES OF MODEL STUDIES


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To study the geometrical appearance & relative

proportions of the system


To examine the flow paths over, through or around
the objects
To determine the pressure distribution & the
resulting forces on the system
To estimate the flow capacity
To ascertain the overall performance of a hydraulic
machine
To check whether the prototype will give the
intended performance

APPLICATIONS OF MODEL STUDIES


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1.7 SIMILITUDE
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The relationship between model and prototype

performance is governed by the laws of hydraulic


similarity.
True models have all significant characteristics of the
prototype reproduced to scale i.e. (geometrically
similar) and satisfy design restrictions (kinematic
and dynamic similitude).

The concept of dimensional analysis


Three necessary conditions for complete similarity

between a model and a prototype.

Geometric Similarity the model must be the


same shape as the prototype. Each dimension must be
scaled by the same factor.
Kinematic Similarity velocity as any point in the
model must be proportional by a constant scale factor.
Dynamic Similarity all forces in the model flow
scale by a constant factor to corresponding forces in
the prototype flow.
Complete Similarity is achieved only if all 3
conditions are met. This is not always possible, e.g.,
ship models.