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Famous Sociologists
— Strong shoulders to stand on —

Addams, J. Durkheim, E. Kearl, M. Pareto, V.

Adorno, Th. W. Elias, N. König, R. Park, R.E.
Aron, R. Elster, J. Latour, B. Parsons, T.
Bauman, Z. Etzioni, A. Lefebvre, H. Popper, K.
Baudrillard, J. Ferguson, A. Lenski, G. Rousseau, J.-J.
Becker, H. Foucault, M. Lévi-Strauss, C. Schütz, A.
Bell, D. Fromm, E. Luckmann, Th. Simmel, G.
Benedict, R.F. Garfinkel, H. Luhmann, N. Sorokin, P.A.
Berger, P. L. Geertz, C. Malinowski, B. Spencer, H.
Bhaskar, R. Geiger, Th. Mann, M. Taylor, W.F.
Blau, P. Giddens, A. Mannheim, K. Thomas, W.I.
Blumer, H. Goffman, E. Marcuse, H. Tocqueville, A. de
Boltanski, L. Goudsblom, J. Marx, K. Toffler, A.
Boudon, R. Gouldner, A.W. Mauss, M. Tönnies, F.
Bourdieu, P. Gramsci, A. McLuhan, M Touraine, A.
Coleman, J.A. Habermas, J. Mead, G. H. Toynbee, A.
Collins, R. Halbwachs, M. Mead, M. Veblen, T.
Comte, A. Hall, S. Merton, R. K. Walby, S.
Cooley, Ch. H. Haraway, D.J. Michels, R. Wallerstein, I.
Coser, L. Homans, G.C. Millett, K. Ward, L.F.
Crompton, R. Horkheimer, M. Mills, C. W. Weber, Max
Crozier, M. Ibn Khaldun Moreno, J. L. Willis, Paul
Dahrendorf, R. Inglehart, R. Morgan, L. H. Znaniecki, F.W.
Du Bois, W.E.B. Kanter E. M. Offe, C.

Theories — Home pages of Sociologists — Reference

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in society.‖

Addams, Jane [1860-1935]

Jane Addams was one of the vice presidents of the Chicago Liberty
Meeting that led to the formation of the Central Anti-
Imperialist League in Chicago. She later served as a
vice president of the national Anti-Imperialist League
(1904-1919). In 1889, Addams co-founded Hull House,
one of America’s first settlement houses. She was
later a co-founder and first president of the Women’s
International League for Peace and Freedom (1919-
1935). She is also remembered as the first American Woman to receive
the Nobel Peace Price.

o Biography
From: Marshall W. Fischwick [1968] Illustrious American: Jane Adams.
Morristown, NJ: Silver Burdett Company.
From: Mary Jo Deegan [1985] Jane Addams and the Men of the
Chicago School, 1892-1018. New Brunswick NJ: Transaction Books.
o Women in History: Jane Addams
o Jane Addams (1890-1935)
From the Open Collections Program: Women Working, 1800-1930.
Jane Addams Hull-House Museum
Includes a biography and chronology, works by and about Addams.
Hull-House Maps and Papers
[1899] Democracy or Militarism
Address before the Chicago Liberty Meeting, April 30, 1899.
[1906] An International Patriotism
In: The Public 9, April 21, 1906.
At the age of twelve Jane Addams learned from her father that international
patriotism is not a contradictory expression. She obtained ―a sense of the
genuine relationship which may exist between men who share large hopes
and like desires, even though they differ in nationality, language and creed.‖
[1907a] Newer Ideals of Peace [Prefactory Note and Table of Content]
New York: Macmillan, pp. vii-xviii.
[1907b] National Protection for Children
In: Child Labor and the Republic (New York: National Child Labor Committee,
[1909] The Spirit of Yourh and the City Streets
New York: Macmillan.
[1910] Twenty Years at Hull-House
New York: MacMillan Co., 1910.
[1916] The Long Road of Woman‘s Memory
New York: Macmillan.
[1922] Peace and Bread in Time of War
G.K. Hall & Co., 1960 (originally published by The Women‘s International
League for Peace and Freedom, 1922-1945). Mirror at BoondocksNet

Adorno, Theodor W. [1903 - 1969]

By Adorno
[1930/1964] Chaplin Times Two
The first essay appeared under the title ―Kierkegaard prophesies Chaplin‖ in
the Frankfurter Zeitung, May 22, 1930; the second as ―Chaplin in Malibu‖ in
Neue Rundschau, Vol. 3, 75th year, 1964; they first appeared together under
the present title in the volume Ohne Leitbild (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp,
1969), 89-93.
[1944] Le Prix du Progress (with Max Horkheimer)
From: The Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Continuum, 1993. Originally
published as ―Dialektik der Aufklärung‖, 1944.
[1944] The Culture Industry: Enlightment as Mass Deception (with Max
From: The Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Continuum, 1993. Originally
published as ―Dialektik der Aufklärung‖, 1944.
[1951] Minima moralia. Reflections from damaged life [mirror] (First
published in German in 1951). Translation: Dennis Redmond (2005)
―Dialectic thought is an attempt to break through the coercion of logic by its
own means.‖
[1956] Music and Language: A Fragment
From: Quasi una Fantasia. Essays on Modern Music. London/New York: Verso.
[1968] Late Capitalism or Industrial Society?
Opening Adress to the 16th German Sociological Congress. Translation:
Dennis Redmond (2001)
[1991] Culture Industry Reconsidered
From: The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture. London:
Routledge, 1991.


T.W. Adorno: A bibliography [2007] - Lambert Zuidervaart

In: Stanford Encyclopdedia of Philosophy.
T.W. Adorno: A Bibliography of Work in English [Moved to ...?]
Prepared by W. Barker (Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada).
Theodor Wiesengrund-Adorno: une biographie sommaire
A short French biography and overview. Includes a bibliography for French
material. Presented by Dialectique.
Theodor Adorno - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Written by Lambert Zuidervaart (2003)
Theodor Adorno on PhilWeb
Theodor W. Adorno Archiv - Institut für Sozialforschung, Frankfurt

On Adorno

Allefeld, Carsten
Theodor W. Adorno - Time table.
Allefeld, Carsten [2001]
Gidt es einen Materiebegriff bei Theodor W. Adorno? [pdf]
Explanation of the concept of matter in the work of Adorno.
Bowman, Curtis [1997]
Odysseus and the Siren Call of Reason: The Frankfurt School Critique of
In: Other Voices 1(1).
Bronner, Stephen
Dialectics at a Standstill: A Methodological Inquiry Into the Philosophy of
Theodor W. Adorno
In: Illuminations.
Cohen, Hart K. [1998]
The nightmare that haunts the Frankfurt School: Re-rationalisation of media
In: Continuum 1(2): 100-9.
Gannon, Thomas C. [1998-07]
Theodor Adorno and Heavy Metal
Kattenbelt, Chiel
Theodor W. Adorno - Televisie als exponent van de cultuurindustrie
A Dutch contribution on television as exponent of the culture industry.
Kaufmann, David [1995]
Adorno and the Name of God
Why did Adorno - aberrant Marxist, Left Hegelian par excellence, and follower
of Nietzsche - insist on using blatantly religious tropes?
Kogawa, Tetsuo [1980-1]
Adorno‘s ―Strategy of Hibernation‖
A critical explanation of Adorno‗ remarkt: ―All culture after Auschwitz,
including its urgent critique, is garbage.‖
Larsen, Neil [1992]
In: Postmodern Culture 2(2).
O'Brien, Eugene [1968]
‗What ish my nation?‘: Towards a negative definition of identity
Smith, Terence [1996]
Asking Adorno About Postmodern Popular Theatre
Welty, Gordon [1984]
Theodor Adorno and the Culture Industry
Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Popular Culture Association, Toronto
(March 30, 1984)
A review of Adorno‘s conception of the ‗culture industry‘ as it is found in three
writings: ‗On Popular Music‘ (1941), ‗Dialectic of Enlightenment‘ (1944), and
‗Culture Industry Reconsidered‘ (1963). In these writings, Adorno has
provided a theory of the nature of the culture product and its valuation. The
standardization and interchangeability of culture products under late
capitalism leads to the interchangeability of persons in the audience.
Stylization has its counterpart, the pseudo-individualization of the culture
product and members of the audience. Both stylization and pseudo-
individualization contribute to the possibilities of mass marketing. The
consequences for the audience in late capitalism are distraction on the one
hand, and on the other hand, a means of ensuring the audience‘s
‗adjustment‘ to its dependency. The significance of Adorno‘s thought on the
culture industry is becoming increasingly apparent in the present era.
Wiggersfhaus, Rolf [1995]
The Frankfurt School: Its History, Theories, and Political Significance
(Translated by: Michael Robertson).
Wikipedia: Theodor Adorno

Aron, Raymond [1903 - 1983]

[1955] L‘Opium des intellectuels
Pluriel: Hachette.
[1962] Guerre interétatique
et guerre intraétatique
In: Paix et Geurre ente les
Paris: Calmann-Lévy.
[1963] Essai sur les libertés
[1966] Peace and War: A
Theory of International
Garden City, NY: Doubleday
& Company, pp. 591-600.
o Encyclopædia
Aron, Raymond
o Romane, Cécile [1998]
Biographie de Raymond Aron
Centre de recherches politiques Raymond Aron
Commentaire [table of contents + abstracts]
Journal found by Raymond Aron and headed by Jean-Clause Casanova.
Chanlat, Jean-François [1982]
Raymond Aron: l‘itinéraire d‘un sociologue libéral [pdf]
In: Sociologie et sociétés, 14(2): 119-33. Octobre 1982.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke [1998]
The Politics of the Possible
Review of Brian C. Anderson: Raymond Aron: The Recovery of the Political.
Rowman & Littefield.
In: First Things, nov. 1998: 52-55.
Kimball, Roger [2001]
Raymond Aron and the power of ideas
From The Mew Criterion, 19(9), May 2001.
Malis, Christian
Raymond Aron et le concept de puissance
Article on Aron‘s concept of power. [mirror]
Wikipedia: Raymond Aron

Bauman, Zygmunt [1925]

[1996] Alone Again - Ethics After Certainty

[2008] Culture in a Globalised City
A contribution to the issue of Occupied London.
Bunting, Madeleine [2003]
Passion and pessimism
Interview and profile of Bauman from The Guardian.
Cummings, Dolan [2004]
The trouble with being human these days - Identity
Edemariam, Aida [2007]
Professor with a past, in: The Guardian April 28, 2007.
Europe of Strangers [pdf]
Oxford University Transnational Communities Programme Working Paper.
Galecki, Lukasz [2005]
The unwinnable war: an interview with Zygmunt Bauman
Majchrzak, Kamil [2007]
Was ist so schlimm daran?
Article about the anticommunist legislation in Poland and lies about Zygmunt
Vásques Rocco, Adolfo [2008]
Modernidad líquida y fragilidad humana; de Zygmunt Bauman a Sloterdijk
Wikipedia: Zigmunt_Bauman

Baudrillard, Jean [1929]

By Baudrillard

[1981] On the Murderous Capacity of Images

Excerpt from Jean Baudrillard, The Evil Demon of
Images and the Precession of Simulacra, in: Thomas
Docherty (ed.) [1993] Postmodernism: A Reader New
York: Columbia Univ. Press
[1986] America
Excerpts compiled by Chris Turner from the original in
French, Americe
[1991] The Seismic Order
[1992] Hystericizing the Millennium
Originally published in French as part of Jean
Braudillard, L’Illusion de la fin: ou La greve des evenements. Paris: Galilee,
1992. Translated by Charles Dudas (York University).
[1992] Reversion of History
Originally published in French as part of Jean Braudillard, L’Illusion de la fin:
ou La greve des evenements. Paris: Galilee, 1992. Translated by Charles
Dudas (York University).
[1992] Rise of the Void towards the Periphery
Originally published in French as part of Jean Braudillard, L’Illusion de la fin:
ou La greve des evenements. Paris: Galilee, 1992. Translated by Charles
Dudas (York University).
[1992] Thawing of the East
Originally published in French as part of Jean Braudillard, L’Illusion de la fin:
ou La greve des evenements. Paris: Galilee, 1992. Translated by Charles
Dudas (York University).
[1992] Strike of Events
Originally published in French as part of Jean Braudillard, L’Illusion de la fin:
ou La greve des evenements. Paris: Galilee, 1992. Translated by Charles
Dudas (York University).
[1993] Pataphysics of Year 2000
Originally published in French as part of Jean Braudillard, L’Illusion de la fin:
ou La greve des evenements. Paris: Galilee, 1992. Translated by Charles
Dudas (York University).
{1994] Radical Thought
Translation of Jean Baudrillard‘s La Pensee Radicale, published in Sens /Tonka
(eds.) [1994] Collection Morsure, Paris.
[1994] Plastic Surgery for the Other
This article first appeared in Jean Baudrillard / Marc Guillaume [1994] Figures
de l’alterite. Paris: Descartes et Cie.
[1994] No Reprieve for Serajevo
Published in Liberation, January 8, 1994. Translated by Patrice Riemens.
[1995] Vivisecting the 90s: An Interview with Jean Baudrillard
An interview by Caroline Bayard and Graham Knight (Mc Master University,
Hamiltion, Canada. Published in Research in Semiotic Inquiry 16(1/2), Spring
[1996] Disneyworld Company
An essay.
[1996] Baudrillard on the New Technologies
An interview with Claude Thibaut in Cybersphere
Originally published in Style 29:314-27.
[1997] A Conjuration of Imbeciles
This article originallly appeared as ―La conjuration des imbeciles‖ in Liberation
on May 7, 1997. Translated by François Debrix.
[1997] The End of the Millennium or the Countdown
[1997] Global Debt and Parallel Universe
Published in French by Liberation, Paris. Translated by François Debrix.
[2003] The Violence of the Global
Initially publishad als ―La Violence du Mondial‖, in Braudrillard [2002] Power
Inferno. Paris: Galilée, pp. 63-83.
Terrorism is analysed as a contemporary partner of globalization.

On Baudrillard

Attias, Ben
The World of Baudrillard
(Department of Speech Communication, School of Arts, Media, and
Communication California State University Northridge, USA).
Nunes, Mark [1995] (DeKalb College)
Baudrillard in Cyberspace: Internet, Virtuality, and Postmodernity
O‘Farrell, Clase [1993]
Review of Julian Pefanis, Heterology and the Postmodern: Bataille,
Baudrillard, and Lyotard
Originally published in Thesis Eleven, 34 (1993), 202-5.
The book of Pefanis can be read at
An extensive Baudrillard page with annotated bibliography and text
selections. Editor: Ben Attias (California State University Norhridge). You
have to be cautious: ―Objects in Mirror are closer than they appear‖.
Warfield, Richard [1999]
Considering and Exercise of Self and Justice in the Later Foucault
Student Journal of Philosophy 18(1), Spring 1999.

Baudrillard on the Web
A list of links to works about and by Baudrillard, compiled by Alan Taylor.
Contemporary Philosophy, Critical Theory and Postmodern Thought
Links to sites on Baudrillard.
Extensive Bibliography (
A chronological bibliography by Machiel Karskens.

Becker, Howard S.

Howie‘s Home Page

A living sociologist who created this page primarily to make things he has
written and published in obscure places available to anyone who wants them.
[1991] Children‘s Conceptions of Money: Concepts and Social Organization
In: David Maines [1991] Social Organization and Social Process. Aldine
Publishing Co. pp. 45-47.
[1993] New Directions in the Sociology of Art
Paper given at the meeting of the European Sociological Association, Section
on the Sociology of Art, Paris, April 2003.
[1993] Making Sociology Relevant to Society
Lecture given at the meeting of The European Sociological Association in
Murcia, Spain, 2003.
[1994b] Professionalism in the Sociology: The Case of C. Wright Mills
In: Ray Rist (ed.) [1994] The Democratic Imagination: Dialogues on the Work
of Irving Louis Horowitz. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.
[1995] A New Art Form: Hypertext Fiction
In: M. Lourdes Lima dos Santos, Cultura & Economia, Lisbon: Edicões do
Instituto de Ciências Sociais.
[1999] The Chicago School So-Called
In: Qualitative Sociology 22(1), 1999, p. 3-12.
[2001a] Drugs: What Are They?
Published in French as ―Les drogues: que sont-elles?‖, pp. 11-20 in Howard S.
Becker, ed., Qu‘est-ce qu‘une drogue?, (Anglet:Atlantica, 2001).
[2001b] The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions
In: Charles Amourous / Alain Blanc (eds.) [2001] La politique de la
présentation: Goffman et les institutions totales. Paris: L‘Harmattan. pp. 59-
[2002] Studying the New Media
In: Qualitative Sociology 25(3), 2002, pp. 337-43.
[2003a] Making Sociology Relevant to Society
Lecture at the meeting of The European Sociological Association in Murcia,
[2003b] New Directions in the Sociology of Art
Paper given at the meeting of the European Sociological Associatoin, Section
on the Sociology of Art, Paris, April 2003.
[2004a] Jazz Places
In: Andy Bennet / Richard A. Peterson (eds.) [2004] Music Scenes: Local,
Translocal, and Virtual. Nashville: Vanderbil University Press.
[2004b] How Much is Enough?
Vlhelm Aubert Memorial Lecture. University of Oslo, October 2004.
[2005] Making it up as you go along: How I Wrote Art Worlds
Published as ―Inventer chemin faisant: comment j‘ai écrit Les mondes de
l’art‖, in: Daniel Mercure (ed.) [2005] L’analyse du social: Les modes
d’explication. Quebec: Les Presses de l‘Université Laval.
[2006] The Lay Referral System: The Problem of Professional Power
In: Knowledge, Work and Society, 4: 65–76.
[2008] Interaction: Some Ideas
Learning to observe in Chicago
Written for a forthcoming book on observation by Jean Peneff.
Hans Ulrich Obrist Interview with Howard Becker
To appear in The Welfare Show, edited by Ariane Beyn.
An interview about the use of interviews in sociological studies. Paris, October
20, 2004.

Bell, Daniel [1919]

Daniel [1950] Notes on Authoritarian and Democratic Leadership
In: Alvin W. Gouldner (ed.) [1950], Studies in Leadership: Leadership and
Democratic Action. New York: Harper & Brothers, pp. 395-408.

Bell, Daniel [1960] The End of Ideology

Chapter 13: The Mood of Three Generations.
A modern classical in which Bell argues that the older humanistic ideologies
derived from the 19th and 20th centuries were exhausted, and that new
parochial ideologies would arise.
Bell, Daniel [1973] The Coming of Post-Industrial Society
New York: Basic Books, ch. 6 (pp. 339-68).
Bell, Daniel [2002] Athens and Jerusalem: The Twin Foundations of Western
Perlstein, Rick [1996] The Prophet Motive - Daniel Bell‘s Take on Capitalism,
20 Years Later
Posted in Slate, Nov. 20, 1996.
Lind, Michael [1999] Why Daniel Bell Keeps Getting it Right
New America Foundation.
Wikipedia: Daniel Bell

Benedict, Ruth Fulton [1887 - 1948]

Ruth Fulton Benedict
A short biography presented by Celebration of Women
Guide to the Ruth Fulton Benedict Papers
[1950] Échantillons de civilisation
Hochman, Susan K.: Ruth Fulton Benedict
A short but informative biography. You will learn that
Benedict emphasizes the power of custom and learning
as an argument against nature and of the infinite
capacity of human beings to change. Benedict believed
that an individual could succesfully alter the conditions
of her social life and in doing so, transforms society.
Wikipedia: Ruth_Fulton_Benedict

Berger, Peter L. and Luckmann, Thomas

 [1963] Invitation to Sociology. A Humanistic Perspective

New York, Anchor Books, Doubley & Company, Inc.
An invitation to understand society in a disciplined way for people who are
naturally interested in the events that engage people‘s ultimate beliefs, their
moments of tragedy and grandeur and ecstasy, but who are also fascinated
by the commonplace, the everyday. Social reality has many layers of
meaning. The discovery of each new layer changes the perceptions of the
whole The fascination of sociology lies in the fact that its perspective makes
us see in a new light the very world in which we have lived all our lives.
 Chapter 1: Sociology as an individual pastime
In the first chapter [pp. 1-24] of his Invitation to Sociology Berger
presents his humanistic answers to the question ―why study
sociology?‖ In Why Study Sociology? his main arguments are -gender
modified- summarized.
 Chapter 6: Sociological Perspective: Society as Drama
 [1963] Outline of Invitation to Sociology
An excellent introduction to sociology. Although some material is
unavoidably dated, the sociological insights aren‘t dated in the least.
 [1966] Society as a Human Product
From: Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann. [1966] The Social Construction
of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Garden City, New York:
Anchor Books, pp. 51-55, 59-61.
In these fragments the autors explain what it means that man produces
himself, i.e. the homo socius. They also argue that the causes of the
emergence, maintenance and transmission of a social order can only be
understood when you analyse the orgins, functions and processes of
institutionalization. The origin of institutionalization is explained by the
argument that all human activity is subject to habitualization. This processes
of baibualization precede any institutionalization. Institutionalization itself is
defined as a reciprocal typication of habitualized actions by types of actors.
 [1990] Reflections of an Ecclesiastical Expatriate
In: The Christian Century, October 24, 1990, pp. 964-9.
 [1997] Epistemological Modesty: An Interview with Peter Berger
In: The Christian Century, October 29, 1997, pp. 972-8.
Berger explains why the modern challenges is how to live with uncertainty.
―The basic fault lines today are not between people with different beliefs but
between people who hold these beliefs with an element of uncertainty and
people who hold these beliefs with a pretense of certitude. There is a middle
ground between fanatism and relativism.‖ That‘s what is ment by
―epistemomogical modesty‖, you can belief certain things, but you are modest
about these claims.
 [1998] Protestantism and the Quest for Certainty
In: The Christian Century, August 26-September 2, 1998, pp. 782-796.
Berger explains a big mistake he made in his career as a sociologist. He once
believed that modernity necessarily leads to a decline in religion. But he also
explains one big insight: pluralism undermines the taken-for-granted of
beliefs and values. In the article the mistake and the insight are related.
 Kessel, David H.
Berger‘s Motifs of Sociological Consiousness
Kessel explains his fascination for a classic in sociology, Berger‘s Invitation to
Sociology. In a few word he stresses the importance of Berger‘s ideas about
how to think sociologically...especially critically. The four motifs or themes of
―sociological consiousness‖ are illustrated from Berger‘s book.
 Peter L. Berger Room
A listing of online publications on Peter Berger.

Bhaskar, Roy

Info on Bhaskar and archive - From: Spoon Collective.

Roy Bhaskar Interviewed
by: Chris Norris. Published in The Philosophers‘ Magazine (TPM).
Bhaskar explains why the most important problem facing mankind was that of
world poverty. From thereon he explains his philosophical perspective on
critical realism.
The Web Site for Critical Realism (WSCR)
An independent space for the study and promotion of critical realist methods
and analyses. Presented by the Centre for Critical Realism (CCR).
Gorman, David
Critical Unrealism
Review of Roy Bhaskar (ed.) A Meeting of Minds: Socialists discuss philosophy
- towards a new symposium (London: Socialist Society, 1991).

Blau, Peter

Social Exchange
From: Peter Blau [1964] Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: Wiley,
pp. 88-97.
A Formal Theory of Differentiation in Organizations [Summary]
In: American Sociological Review 25 (1970): 201-18.

Blumer, Herbert
[1973] Der methodologische Standort des symbolischen
Interaktionismus [pdf]
In: Allagswissen, Interaction und gesellschaftliche
Wirklichkeit, Band I. - Arbeitsgruppe Bielefelder Soziologen
(Hg.). Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1973. pp. 80-101.
Harris, C. Dodd [1996]
Symbolic Interactionism as defined by Herbert Blumer

Boltanski, Luc

[1989] Justesse et Justice dans le travail [pdf]

Introduction of Luc Boltanski & Laurent Thévenot [1989] ―Justesse et justice
dans le travail‖. Cahier du centre d‘études et de l‘emploi. Paris: PUF, 33, p. V-
[1991] De la justification [pdf]
Preface of Luc Boltanski & Laurent Thévenot [1991] ―De la justification. Les
économies de la grandeur‖. Paris: Gallimard, p. 6-39. It explains how the
book has been written.
La sociologie politique & morale de Luc Boltanski
A site dedicated to the sociology of Luc Boltanksi, created by A. Rousseau and
P Wright, students of the IEP in Toulouse. It offers analysis of his work, a
biography and bibliograhpy, and links to online texts.
Juhem, Philippe [1994] Un nouveau paradigme sociologique?
In: Cahier de sociologie politique de Nanterre, vol 1, 1994, p. 82-106.
Article on the importance of the work of Luc Boltanksi and Laurent Thévenot.

Boudon, Raymond

Raymond Boudon (Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques)

[1998] A ―satisfying‖ theory of social knowledge
Why do people believe in fragile and false ideas? Boudon identifies three
classical theories on this subject. He uses Herbert Simon‘s ―satisficing‖ theory
of decision to explain the magical beliefs.
[1998] The Sense of Values
A critical discussion of relativistic theories of values. Boudon argues that
rationalist theories of axiological feellings are scientifically much more valid
and promising than culturalist or naturalist theories.
Publications of Raymond Boudon
Biographical notes on Boudon
Sperber, Dan [1997]
Individualisme méthodologique et cognitivime
In: Boudon, Raymond / Chazel, François / Bouvier, Alban (eds.) [1997]
Cognition et sciences sociales. Paris: Presse Universitaires de France.

Bourdieu, Pierre [1930 - 2002]

Bourdieu Google Group
A forum for the discussion and debate inspired by the philosophical and
sociological thought of Pierre Bourdieu and his work in all its aspects:
aesthetic, artistic, cultural, scientific, social, philosophical and political.
A mailing list for the exchange of information about the ideas of Pierre
Bourdieu. Moderated by Raphaël Desanti.
Outline of a Theory of Practice
Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. 1977, chs. 2 (‘Structures and the
Habitus―), 4 (‘Structures, Habitus, Power: Basis for a Theory of Symbolic
Pierre Bourdieu - sociologue énervant
A portal on Bourdieu, presented by Le Magazine de ‘lHomme Moderne. The
site presents many original texts of Bourdieu.
Synopsis of Distinction: Chap. 5, ―The Sense of Distinction‖
Society of Social Research Page, University of Chicago.
By Bourdieu
o [1987] The Biographical Illusion
In: Working Papers and Proceedings of the Center for Psychosocial
Studies, (Chicago), 14:1-7.
o [1988] Of Interest and the Relative Autonomy of Symbolic Power
In: Working Papers and Proceedings of the Center for Psychosocial
Studies, (Chicago), 20:1-11.
o [June, 1991] Espíritus de Estado. Génesis y estructura del campo
Spanish translation of Esprits d’État. Genèse et structure du champ
bureaucratique. A lecture on a conference in Amsterdam, 29 June
1991. Published in Actes RSS, nr. 96/97:49-62. Reprinted in Razones
prácticas. Sobre la teoría de la acción. Barcelona: Anagrama, 1997.
o [1995] Combattre la technocratie sur son terrain
Discours aux cheminots grevistes - Paris, Gare de Lyon, 12 decembre
o [1996] Was bin Ich? or French translation: Que sui-je?
Interview with Pierre Bourdieu of Isabelle Graw. In: The Thing
(Vienna, Switzerland).
o [April, 1996] La télévision peut-elle critiquer la tétélevision?
Le Monde Diplomatique.
o [Oct., 1996] Sociologie et démocratie
Tribune Libre, 3 (1996).
o [June 1997] La dominación masculina
(The male domination)
In: La Ventana Revista de estudios de género, nr. 3. Translation of: La
domination masculine. Paris: Seuil.
o [July 1997] Der Beitrag der Intellektuellen
(The contribution of Intellectuals)
o [Mai, 1998] The Essence of Neoliberalism | L‘essence du
Le Monde Diplomatique.
o [Aug., 1998] De la domination masculine
La Monde Diplomatique, nr. 533.
o [June, 1999] Pour un mouvement social européen
Le Monde Diplomatique.
o [Jan, 2001] Pour un savoir engagé
Le Monde Diplomatique.
o HyperBourdieu
A comprehensive, contextual and referential bibliography and
mediography of Bourdieu‘s works and public statements. Created by
Ingo Mörth and Gerhard Fröhlich (Johannes Kepler University Linz,
o Pierre Bourdieu Bibliography - Editor: Henry Barnard. [Moved to ...?]
o Des textes de Pierre Bourdieu
o Wikipedia: Pierre_Bourdieu

On Bourdieu
o Beasley-Murray, Jon [1995]
Value and Capital in Bourdieu and Marx
Papers in the Marxism Archive (Spoons Collective): presented at
‗Pierre Bourdieu - fieldwork in philosophy conference‘, Duke University,
21-23 April 1995. A revised version of this essay is published in
Nicholas Brown & Imre Szeman (ed.) [2000] Pierre Bourdieu:
Fieldwork in Culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 100-
o Beck, Ulrich [1997]
Mißverstehen als Fortschrift - Europäische Intellektuele im Zeitalter der
Laudatio by the Ernst-Bloch prize.
o Jacobs, Dirk [1993]
De synthese van handelings: en systeemtheorie in de
structuratietheorie van Anthony Giddens en de praxeologie van Pierre
Bourdieu. - University of Ghent: MA Thesis. See abstract.
o Fowler, Bridget (University of Glasgow)
Pierre Bourdieu and La Domination Masculine
In her critical review of La Domination Masculine [Seuil 1998] Fowler
discusses Bourdieu‘s theory of gender relations.
o Graw, Isabelle [1996]
Ein Interview mit Pierre Bourdieu - The Thing, Vienna.
o Krauss, Hartmut [2001]
Zwischen Subjektivismus und Objektivismus. Zum Erkenntnisgehalt
der theoretischen Konzeption Pierre Bourdieus
o Lawley, Elizabeth Lane [1994]
The Sociology of Culture in Computer-Mediated Communication. An
Initial Exploration.
o Loesberg, Jonathan [1993]
Bourdieu and the Sociology of Aesthetics
In:ELH 60(4):1033-1056.
o Mex, Bernd [2000]
Störenfeind in der linken Idylle?
In: Forum Wissenschaft /
o Varenne, Hervé [1996] (Columbia University, USA)
Review of ‗Homo Academicus‘
In: Teachers College Record 91:263-265.
o Weill, Nocolas [2001]
Pierre Bourdieu, sujet du dernier cours de Pierre
In: Le Monde, 29.3.01.
In his last lecture on the Collège de France, Bourdieu
spoke on himself as a sociological object. Weill
summarizes some important notions he presented.
o Wacquant, Loïc [2002] (Univ. of California, Berkeley,
Blues, boxe et sociologie
In: Le Nouvel Observateur, januari 2002, no. 1943.

Coleman, James S. [1926 - 1995]

Biography of James S. Coleman

In: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Bornmann, Lutz (Kiel, German)
Grundbegriffe und leitende Annahmen der Sozialtheorie James S. Coleman
A short article on the fundamental concepts and propositions of Coleman‘s
social theory.
James S. Colemans Foundations of Social Theory (‘92-2), (‘93-1) & (‘93-2)
In: Analyse & Kritik, Zeischrift für Sozialtheorie. Eds.: Michael Naurmann &
Anton Leist.

Collins, Randall

Homepage of Collins at the Sociology Department of the University of

[1974] The Basics of Conflict Theory
From: Randall Collins [1974] Conflict Sociology. New York: Academic Press,
[1975] Outline of Organizations in Conflict Sociology
From: Randall Collins [1975] ―Organizations‖ in Conflict Sociology: Toward an
Explanatory Science. New York: Academic Press.
[1979] The Late Twentieth-Century Credential Crisis
From: Randall Collins [1979] The Credential Society. New York: Academic
Press, pp. 191-204.
[1984] The Role of Emotion in Social Structure
In: Ekman, Paul / Scherer, Klaus R. / Erlbaum, Lawrence [1984] Approaches
to Emotion, Chapter 18
New Jersey London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[1992] Weber‘s Last Theory of Capitalism: A Systematization
In: Granovetter, Mark / Swedberg, Richard [1992] The Sociology of Economic
Life, Chapter 3.
Westview Press.
[1992] Foreword
In: Hilbert, Richard A. [1992] The Classical Roots of Ethnomethodology:
Durkheim, Weber and Garfinkel.
University of North Carolina Press.
[1993] Liberals and Conservatives, Religious and Political: A
Conjuncture of Modern History
In: Sociology of Religion 54(2):127.
[1994] Four Sociological Traditions
New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[2000] Waller, David V.: Predictions of Geopolitical Theory and the
Modern World-System
In: Derluguian, Georgi M. / Greer, Scott, L.: Questioning Geopolitics:
Political Projects in a Changing World-System, Chapter 4.
Westport/London: Praeger.
[2000] Interview with Randall Collins conducted by Alair Maclean & James
The Multiple Fronts of Economic Sociology
Editorial essay in the Economic Sociology Section of the ASA.
[2000] Interview with Randall Collins by Alair Maclean and James Yocom.
Soziologische Klassiker / Collins, Randall (in wikibooks)

Comte, Auguste [1798 - 1857]

[1822] Plan des traveaux scientifiques nécessaires pour réorganiser la société

The text that founded sociology.
[1924] Lettre d‘Auguste Comte à M. Valet (A letter from Comte to his friend
[1844] Discours sur l‘Esprit positif
Biliothèque Nationale de France, Gallica
[1848] Discours sur l‘Ensemble du Positivisme / A General View of Positivism
[1851-4] Système de Politique Positive ou Traité de Sociologie
[1854] On the Positivistic Approach to Society [extract]
From: Auguste Come, The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte. Freely
translated and condensed by Harriet Martineau. NY: Calvin Blanchard. Vol. 2:
68-74 and 95-110.
Auguste Comte and Positivism
Part of the Clotilde project of the ―International Positivist Society‖. It includes:
Comte‘s choosen texts, Comte‘s mottos, a complete bibliography of comtean
positivism, bio-bibliographies of disciples, and much more.
Comte Bibliography
Works by and about Auguste Comte. Edited by: Ed Stephan (Western
Washington Univ.).
Works of Auguste Comte
L‘Oeuvre d‘Auguste Comte présentée par lui-même
Auguste Comte Works as Presented by Himself.
Kreis, Steven [1998-9]
The Age of Ideologies (3): The World of Auguste Comte
Kropotkin, Peter [1903]
Auguste Comte‘s Attempt to build up a Synthetic Philosophy

Cooley, Charles Horton [1864 - 1929]

[1891] The Social Significance of Street Railways (abstract)
Publications of the American Economic Association 6 (1891): 71-3.
[1894a] The Theory of Transportation
Sociological Theorie and Social Research: Being Selected Papers of
Charles Horton Cooley, pp. 17-118. Originally published in Publications
of the American Economic Association 9 (1894).
[1994b] Personal Competition: Its Place in the Social Order and Effect
Upon Individuals; With Some Considerations on Success
Sociological Theory and Social Research: Being Selected Papers of Charles
Horton Cooley, pp. 163-226. Originally published in Economic Studies 4 No. 2.
[1896] ‗Nature versus Norture‘ in the Making of Social Careers
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference of Charities and Corrections (1896): 399-
[1897a] The Process of Social Change
Political Science Quarterly 12 (1897: 63-8`.
[1897b] Genius, Fame and the Comparison of Races
Sociological Theory and Social Research: Being Selected Papers of Charles
Horton Cooley, pp. 121-59. Originally published in The Annals of the American
Academy of Political and Social Science 9 (1897): 1-42.
[1902] Human Nature and the Social Order (Revised edition, 1922)
New York: Charles Scribner‘s Sons.
[1902] The Looking Glass Self
From: Charles Horton Cooley [1902] Human Nature and the Social Order.
New York: Scribner‘s, pp.179-85.
[1904] Discussion of Franklin H. Giddings ―A Theory of Social Causation‖
Publications of the American Economic Association, Third Series, 5 (1904):
[1908] A Study of the early use of self words by a child
Psychological Review 15 (1908): 339-57.
[1909] Social Consciousness
Proceedings of the American Sociological Society 1 (1907): 97-109.
[1909] Social Organization: A Study of the Larger Mind
New York: Charles Schribner‘s Sons.
[1909] On Primary Groups [extract
From: Charles Horton Cooley [1909] Social Organization: A Study of the
Larger Mind. New York: CharlesScribner‘s Sons, pp. 25-31.
[1909] A Builder of Democracy
Survey, Mai 1, 1909: 210-3.
[1912a] Discussion of Simon Patten‘s ―The Background of Economic Theories‖
Publications of the American Sociological Society 7, (1912): 132.
[1912b] Valuation as a Social Process
The Psychological Bulletin, Vol. IX. No. 12 Decembter 15, 1912. Also
published as part of Social Process, pp. 283-92.
[1913a] The Institutional Character of Pecuniary Valuation
American Journal of Sociology, 18: 543-555. Also published as part of Social
Process, pp. 293-308.
[1913b] The Sphere of Pecuniary Valuation [mirror]
American Journal of Sociology, 19: 188-203.
[1913c] The Progress of Pecuniary Valuation
Quarterly Journal of Economics, 30: 1-21. Also published as part of Social
Process (1918), pp. 329-48.
[1916] A Builder of Democracy
Survey 36 (1916): 116.
[1917] Social Control in International Relations
Publications of the American Sociological Society 12, (1917): 207-16.
[1918a] Social Process
New York: Charles Scribner‘s Sons.
[1918b] A Primary Culture For Democracy
Publications of the American Sociological Society 13, (1918): 1-10.
[1918c] Political Economy and Social Process
Sociological Theory and Social Research: Being Selected Papers of Charles
Horton Cooley, pp 251-59. Originally published in The Journal of Political
Economy, 25 (1918): 366-74.
[1920] Reflections upon the Sociology of Herbert Spencer
American Journal of Sociology, 26: 129-45.
[1924] Now and Then
Sociological Theory and Social Research: Being Selected Papers of Charles
Horton Cooley, pp. 283-85. Originally a paper read at the Annual Dinner of
the American Sociological Society at the 1923 meeting. It was first published
in Journal of Applied Sociology 8 (1924): 259-62.
[1926a] The Roots of Social Knowledge
American Journal of Sociology 32 (1926-27): 59-79.
[1926b] Heredity or Environment
Journal of Applied Sociology 10, (1926): 303-7.
[1928a] Sumner and Methodology
Sociological Theory and Social Research: Being Selected Papers of Charles
Horton Cooley, pp. 325-7. Originally a paper read at the Annual Dinner of the
American Sociological Society at the 1927 meeting. It was first published in
Sociology and Social Research 12 (1928): 303-6.
[1928a] Case Study of Small Institutions As a Method of Research
Sociological Theory and Social Research: Being Selected Papers of Charles
Horton Cooley, pp 313-22.. Originally a paper read at the Annual Meeting of
the American Sociological Society in 1927. It was first published in
Publications and Proceedings (1928): 181-91.
[1929] The Life-Study Method As Applied to Rural Social Research
Sociological Theory and Social Research: Being Selected Papers of Charles
Horton Cooley, pp 331-9. Originally a paper read at the Annual Meeting of the
American Sociological Society in1928. It was published in Papers and
Publications of the American Sociological Society (1929): 248-254.
[1929] The Development of Sociology at Michigan
Sociological Theory and Social Research: Being Selected Papers of Charles
Horton Cooley, pp 3-14.
Bibliography of Charles Horton Cooley

Coser, Lewis

Functions of Social Conflict

From: Lewis Coser [1956] The Functions of Social Conflict. Glencoe, IL: Free
Press, pp. 151-7.
Max Weber on bureaucracy
Rationalization and disenchantment
Crompton, Rosemary

Books written or edited by Rosemary Crompton [AddALL]

Crozier, Michel [1922]

C.V. de Michel Crozier

Information in French.
[1991] La sociologie du travail dans le discours sociologique: les paradoxes de
la marginalisation et de l‘éclatement [pdf]
(The Sociology of Work in Sociological Discourse: the Paradoxes of
Marginalisation and Rupture)
Sociologie et sociétés 23(2): 57-60.
Kaplan, Buck [1995]
Four Accounts of Sociological Rationality
A comparison of the treatment given to rationality and irrationality by Weber,
Simon, Crozier, and DiMaggio and Powell. The author demonstrates how
rationality is socially contstructed in an organizational setting.
Wikipedia: Michel_Crozier

Dahrendorf, Ralf [1929 - 2009]

[1959] The Classes: The unwritten 52nd Chapter

of Volume III of Marx‘s Capital [extract]
From: Ralf Dahrendorf [1959] Class and Class
Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford CA:
Stanford University Press, pp. 3-18.
[1959] Classes in Post-Capitalist Society [extract]
From: Ralf Dahrendorf [1959] Class and Class
Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford, CA:
Stanford University Press, pp. 241-8.
[1968] Gibt es noch Klassen? - Die Begriffe der
―sozialen Schicht‖ und ―sozialen Klasse‖ in der
Sozialanalyse der Gegenwart [pdf] or html
In: Seidel, B. / Jenkner, S. [1968] Klassenbildung
und Sozialschichtung. Darmstadt, pp. 279-96.
Schnellenbach, Jan [2003]
The Dahrendorf hypothesis and its implications for (the theory of) economic
policy-making [pdf]
According to Dahrendorf, a principal commitment to the market order and to
an open society protecting individual liberties is largely undisputed today, at
least in the western hemisphere. This, however, does not result in a
convergence of economic policies towards some common ideal model. This
hypothesis is difficult to reconcile with orthodox economic approaches to
economic policy-making. Schellenbach argues that if the scope of analysis is
extended to epistemological problems, then a decentralised experimentation
with policies can be reasonable. Given the fact that selection mechanisms are
imperfect and that diversity can be sustained, a dilemma may occur for
neoclassical economics: if individuals internalise preferences for inefficient
policy measures, a decision between the sovereignty of individual preferences
and efficiency may have to be made.
Wikipedia: Ralf_Dahrendorf

Du Bois, William Edwards Burghardt [1868 - 1963]

By Du Bois

[1996] The Suppression of the

African Slave Trade to the United
Stats of America (Gutenberg)
New York: Longmans, Green and
[1897] The Conservation of Races
(Gutenberg EBook) | including
comments of Robert W. Williams
In: The American Negro Academy
Occational Papers, no. 2.
[1897] Strivings of the Negro
In: Atlantic Monthly 80: 194-8.
[1898] The Study of the Negro
In: The Annals of the American
Academy of Political and Social
Science, vol. xi, January 1898,
pp. 1-23.
[1899] A Negro Schoolmaster in
the New South
In: Atlantic Monthly 83: 99-104.
[1901] The Freedman‘s Bureau
In: Atlantic Monthly 87: 354-65.
[1902] Of the Training of Black Men
In: Atlantic Monthly 90: 289-97.
[1903a] The Souls of Black Folks | Gutenberg
February 1, 1903.
[1903b] The Laboratory in Sociology at Atlanta University
In: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 21
(May 1903).
[1903c] The Talented Tenth
In: Booker T. Washington et al. [1903] The Negro Problem. pp. 8-30. New
[1911] The Quest of the Silver Fleece (novel)
[1913] Socialism and the Negro Problem
In: The New Review. A Weekly Review of International Socialism, 1 February
[1915a] The African Roots of the War
In: The Atlantic, May 1915.
[1915b] The Negro (Gutenberg)
New York: Holt.
[1920] Darkwater - Voices From Within The Veil
New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.
[1925] The Black Man Brings His Gifts
In: The Survey Graphic Harlem Number (March 1925).
[1926] Criteria of Negro Art
In: The Crisis. Speach at a celebration for the recipient of the 12th Spingarn
Medal, Carter Godwin Woodson.
[1944] Jacob and Esau
In: The Talladegan. Vol. LXII, November 1944, pp. 1-6.
Poems: Of the Sorrow Songs [1903] Credo [1904] | The Song of Smoke

Biography & Bibliography

Biography - Thomas Hampson

Du Bois central
A site is maintained by the Department of Special Collections and University
Archives at University of Massachusetts Amherst to commemorate the life and
legacy of the pioneering sociologist, playwright, and black civil rights
campaigner W. E. B. Du Bois. It offers free access to a biography,
photographs and large collection of digital materials relating to Du Bois. A
particular strength is the online collection of ebooks and articles by Du Bois.
These include key writings on the evolution of Negro leadership, racism in
America in the 19th and early 20th centuries and the formation of black civil
rights movements in the USA .
Annotated links to online writings by and about W.E.B. Du Bois. The site
includes links to works of social science, literature, biography, and political
activism. Editor: Robert W. Williams.
W.E.B. Du Bois Stamp
W.E.B. Du Bois: The Activist Life - University of Massachusetts, Amherst
An online exhibit on the life and legacy of W.E.B. Du Bois based on his
Wikipedia: W.E.B._Du_Bois

On Du Bois

Gibson, Robert A. [2002]

Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois: The Problem of Negro Leadership
Marable, Manning [2004]
The Leadership of Du Bois
The Madison Times, December 2004.
Monteiro, Anthony [1995]
The Science of Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois
Monteiro, Anthony [1995]
W.E.B. Du Bois: Scholar, Scientist, and Activist
Monteiro, Anthony [2000]
Being an African in the World: The Du Boisian Epistemology
In: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
568(1): 220-34.
Monteiro, Anthony [2008]
W.E.B. Du Bois and the Study of Black Humanity
Wager, Jennifer [1994]
W.E.B. Du Bois: Freedom Fighter
Williams, Robert W. [2002]
W.E.B. Du Bois and His Social-Scientific Research: A Review of Online Texts
Socioation Today 3(2), Fall 2005.
Wortham, Robert, A. [2005]
Introduction to the Sociology of W.E.B. Dubois
Sociation Today 3(1), Spring 2005.
Wright, Earl [2005]
W.E.B. Du Bois and the Atlanta Sociological Laboratory
Sociation Today 3(1), Spring 2005.

Durkheim, Émile [1858 - 1917]

General Sources

The Durkheim Pages

Devoted to the presentation of information concerning Emile Durkheim.
Contents: Some full texts, a complete bibliography of Durkheim‘s work, a
timeline describing important events related to Durkheim and the Third
French Republic, a glossary of terms and concepts, a bibliography of
secondary material, news, a list of Durkheim scholars and mailing list, and
Durkheimian Studies information. Editor: Robert Alun Jones (Univ. of Illinois,
Emile Durkheim
An informative undergraduate source for the thought, concepts, and writings
of Durkheim. Contains both secondary information and over 70 Durkheim
quotes on various topics linke anomie, religion, the division of labor, suicide,
and others. Editor: L. Joe Dunman (Murray State University, USA).


Coser, Lewis [1977] The Person

From: Lewis A. Coser [1977] Masters of Sociological Thought, pp. 143-44.
Gravitz, Madeleine [1977] Émile Durkheim, Sa vie et son oeuvre
In: idem [1996] Méthodes des sciences sociales. Dalloz.
Jones, Robert Alun [1986] Emile Durkheim: His Life and Work
Excerpts from Robert Alun Jones [1986] Emile Durkheim: An Introduction to
Four Major Works. Beverly Hills. CA: Sage Publications, pp. 12-23.


A Bibliography of Works by Durkheim

A complete bibliography of Durkheim‘s published works, including the original
French as well as existing English translations. Editor: Robert Alun Jones.
Bibliography of Secondary Literature on Durkheim
Editor: Robert Alun Jones.

Primary Sources

[1883] Du Rôle des Grands Hommes dans la Société or pdf

Cahier internationaux de sociologie 43:25-32.

[1884] Sens Lectures

English abstract of the recently discovered transcript of Durkheim‘s

philosophy lectures at the Lyçée de Sens. Student lecture notes taken
from Durkheim‘s course on philosophy in 1883-84. Notes taken by the
French philosopher, Andre Lalande. Written manuscript: Bibliothèque
de la Sorbonne, Manuscript 2351. [abstract]
Warren Schmaus has written a review on Durkheim‘s Sens lectures.

[1885a] Schaeffle, A, Bau und Leben des sozialen Körpers: Erster Band

Revue philosophique 19:84-101.

[1885b] Fouillée, A. La Propriété sociale et la démocratie

Revue philosophique 19: 446-453.

[1885c] Glumplowicz, Ludwig, Grundriss der Soziologie

Revue philosophique 20:627-34.

[1886a] Les Études de science sociale

Revue philosophique 22: 61-80.

A review of Herbert Spencer [1885] Ecclesiastical Institutions: part 6
of Principles of Sociology, A. Regnard L’État, ses origines, sa nature et
son but, A. Coste / Aug. Burgeau / Lucine Arréat [1886] Les questions
sociales contemporaines, A. Schaeffle [1885] Die Quintessenz des

[1886b] DeGreef, Guillaime, Introduction à la sociologie

Revue philosophique 22: 658-63.

[1887a] La Philosophie dans les universités allemandes

Revue international de l’enseignement 13: 313-38, 423-40.

[1887b] Guyau, M. L’Irreligion de l’avenir

Revue philosophique 23: 299-311.

[1887c] La Science positive de la morale en Allemagne [pdf]

Revue philosophique 24: 33-58, 113-42, 275-84.

Review essay on Wagner, Schmoller, Schaeffle, Ihering, Wundt and

[1887d] Nécrologie d‘Hommay

In: Victor Hommay: hommage à une chère mémoire, pp. 23-48.

[1888a] Cours de science sociale: l&eccedil;on d‘ouverture

Revue international de l’enseignement 15: 23-48.

Opening lecture of Durkheim‘s first course, ―La Solidarité,‖ given at the
University of Bordeaux in 1887-88.

[1888b] Le Programme économique de M. Schaeffle

Revue d’économie politique 11:3-7.

[1888c] Introduction à la sociologie de la famille

Annales de la Faculté des Lettres de Bordeaux 257-81.

Opening lecture of the 1888-89 course entitled ―La Famille: origins,
types principaux.‖

[1893] The Division of Labor in Society

o Complete English Version
Published by The Free Press in 1947, and presented on the web by
questia. Translated by George Simpson.
o De la division du travail social or from Bristol Univ. UK
The complete French version.
o Excerpt from Robert Alun Jones, Emile Durkheim: An Introduction to
Four Major Works. Beverly Hills. CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 1986, pp.
o On the Division of Labor - From: Emile Durkheim [1947] The Division
of Labor in Society (Translated by George Simpson). New York: The
Free Press.
[1895] The Rules of Sociological Method
o Excerpt from Robert Alun Jones, Emile Durkheim: An Introduction to
Four Major Works. Beverly Hills. CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 1986, pp.
o Rules for the Explanation of Social Facts
From: Emile Durkheim [1982] The Rules of the Sociological Method
(Ed. by Steven Lukes; trans. by W.D. Halls). New York: Free Press,
chapter V.
[1897] Suicide
o Excerpt from Robert Alun Joines, Emile Durkheim: An Introduction to
Four Major Works. Beverly Hills. CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 1986, pp.
o Types of Suicide - TS, pp. 213-18.
o Anomic Suicide - TS, pp. 916-29.
o On the Normality of Crime - pp. 872-75 in: Theories of Society, edited
by Talcott Parsons, Edward Shils, Kaspar D. Naegele, and Jesse R.
Pitts. New York: Free Press.
o Durkheim on Suicide
In: Coser 1977: 132-6.

[1912] The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life

o Complete Version
Published by The Free Press, New York. Translated from the French by
Joseph Ward Swain.
o Excerpt from Robert Alun Jones, Emile Durkheim: An Introduction to
Four Major Works. Beverly Hills. CA: Sage Publications, Inc. 1986, pp.
o The Elementary forms of the Religious Life. New York: Free Press.
‗Introduction‘; book 1, ch. 1 (‗Definition of Religious Phenomena and of
Religion‘); book 2, ch. 7 (‗Origins of the Idea of the Totemic Principle
of Mana‘s‘); ‗Conclusion‘.
[1914] Pragmatism & the Question of Truth
Pragmatism is much less of an undertaking to encourage action than an
attack on pure speculation and theoretical thought. Durkheim discusses the
pragmatist doctrines (such as everything is reducable to a purely logical
construction) and establishes a parallel between pragmatism and sociology.
[1921] The conjugal family [pdf]
In: On Institutional Analysis. Chicago/London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1978,
p.229-30; originally published in Revue philosophique 90:1-4.
[1858-1917] Emile Durkheim - A Collection of Essays, with Translations and a
Editor: Kurt H. Wolff. Published in 1960 by the Ohio State Universty Press.

Secundary Sources

Gans, Eric [2000]

The Sacred and the Social: Defining Durkheim‘s Anthropological Legacy
In: Anthropoetics 6(1).
Lehmann, Jennifer M. [1994]
Durkheim and Women
Schwartz, Barry [1991]
Mourning and the Making of a Sacred
Symbol: Durkheim and the Lincoln
In: Social Forces 70(2): 343-65
Wikipedia: Émile_Durkheim

Elias, Norbert [1897 - 1990]

Elias Bibliographies by Robert van Krieken.

Autorenportrait: Norbert Elias (Suhrkamp Verlag)
A comprehensive bibliography and mediagraphy of the works and public
statements by Elias.
Elias Papers in Marbach am Neckar
The unpublished papers of Norbert Elias are available for research purposes.
Processes of State formation and Nation Building - Elias‘ 1970 ISA paper.
Elias Interview: ‗We have not learnt to control nature and ourselves enough.‘
By: Aafke Steenhuis. Originally: De Groene Amsterdammer 16.5.1984, pp.
Blackburn, David [1996]
Norbert Elias: Au lit, comment faites-vous
In: La Pépublique des Lettres.
Bornmann, Lutz (Kiel, Germany)
Die Soziologie Norbert Elias
Krieken, Robert van (University of Sydney)
Norbert Elias
London: Routledge.
A book about the live and work of N. Elias. Table of contents and chapter 1
are online. Review by Thomas Kemple, in: CJS Online, November 1999.
Krieken, Robert van [2001]
Norbert Elias and Process Sociology
In: George Ritzer / Barry Smart [2001] The Handbook of Social Theory.
London:Sage. 353-67.
Mastenbroek, Willem
o [2000] Norbert Elias as organiational sociologist
o [2000] Organizational behaviour as emotion management
Wesseling, Klaus-Gunther [2003] Leben und Werk von Elias
In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches KirchenLexikon (Verlag Traugott Bautz).

Elster, Jon

Jon Elster Homepage - Norway

An overview of all the works of Jon Elster (articles, books, reviews, debates).
Some of his articles are full-text. Editor: Hans O. Melberg.
[1990] Mertons‘s Functionalism and the Unintended Consequences of Action
In: Jon Clark / Celia Mogdil / Sohan Modgil (eds.) Robert Merton: Consensus
and Controversy. London /New York: Falmer Press, pp. 129-35.
[1993] Some Unresolved Problems in the Theory of Rational Behavior
In: Acta Sociologica 36(3): 179-90.
[1997] More Than Enough
Review of Gary S. Becker (1966) Accounting for Tastes, The University of
Chicago Law Review 62(2): 749-64.
[1998] A plea for mechanisms
In: Peter Hedstrøm and Richard Swedberg (eds.) Social Mechanism: An
Analytical Approach to Social Theory.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ch. 3 (pp. 45-73).

Etzioni, Amitai

Amitai Etzioni
Information about and by Etzioni, including links to his
online available works. Presented by The
Communitarian Network.
Amitai Etzioni - Homepage
Amitai Etzioni Notes
Etzioni‘s weblog presenting personal and communitarian
Selznick, Philip [1999]
Tribute to Amitai Etzioni
Presented at the 11th Annual Meeting on Socio-
Economics, Madison, Wisconsin, July 9, 1999.
Wikipedia: Amitai_Etzioni

Ferguson, Adam [1723 - 1816]

[1767] An Essay on the History of Civil Society

[Mcmaster] | [Constitution Society] |
[1783] The History of the Progress and
Termination of the Roman Republic
Philadelphia: T. Wardle.
Infantino, Lorenzo [1999]
La Lezione di Ferguson
Méndez, Francisco Vega
La Sociedad Civil en la Concepción de Adam
Ferguson [pdf]
Selected Bibliography
Adam Ferguson Institute (AFI)
Ferguson page at Bartleby
Wikipedia: Adam Ferguson
Foucault, Michel [1926 - 1984]

Biography / Bibliography

Foucault Pages at CSUN

A site dedicated to exploring the work of
Foucault. It contains a genealogy of Foucault,
discussion lists, links and online essays. Editor:
Ben Attias.
Michel Foucault Forum
Foucault Resources
Provides a variety of resources relating to the
work of Michel Foucault. Editor: Clare O‘Farrell.
Foutault Studies
An electronic, refereed, international journal.
The Foucauldian
Resources for the studying of Michel Foucault. The site contains a
bibliography, extracts, a FAQ and some links.
Introduction to Michel Foucault (
Foucault Site
Printed and Web Resources on Foucault. Compiled by Gen Nakayama.
A few references to Michel Foucault
Gathered by Jennings, Patrick (Canada).
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Michel Foucault
Casey Alt: A Very Non-Foucauldian History of Michel Foucault
Wikipedia: Michel Foucault

Primary Sources

[1967/87] Of other Spaces: Heterotopias [French version]

From: Dits et écrits 1984: 46-9. Translated by Jay Miskowiec.
[1969] The Archaeology of Knowledge
Introduction and first three chapters: The Unities of Discourse; Discursive
Formations and The Formation of Objects.
[1973] I, Pierre Riviere, having slaughtered my mother, my sister, and my
brother... - Foreword [mirror]
See also the interview (1976) with Foucault on this book.
[1974] Truth and Judicial Forms [Excerpt}
In: Power: Essential Works of Foucault, 1954-1984: Volume Three. Translated
by Robert Hurley. The New York Press.
[1974] The Crisis of Medicine or the Crisis of Antimedicine?
Foucault Studies, 1:5-19, December 2004.
Translated by Edgar C. Knowlton, Jr., William J. King, and Clare O‘Farrell.
The first lecture given by Foucault on social medicine in Oktober 1974 at the
Institute of Social Medicine, Biomedical Center, of the State University of Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil. Originally published in Portuguese translation as ―Crisis de
un modelo en la medicina?‖, Revista centroamericana de Ciencas de la Salud,
3, January-April 1976, pp. 197-209; and in Spanish as ―La crisis de la
medicina o la crisis de la antimedicina‖, Educacion Medica y Salud, 10(2),
1976, pp. 152-70. The version in Dits et écrits, (Paris, Gallimard), vol. III, pp.
40-58 is a retranslation of the Portuguese back into French.
[1975] Discipline and Punish I and II (Surveiller et Punir)
Two chapters from Foucault‘s Discipline and Punish: Panopticism + Torture.
[1975] Body/Power
Interview from ―Power/Knowledge, Selected Interviews and Other Writings
1972-1977‖. Interviewers: editorial collective of Quel Corps?
[1977] What is an Author? [Excerpt]
In: Donald F. Bouchard (ed.) Language, Counter-Memory, Practice. New York:
Cornell University Press, 1977, pp. 124-7.
[1978] What is Enlightenment? [French version]
Translation of Qu’est-ce que les Lumières? by Methew Hensen.
In: P. Rabinow (ed.) The Foucault Reader. New York: Pantheon Books, pp.
[1982] Retrospective
Dictionaire des philosophes 1984, pp. 942-4.
[1983] The Culture of the Self [audiofiles]
Listen to the discourses and discussions recorded on 12 th and 19th April at
the Berkeley Language Center.
[2002] Attention Foucault!
Radio programs broadcasted during January 2002 by France Culture. You can
listen some of the courses by Michel Foucault and other interviews.
[2004] Michel Foucault
Interview by Sylvain Bourmeau (6 november, 2004).

Secundary Sources

Alt, Casey
The Birth of the Clinic
A very visual Foucault site explaining the birth of the modern clinic.
Delobel, Olivier [1966]
Exposé: La classification dans Les mots et les choses
Farrel, Francis
Some thoughts on Foucault and Zen
Foti, Veronique M. [1996]
Representation Represented: Foucault, Velazquez, Descartes
Postmodern Culture 7(1) September, 1996.
Francis, James A. [1993]
The Roots of Western Sexuality
Notes on the conceptual scheme in M. Foucault The Use of Pleasure (History
of Sexuality vol. 2).
Harrer, Sebastian [2005]
The Theme of Subjectivity in Foucault‘s Lecture Series L’Herméneutigque du
Foucault Studies 2:75-96, May 2005.
Miller, James / Lilla, Mark [1995]
La Passion Foucault
Miller, Paul Allen [2005]
The Art of Self-Fashioning, or Foucault on Plato and Derrida
Foucault STudies, 2:54-74, May 2005.
O‘Farrell, Clare [1989]
A New Generation of Thinkers
From: Clare O‘Farrell [1989] Foucault: Historian or Philosopher? London:
Macmillan. pp. 1-19.
O‘Farrell, Clare [1994]
Foucault: The Legacy. A Conference Report
It discusses the reception of Foucault‘s work outside of France.
Ojankangas, Mika [2005]
Impossible Dialogue on Bio-power: Agamben and Foucault Discussion 1 - 2 -
Foucault Studies, 2: 5-28, May 2005.
Olivier, Lawrence / Noël, Roger [1993]
Michel Foucault: problématique pour une histoire de l‘homosexualité
In: Revue sexuologique / Sexological Review 2(1).
The history of homosexuality has primarily focused on two aspects: the
process of repression/liberation and the problematic of the historical
development of homosexuality. By emphasizing the oppression experienced
by the gay community and by studying homosexuality as part of a larger
history of sexuality, both approaches have neglected significant elements of
the specific history of homosexuality. Foucault‘s work on homosexuality
enables us to rethink the way this history has been presented by
demonstrating that repression has not been the mechanism through which
―perverse‖ sexuality has been controlled in western societies. Foucault also
suggests that the concept of friendship emerging in the West during the 17th
and 18th centuries may prove to be an auspicious avenue to explore when
seeking a fuller history of homosexuality. Lastly, Foucault opens new
perspectives on political practices. In contrast with the politics of liberation,
he suggests putting liberty at the center of one‘s sexuality (homosexuality),
an alternative that seeks to create new social relationships, a new culture.
Shawver, Louis [1999]
Dictionary for the Study of the Works of Michel Foucault
Shepherdson, Charles [1995]
History and the Real: Foucault with Lacan
Postmodern Culture 5(2) January, 1995.
Walker, John V. [1994]
Seizing Power: Decadence and Transgression in Foucault and Paglia
Postmodern Culture, 5(1) September, 1994.
Zine, Mohammed Chaouki
L‘a priori historique et le diagnostic de l‘actualité chez Michel Foucault
Zine, Mohammed Chaouki
Mystique et mystère du pouvoir, Michel de Certeau et Michel Foucault

Fromm, Erich [1900 - 1980]

[1939] Selfishness and Self-Love [pdf]

[1942] Character and the Social Process
Appendix to Fear of Freedom.
[1944] Individual and Social Origins of Neurosis [pdf]
In: American Sociological Review, ix(4), August 1944.
[1957] The Humanistic Science of Man
Fromm outlines the program of a new institute for the
science of man.
[1958] The Influence of Social Factors in Child
Development (German version)
[1959] Freedom in the Work Situation
In: Michael Harrington and Paul Jacobs (eds.) [1959] Labor in a Free Society,
pp. 1-16.
Fromm explains why the only alternative to the danger of robotism is
humanistic communitarianism. ―Changes in ownership must be made to the
extent necessary to create a community of work, and to prevent the profit
motive from directing production into socially harmful directions. Income
must be equalized to the extent of giving everybody the material basis for a
dignified life and thus preventing economic differences from creating a
fundamentally different experience of life among various social classes. Man
must be reinstituted in his supreme place in society - never a means, never a
thing to be used by others or by himself.‖
[1962] Erich Fromm‘s Humanist Credo [German version]
In: Erich Fromm [1962] Beyond the Chains of Illusions New York: Simon and
Schuster, pp. 174-82.
Fromm explains what he believes in. ―I believe in freedom, in men‘s right to
be himself, to assert himself and to fight all those who try to prevent him
from being himself. But freedom is more thant the absense of violent
oppression. It is more than ‗freedom from‘. It is ‗freedom to‘ - the freedom to
become independent; the freedom to be much, rather than to have much, or
to use things and people.‖
[1974] Die Zukunft des Menschen und die Frage der Destruktivität [pdf]
Interview by Robert Jungk on Fromm‘s contribution to the question of human
Internationale Erich Fromm Gesellschaft
A site from Germany that includes a biography, a bibliography, online
reading, and a Fromm forum. Some of the articles are original writings by
Fromm some of which were published here for the first time. The collection of
secondary literature about Fromm comprises papers previously published in
the ―Yearbooks of the Erich Fromm Society― or that were printed in the
―Fromm Forum‖. The best place to start. In German and English language.
McLaughlin, Neil [1999] (Department of Sociology, McMaster University,
Canada) Origin Myths in the Social Sciences: Fromm, the Frankfurt School
and the Emergence of Critical Theory
Canadian Journal of Sociology 24(1): 109-39.
Wikipedia: Erich_Fromm

Garfinkel, Harold [1917]

UCLA page of Garfinkel - University of California, Los Angeles
[1967] Some essential features of common
understandings (summary)
From: Harold Garfinkel [1967/84] Studies in
Ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
pp. 38-44, 75.
Garfinkel demonstrates why common understandings
cannot possibly consist of a measured amount of
shared agreement among persons on certain topics. In
many matters we can understand each other in a
conversation although we don‘t mention the specific
matters. We can understand certain matters on the
basis of not only of what was actually said but what
was left unspoken. Garfinkel explains how this is
possible and how professional sociologists can rediscover common sense
knowledge and common sense activities.
[1967] Studies of the Routine Grounds of Everyday Activities (summary)
From: Harold Garfinkel [1967] Studies in Ethnomethodology. Polity Press, ch.
When you examine the exchange that takes place in a conversation between
two people, you realize soon that there are many things that are understood
between these people than are actually mentioned (especially when these
people have a standing relationship). We can understand matters on the basis
of what was unspoken. This points to underlying properties of conversational
exchange and the rules which govern them in daily live. The rule governed
activities of everyday life constitute the moral order of society. To test his
hypotheses, Garfinkel sent forth a legion of students to conduct
conversational breaching experiments. Students were instructed to question
everything they were being told by asking what was meant. One of the
conclusions of these experiments was that background knowledge is
important and is understood as such when it is shared. However, the
possibility of common understanding does not consist in demonstrated
measures of shared knowledge of social structure, but consists instead and
entirely in the enforceable character of actions in compliance with the
exigencies of everyday life as a morality. Common sense knowledge of the
facts of social life for the members of the society is institutionalized
knowledge of the real world.
[2007] Four releations between literatures of the social scientific movement
and their specific ethnomethodological alternates
In: Stephen Hester / David Francis (eds.) [2007] Orders of Ordinary Action -
Respecifying Sociological Knowledge.
Ethnomethodology (SocioSite)
Wikipedia: Harold_Garfinkel
Photo‘s of Garfinkel
On the conference Orders of Ordinary Action, Manchester, 2001.

Geertz, Clifford [1926 - 2006]

Geertz Personal Page
Including a curriculum vitae and a complete
bibliography of his works.
HyperGeertz - WorldCatalogue
A comprehensive, contextual and referential
bibliography and mediagraphy of the works and
public statements by one of the most important
social scientists of our time, Clifford Geertz.
Presented by Ingo Mörth and Gerhard Fröhlich
(Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Austria).
[1964] Ideology as a Cultural System
In: Apter, David Ernest (ed.) [1964] Ideology and
discontent. New York: Glencoe. pp. 47-76.
[1973] Emphasizing Interpretation
From: C. Geertz [1973] The Interpretation of
[1973] Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive
Theory of Culture
In: Geertz [1973] The Interpretation of cultures:
selected essays. New York: Basis Books. pp. 3-30.
Man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun.
Geertz‘s concept of culture is -in the good old tradition of Max Weber- is
essentially a semiotic one. Culture is a complex web of significance, and
therefor its analysis is no a matter of experimental science in search of law,
but an interpretive science in search of meaning. Geertz borrows the notion of
‗thick description‘ from Gilbert Ryle to grasp the meaning(s) of culture(s).
[1976] Art as a Cultural System
In: Modern Language Notes 91(6): 1473-99.
[1991] Clifford Geertz on ethnography and social construction
Interview by Gary A. Olson, in Journal of Advanced Composition. 11(2): 245-
Why is Geertz‘s work so eminently appealing to many of us? It might be
because his preoccupation with seeing science and scholarship as rethorical,
as socially constructed.
[1999] A Life of Learning
Charles Homer Haskins Lectur for 1999. American Council of Learned
Societies, Occasional Paper No. 45.
In the course of patching together his scholarly career Geertz has learned at
least one thing: it all depends on the timing. In his improvised life he
discovered that the study of cultures involves discovering who they think they
are, what they think they are doing, and to what end they think that they are
doing it. Therefore it is necessary to gain a working familiarity with the
frames of meaning whitin which they enacht their lives.
[2000] Passage and Accident: A Life of Learning
Chapter I of ―Available Light: Anthropological Reflections on Philosophical
[2000, May] Indonesia: Starting Over
In: The New York Review of Books, May 11, 2000.
[2001] Life Among the Anthros
A review of ―Darkness in Eldorado: How Scientists and Journalists Devastated
the Amazon‖, by Patrick Tierney. In: The New York Review of Books, February
8, 2001.
[2004] Frazer Lecture [video]
Windschuttle, Keith [2002]
The ethnocentrism of Clifford Geertz
In: The New Criterion, 21(2). Article on
Geertz‘ ―Available Light: Anthropological
Reflections on Philosophical Topics‖. He
discusses Geetz‘ concept of thick
description: human gestures often have
multiple layers of meaning that can only
be described through the symbols used by a culture. Together with sharp
descriptions of all his other contributions, it is an intellectual portrait of
Wikipedia: Clifford Geertz

Geiger, Theodor [1891 - 1952]

o Biographie Geiger
In: 50 Klassiker der Soziologie.
o Theodor Geiger
In: Enpsychlopedia.
o Wikipedia: Theodor Geiger
[1930] Erziehung als Gegenstand der Soziologie
In:Die Erziehung. Monatsschrift für den Zusammmenhang von Kultur und
Erziehung in Wissenschaft und Leben, 5(7). Verlag Quelle und Meyer, Leipzig
1930. pp. 405-27.
Theorie der Sozialen Schichtung [pdf]
In: Theodor Geiger [1962] Arbeiten zur Soziologie. Neuwied, Teil II, Chap.
10: 186-205.
Geißler, Rainer
Die Schichtungstheorie von Theodor Geiger
On Geiger‘s theory of social stratification.
In: Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 37: 387-410.

Giddens, Anthony [1938]

By Giddens

Giddens Home Page

o Publications - Articles (FindArticles)
o Major Books by Anthony Giddens (Frank Elwell)
o Books by Anthony Giddens (Linkbaton)
[1984] The Constitution of Society
Berkeley: University of California Press - Extracts and Annotations by G.R.
Thursby. Also in French: La constitution de la société (Paris: PUF 1987).
[1990] The consequences of modernity
[1990] A Comparison of Conceptions of ―Post-Modernity‖(PM) and
―Radicalised Modernity‖ (RM)
In: Consequences of Modernity, p. 151.
[1991] Living in the World: Dilemmas of the Self
From: Anthony Giddens [1991] Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society
in the Late Modern Age, Stanford,CA: Stanford University Press, pp. 187-201.
[1991] The Concept of ―Pure Relationship‖
From: Anthony Giddens [1991] Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society
in the Late Modern Age, Stanford,CA: Stanford University Press, pp. 187-201.
[1998] Vertrauen und Reflexivität in der posttraditionalen Gesellschaft [
Moved to ...?]
[1999] Runaway World - Globalization, Risk, Tradition, Family, and
Five BBC lectures of Anthony Giddens. All lectures are available in text, audio
and video. In an interview Giddgens explains the background of his BBC Reith
[2003] Sociology
The online compagnon for using the 4th edition of Giddens‘ book. The site
offers textbook and reader information, a sociology resource centre, wider
reading and FAQs, lectures on key topics, new articles and an interview with
Anthony Giddens.
An interview with Anthony Giddens
Giddens talks about his own inspiration and about the nature and value of
studying sociology today. Presented by Polity Press.
The Second Globalization Debate
A talk with Anthony Giddens by John Brockman.
In: Edge - The Third Culture.

On Giddens

Elwell, Frank W. Anthony Giddens‘ Structuration - Resource Page

Harrington, Pat
Review of The Third Way and Its Critics
Mestrovic, Stjepan [2000]
Review of The Last Modernist
In: Canadian Journal of Sociology Online, March - April 2000.
Rammert, Werner [2000]
Giddens und die Gesellschaft der Heinzelmännchen
Article on the sociology of technical agents and multi agent systems. [2002]
Anthony Giddens
An introduction to Giddens‘ general ‗structuration theory‘ plus more detail on
his ideas about self, gender and identity in modern societies. Written by David
Wiering, Frank [1999]
DNW interview met Anthony Giddens
Wikipedia: Anthony Giddens

Goffman, Erving [1922 - 1982]

Erving Goffman Biography
Part of The Goffman Reader, by: Charles Lemert and Ann Branaman.
Goffman Biography
by Gadi Algazi (Tel Aviv University, Israel)
Erving Goffmann by B. Diane Blackwood
Article for Magill’s Guide to the 20th Century Authors (1977) Pasadena,
CA: Salem Press.
[1959] The Arts of Impression Management
From: Erving Goffman [1959] The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New
York: Doubleday, pp. 208-12.
[1959] Presentation of Self
From Erving Goffman [1959] The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New
York: Doubleday, pp. 22-30, 70-76.
[1974] Frame Analysis
New York: Harper, 1974, 1-39.
Becker, Howard S. [1999]
The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions
Bernhart, Adam D. [1994] [Moved to ?]
Erving Goffman: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life
Brönnimann, Christoph [Oktober 1997]
Welchen Beitrag leistet Goffmans Interaktionstheorie bei der Analyse neuer
Article on the contribution of Goffmans interaction theory to the analysis of
computer-mediated interaction.
>Freidson, Eliot [July 1983]
Celebrating Erving Goffman
A paper read at a memorial session for Erving Goffman at the Eastern
Sociological Society meeting in Baltimore, March 4, 1983. Freidson discusses
Goffman‘s early work. It was published in Contemporary Sociology, 12 (4)
July, 1983: 359-362.
Miller, Hugh / Mather, Russel [1998]
The Presentation of Self in WWW Home Pages
Travers, Andrews [1997]
Manning, Philip: Erving Goffman and Modern Sociology [review]
Reviewing Sociology 10(1).
Young, T.R.
o [1995] The Dramaturgical Society — Macro-Analysis in Dramaturgy
o [April 1987] Hard Times and Hard Tomatoes: The Plight of Symbolic
Interactional theory in a Interactionally Deficient Society
Young, T.R / Massey, Garth [1971]
The Dramaturgical Society: Macro-Analysis and Dramatugical Presentments
The writings of Goffman have illuminated the dramaturgical components of
face-to-face interaction. But the task of developing a substantive and
theoretical explication of the dramaturgical society remains. Young & Massey
try to expand the dramaturgical analysis to the macro-societal.

Goudsblom, Joop / Johan [1932]

Wikipedia: Johan Goudsblom

Bibliography - by Willem Kranendonk
[1969] Interview with Norbert Elias <!--[mirror]-->
In: Sociologische Gids 17(2): 133-40.
[1989] Twenty Years of Figurational Sociology in the Netherlands [1969-
In: Society as Process. A Bibliography of Figurational Sociology in the
Netherlands (up to 1989). Amsterdam 1990.

Gouldner, Alvin W. [1920 - 1980]

Bibliography - Questia
[1950] Studies in Leadership - Leadership and Democratic Action (editor)
New York: Harper & Brothers.
[1962] Notes on Technology and the Moral Order (with Richard A. Peterson)
[1980] The Two Marxisms
[1960] The Norm of Reciprocity
From Alvin W. Gouldner [1960] ―The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary
Statement.‖ American Sociological Review 25: 161-78.
[1975] Sociology of the Everyday Life
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 417-32.
Miyahara, Kojiro [2000]
Alvin Gouldner: Studies on Bureaucracy and theNew Class Project [pdf]
Wikipedia: Alvin_Ward_Gouldner

Gramsci, Antonio [1891 - 1937]

Bibliography of the Works of Antonio Gramsci

Publications of his writings in 27 languages. Editor: John M. Cammett.
Resources on Antonio Gramsci
An introduction to the work of Gramsci and an online search of the complet
Gramsci bibliography which includes some 11,430. The site is developed and
maintained by Dean Savage (Queens College-CUNY) and Jesse Reichler
(University of Illinois). items.
International Gramsci Society
Fondazione Istituto Gramsci
The site contains bibliographic and archival materials concerning Antonio
Gramsci‘s profile and thought, the history of Italian labour and socialist
movements, the history of the Italian communist party.
Bieler, Andreas / Morton, Adam David [2003]
Theoretical and Methodological Challenges of neo-Gramscian Perspectives in
International Political Economy
Rosengarten, Frank [1992] An Introduction to Gramsci‘s Life and Thought
From: Enciclopedia italiana, Roma, pp. 485-86.
Stillo, Monica Antonio Gramsci
Information on life and work of Gramsci, merits and flaws of Gramsci‘s
theory, and a bibliography.
Gramsci e o Brasil
Brazilian society, culture and politics in the light of gramscian marxism. Only
in Portuguese. Editor: Luiz Sérgio Henriques.

Habermas, Jürgen [1929]

By Habermas

[1975] Theorems of Legitimation Crisis

From: J. Habermas [1975] Legitimation Crisis
(transl. by Thomas McCarthy) Boston: Benon Press,
pp. 68-75.
[1968] The Idea of the Theory of Knowledge as
Social Theory
From: Knowledge and Human Interests, (Erkenntnis
und Interesse, 1968), publ. Polity Press, 1987
Chapter Three.
[1991] The Second Destruction of Reason
Interview in Die Zeit nr. 20, 17 Mai 1991.
[1996] Excerpt from ―Georg Simmel on Philosophy
and Culture: Postscript to a collection of Essays‖
In: Critical Inquiry, Spring 1996, Vol. 22(3).
Translated by Mathieu Deflem.
[1998] Hermeneutische und analytische Philosophie - Zwei komplementäre
Spielarten der linguistischen Wende [YouTube]
A lecture broadcast on Radio Bremen, June 1996.
[2001] Warum braucht Europa eine Verfassung? | pdf
Public lecture, Hamburg, June 26, 2001. From: Die Zeit (June 29, 2001) and
the European University Institute.
New Left Review has published a shorter version: Why Europe Needs a
[2002] Letter to America
In: The Nation, November 26, 2002.
On Habermas

Habermas Online
The most extended site with information partaining to the work of Habermas.
Habermas Forum
About Jürgen Habermas, news, reviews, articles, links, and events.
Amerongen, Melissa van [1997]
Kunstkijken voor gevorderden? - Habermas en Lyotard over een
vooruitstrevende avant-garde en een conservatieve maatschappij
Article on the relation between modern art and the masses, from the
perspective of Habermas (en Lyotard). Dutch only.
Bambach, R. [1991] (Magdeburg, Germany)
Jürgen Habermas: Person, Werk, Rezeption
In: Julian Nida-Rümelin (hrsg.) Philosophie der Gegenwart in
Einzeldarstellungen, Stuttgart 1991, pp. 210-217.
Article on person, work and reception of Habermas (in German).
Bennington, Geoffrey [1996]
Paper delivered to the Social and Political Thought Seminar, University of
Sussex, 4 March 1996.
Deflem, Mathieu (Purdue University, USA)
Habermas Online
A site that offers primary texts, secondary sources, reviews and links on
Jürgen Habermas: de la sociologie cirtique à l‘éthique de la communication
A site dedicated to the Frankfurter Schule includes some biographical notes
on Habermas.
Endres, Ben [1996]
Habermas and Critical Thinking
In: Philosophy of Education.
Feenberg, Andrew (San Diego State University, USA)
o [1996] Marcuse or Habermas: Two Critiques of Technology
Inquiry 39: 45-70.
o From Essentialism to Constructivism: Philosophy of Technology ant the
In: E. Higgs / D. Strong / A. Light (eds.) [2000]Technology and the
Good Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Fernández, Sergio Pablo [1997]
Habermas y la Teoria Critica de la Sociedad
In: Cinta de Moebio, no.1, Semtiembre 1997.
Jay, Martin [1986]
Standing up to Paris and Bitburg
A review of Autonomy and Solidarity, Jürgen Habermas Interviews.
In: New York Times, November 9, 1986.
Kauppinen, Antti (Helsinki, Finland)
Habermas links, Habermas rechts
Kavoulakos, Konstantinos [1999]
Constitutional state and democracy: On Jürgen Habermas‘s Between Facts
and Norms
In: Radical Philosophy 96, July/August 1999.
Leydesdorff, Loet [2000]
Luhmann, Habermas, and the Theory of Communication
In: Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 17(3): 273-88.
McGee, Michael Calvin [1998]
Phronesis in the Habermas vs. Gadamar Debate
In: John M. SLoop / James P. McDaniel (eds) [1998] Judgement Calls:
Rhetoric, Politics, and Indeterminacy. Westview Press.
Powers, Elizabeth [1985]
Habermas on the Upper West Side
In: First Things 58 (December 1995): 39-44.
Rasmussen, David M. [1998]
Liberalism Reconsidered
A review of Between Facts and Norms
In: First Things 82 (April 1998): 52-5.
Robinson, Steve (Michigan State University, USA)
The Jürgen Habermas Web Resource
A class project on the rhetorical theory of Habermas.
Schomberg, Rene von [1994] The Erosion of our Value Spheres?
The ways in which society copes with scientific, moral and ethical uncertainty.
Habermas Conference, 27 January 1994, Tilburg, Netherlands.
Published in: Rene Von Schomberg (ed.) [2002] Discouse and Democracy:
Essays on Habermas‘s Between Facts and Norms. Strate of University Press.
Sito Web Italiano per la Filosofia (SWIF)
Jürgen Habermas
Italian site on Habermas
Stickle, Steve
An Introduction to Jürgen Habermas
Strike, Kenneth [1994]
Discourse Ethics and Restructuring
In: Philosophy of Education.
Thornton, Alinta (University of Technology, Sydney, Australia)
Does Internet Create Democracy?
A thesis on whether internet creates or contributes to democracy. She relates
the internet and democracy debate to American communications theory
(starting with Howard Rheingold‘s prediction that internet will facilitate an
explosion of direct participatory democracy), and also explores some
European theory, including Habermas. Thornton concludes that internet
provides opportunities for limited revitalisation of the public sphere. These
new opportunities are limited to privileged groups, but it is at least an
increase in the activities of the public sphere, however modest.
Wikipedia: Jürgen Habermas
Yahoo!: Habermas
A discussion group in light of, or related to Jürgen Habermas‘ work or is
related to genuine interest in this interests.

Halbwachs, Maurice [1877 - 1945]

[1905-1947] Classes, besoins et genres de vie

A collection of articles published between 1905 and 1947.
[1938] Esquisse d‘une psychologie des classes sociales
A study on the psychology of social classes, including class related
articulations of religion, science, arts, politics and social moral.
[1938] Morphologie sociale
[1939] La mémoire collective chez les musiciens
[1950] La mémoire collective
A study on collective or social memory.
Grao, Frédéric / Ramognino, Nicole [1997]
Les matérialités sociales et leurs observations. Les leçons de méthode de
M. Halbwachs [pdf]
In: Sociologie et sociétés, 29(2): 103-19.
A methodical approach of Halbwachs‘ work that concentrates on apprehending
social facts.
Lavabre, Marie-Claire
Pour une sociologie de la mémoire collective
Marce, Jean-Cristophe / Mucchielli, Laurant [1999]
Un fondement du lien social: la mémoire collective selon Maurice Halbwachs
In: Technologies, Idéologies, Pratiques. Revue d‘anthropologie des
connaissances, 13(2): 63-88.
A description of the evolution in the basic thinking of the French sociologist
Maurice Halbwachs.
Mucchielli, Laurant [1999]
La mémoire collective selon Maurice Halbwachs‘ work
A general presentation of the work of Halbwachs, with focus on collective
In: Technologies, Idéologies, Pratiques. Revue d‘anthropologie des
connaissances, 13(2): 63-88.
Revue du Mauss
An ‗anti-utilitarist‘ journal that publishes social scientific contributions from
different perspectives. The tribute to Marcesl Mauss indicates that there‘s a
certain accent on the idea that social gift relations unite human subjects.
Sabourin, Paul [1997]
Perspective sur la mémoire sociale de Maurice Halbwachs [pdf]
In: Sociologie et sociétés, 29(2): 139-61.
A re-reading of Halbwachs work that examines the study of social memory as
a contribution of note to social morphology, both from the point of view of
defining problems and that of proposed solutions. His sociology of memory is
a sociology of social experience. The author suggests that this sociology
constitutes a theory of socialization that reveals the means of social
appropriation of human experience through organizing and defining
relationships among collective memories.
Topalov, Christian e.o
Maurice Halbwachs et les siences humaines de son temps
Revue d‘histoire des sciences humaines, 1.
Wikipedia: Maurice_Halbwachs

Hall, Stuart

[1983] The Narrative Construction of Reality
John O‘Hara interviewed Stuart Hall for the Australian Broadcaston
Corporation‘s Doubletak, broadcast May 5, 1983].
[2003] Globalization [audio]
A discussion about globalization at the Center for Cultural Studies - 1 Oct.
[2006] Stuart Hall in conversation with Pnina Werbner - March 2006.
Hall talks about diasporaas in the general context of cosmopolitism.
How the UK media fuelled race prejudice
Stuart Hall Page (Black Cultural Studies Web)
Cultural Studies: Stuart Hall
A slide lecture created by Robert T. Craig & Karen Tracy.
Chandler, Daniel: Marxist Media Theory
Wood, Brennan [1998]
Stuart Hall‘s cultural studies and the problem of hegemony
In: British Journal of Sociology 49(3): 399-414
Wikipedia: Stuart Hall

Haraway, Donna J.

[1983] The Ironic Dream of a Common Language for Women in the
Integrated Circuit
An early version of Haraway‘s influential essay A Cyborg Manifesto: Science,
Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century.
A cyborg is a cybernetic organism, a creature of science fiction and a creature
of social reality. Haraway argues that we have all become cyborgs, mythic
hybrids of machine and organism. In recent Western science and politics, the
relation between organism and machine has been a border war. Haraway‘s
essay is an argument for pleasure in the confusion of boundaries and for
responsibility in their construction. A socialist-feminist must pay particular
attention to the redesign of cyborgs, i.e., to genetic engineering.
[1991] A Cyborg Manifesto: Sicence, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in
the Late Twentieth Century
In: Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York:
Routledge, 1991), pp. 149-181.
[1992] The Promise of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inapproriate/d
In: Lawrence Grossberg / Cary Nelson / Paula A. Treichler (eds.) [1993]
Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge. pp. 295-337.
[1992] Reproducing the Future: Essays on Anthropology, Jinship and the New
Reproductive Technologies
In: Marilyn Strathern [1992] Reproducing the Future. New York:Routledge,
[2000] Birth of the Kennel
A lecture held on august 2000.
Hyperlink to Donna Haraway
Hunzru, Hari [1997]
You Are Cyborg
In: Wired, Feb. 1997.
Ito, Mizuko [1992]
Cyborg Couplings in a Multi-User Dungeon
Paper presented at the 1994 meetings of the Society for the Social Studies of
Science, New Orleans.
Ito, Mizuko [1993] Living Fictions: Extension of Cybernetic Presence
In: Intercommunication 6 (Autumn 1993: 118-23.
Ito, Mizuko [1994]
Cybernetic Fantasies: Extensions of Selfhood in a Multi-User Dungeon
Paper presented at the 1994 meetings of the American Anthropological
Association, Atlanta.
Ito, Mizuko [1996]
Virtually Embodied: The Reality of Fantasy in a Multi-User Dungeon
In David Porter (ed.) [1996] Internet Culture. New York: Routledge.
Rouse, Joseph [1992]
What are Cultural Studies of Scientific Knowledge?
In: Configurations, 1992, 1.1:57-94.
Sparks, Elisa Kay
Donna Haraway Biblio
Wikipedia: Donna_Haraway
Young, Robert M. [1992]
Science, Ideology and Donna Haraway
In Science as Culture, 15(3):165-207.

Homans, George, C. [1910 - 1989]

General Propositions
From: George C. Homans [1974] Elementary
Forms of Social Behavior, (2nd Ed.), New York:
Harcourt BraceJovanovich.
Wikipedia: Georges C. Homans
Biographie: George W. Homans
In: 50 Klassiker der Soziologie.

Horkheimer, Max [1895 - 1973]

[1944] The Culture Industry: Enlightment as Mass Deception (with Theodor

W. Adorno)
In: Dialectic of Enlightment. New York: Continuum, 1993. Originally published
as ―Dialektik der Aufklärung‖, 1944.
[1944] The Culture Industry: Enlightment as Mass Deception (with Theodor
W. Adorno)
From: The Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Continuum, 1993. Originally
published as ―Dialektik der Aufklärung‖, 1944.
[1950] Democratic Leadership and Mass Manipulation In: Alvin W. Gouldner
(ed.) [1950], Studies in Leadership: Leadership and Democratic Action. New
York: Harper & Brothers, pp. 418-38.
[1963] Theism and Atheism
In: Critique of Instrumental Reason.
1964] Feudal Lord, Customer, and Specialist - The End of the Fairy Tale of the
Customer as King
In: Critique of Instrumental Reason
Elemente des Antisemitismus (with Theodor W. Adorno)
o Max Horkheimer: Soziologe und Philosoph
o Wikipedia: Max_Horkheimer
Gur-Ze’ev, Ilan (University of Haifa, Israel)
Max Horkheimer and Philosophy of Education
In: Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Education.
Sito Web Italiano per la Filosofia: Max Horkheimer

Ibn Khaldun [1332-1395]

Omar, Abdul Rahim [1996] Ibn Khaldun - Biography
Ibn Khaldun on the Web
A comprehensive directory and guide to the 14th
century Arab founder and father of sociology and
sciences of history.
Ibn Khaldun - His Life and Work
A detailed biography by Mohammad Hozien.
Wikipedia: Ibn Khaldun
Wikipedia: Muqaddimah
Khaldun‘s early Muslim view on universal history.
Al-Araki, Abdel Magid [1983] - University of Oslo
Ibn Khaldun: A Forerunner for Modern Sociology
In: Discourse of the Method and Concepts of
Economic Sociology.
Bliss, Frank [2000]
Vom Nomandentum zu Stadt und Staat
Braudel, Fernand [1959]
Ibn Khaldoen, précurseur médiéval de l‘histoire des civilisations
In: idem, La longue, l’inépuisable duée des civilisations.
Ead, Hamed A. [1998] - Cairo University
Alchemy in Ibn Khaldun‘s Muqaddimah
Frers, Lars [1999]
Ibn Khaldun and Comte - Discontinuity or Progress
Ibn Khaldun is promoted as a social theorist that could be included into an
early session of a social class theory.
Kasri, Mustapha El [1999]
Ibn Khaldun: ses pérégrinations et ses ambitions [webarchive]
In: Le Temps du Maroc, nr. 174.
Kayadibi, Fahri [2001] - Istanbul University, Beyazit
Ibn Khaldun and Education
Kilcullen, R.J. [1998]- Macquarie University, Australia
Islamic political thought: Ibn Khaldun
A brief summary of Khaldun‘s theories on the rise and fall of states and
Matthews, EG. [1989]
Ibn Khladun and Change
Adapted from E. G. Matthews [1989] The Rise of the Islamic World.
Plawiuk, Eugene [2006]
Ibn Khaldun: a 14yh Century Arab Libertarian [mirror]
Shamsuddín Elía, R. H. [1977]
Ibn Jaldún: El primer sociólogo de la historia [webarchive]

Inglehart, Ronald

[1980] Culture Shift

Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 15-83,
[1999] Trust, well-being and democracy
In: Mark Warren (ed.) [1999] Democracy and
Trust. New York/ Cambridge: Cambridge Univ.
Press,, pp. 88-120. Inglehart argues that
interpersonal trust is a relatively enduring
characteristic of given societies and that it is conducive to stable
democracy. However, democratic institutions do not necessarily produce
interpersonal trust.
[2005] (with Christian Welzel and Franziska Deutsch) Social capital,
voluntary associations and collective action: Which aspects of socail capital
have the greatest ‗civic‘ payoff?
In: Journal of Civil Society, 1 (2): 121-46.
Home page of R. Inglehart
Publications of Ronald Ingelhart
World Values Survey
A worldwide investigation of sociocultural and political change.
Wikipedia: Ronald_Inglehart

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss [1943]

Kanter‘s Homepage
Kanter‘s consulting firm provides services to organizations trying to become
or remain competitive in an uncertain business environment.
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss
Encyclopædia article from
A resource list of books and articles by and about Kanter.
[1995] Corporate Communities
Transcript of a discussion with David Gergen about the ideas in her book
World Class: Thriving Locally in the Global Economy.
[1997] Men and Women of the Corporation
A summary of Kanter‘s work by the same titel.
[1999] The Enduring Skills of Change Leaders
[2000] Spotlight on Rosabeth Moss Kanter
Interview with Kanter on leadership and strategy in the new electronic age,
changing relationships with employees, and motivational tools.
Wikipedia: Rosabeth_Moss_Kanter

Kearl, Michael

The Times of Our Lives - Investigations into Socio-chronology

A sociology of time and social rythms by Michael Kearl (Trinity University,
USA). A study of time and the various timetables and rhythms that shape our
behaviors and thoughts. The issues are: the different meanings we give to
each day of the week & months of the year; the ―quality time‖ that working
parents worry about sharing enough of with their children; the pressure we
feel to be ―on time‖ in the face of dreaded deadlines; the various social clocks
whose tickings seem to govern our lives, such as the ages at which we
believe we should be married, have children, or be ―peaking‖ in our careers;
the emergence of ―flexitime‖ and four-day weeks in the world of work; and
the types of time that religions impose to fortify the moralities of their
members, such as eternity in heavens or hells, purgatory time, or escaping
the cycle of death and rebirth.
Sociological Tour Trough Cyberspace
Michael Kearl takes you on a trip through Sociology as it exists on the Net.
You won‘t be disappointed. He will show you that the cyberspace medium
can truly be a ‗theater of ideas‘.
Sociology of Death and Dying
An exploration in how death is an indicator of life. Essays, commentary,
graphs and links on the death issues of our time: abortion, euthanasia, capital
punishment, life expectancies of different groups, genocide and more. Also
cross-national study in progress examining why belief in life after death
greatest among Americans.
A Sociological Social Psychology
A sociological perspective written by Michael Kearl. A very good place to start
Marriage & Family Processes
Social Gerontology
Social Inequality
Gender & Society
Race & Ethnicity
Sociology of Knowledge

König, René [1906 - 1992]

The Society informs on the life and work of René König, one of the refounders
of German sociology after the second world war.
[1965] Der Mensch in der Sicht des Soziologen
In: Soziologische Orientierungen. Vorträge und Aufsätze. Kön.Berlin:
Kiepenheuer & Witsch, pp. 29-44.
[1974] Die Familie der Gegenwart. Ein interkultureller Vergleich
München: C.H. Beck, pp. 6-90, 69-74, 145-57.
La Taillade
From: René König: Was nebenbei geschieht und allzu oft vergessen wird,
Chapter 7. Published in RK-Nachrichten 2, pp. 30-40.
[1976] Soziologie und Moralbegründung
RK-Nachrichten 2, pp. 20-29. A radio talk with Hans G. Exenius on sociology
and moral foundations.
Albert, Hans [1996]
Soziologie und soziale Ordnung. René König und die soziologischen
RK-Nachrichten 2, pp. 9-19.
König, Oliver [1996]
Die Rolle der Familie in der Soziologie unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der
Familiensoziologie René König
In: Familiendynamik 3, Juli 1996, pp. 239-67.
König, Oliver<
Archivierung des Nachlasses
Lüschen, Güther [1996]
René König zum 90. Geburtstag
RK-Nachrichten 2, pp. 5-7.
Ziegler, Rolf
In memoriam René
König. Für eine
Soziologie in
ZA-Information, Heft 33, November 1993, pp. 145-55.
Zürcher, Markus [1994]
Der mythos der Gemeinschaft: René König als Emigrant in der Schweiz
RK-Nachrichten 1, pp. 22-33.
Wikipedia: René_König

Latour, Bruno

[1996] La gauche a-t-elle besoin de Bourdieu? (Does the left need Bourdieu?)
In: Liberation 15 sept 1996.
[1997] On Recalling ANT [pdf]
Keynote speach at the ‗Actor Network and After‘ Workshop, Keele University,
July 1997.
[1998] Thought Experiments in Social Science: from the Social Contract to
Virtual Society
Annual Public Lecture, Brunel University.
Bruno Latour
Italian site on the philosophy of Bruno Latour.
Wikipedia: Bruno_Latour

Lefebvre, Henri [1901 - 1991]

Hess, Rémi [2004]

La méthode d‘Henri Lefebvre
Kelly, Michael [1992]
Henri Lefebvre
In: Radical Philosophy 60.
A biographical and critical sketch.
Monteiro, Guilhermino [1992]
Homenagem a Henri Lefebvre
Journal a Página da Educação.
O‘Ruairc, Liam [2003]
The Marxist and humanist legacy of Henri Lefebvre
In: News & Letters, October 2003.
Ross, Kristen [1993-7]
Henri Lefebvre on the Situationist International
Ross, Kristen [1999]
Review of Henri Lefebvre‘s The Production of Space
In: Not Bored 30, 1999.
Ross, Kristen [1996]
Review of Henri Lefebvre‘s Introduction to Modernity
In: Not Bored 25, 1996.
Shields, Rob [1999]
Hebri Lefebvre, Love and Struggle - Spatial dialectis
London: Routledge.
Shields, Rob [2002]
Henri Lefebvre: Philosopher of Everyday Life
Wikipedia: Henri_Lefebvre

Gerhard E. Lenski [1924-]

Biography - Encyclopedia of Religion and Society

Wikipedia: Gerhard Lenski
[1966] Power and Privilege: A Theory of Social Stratification
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
[1990/2006] Human Societies - 10th Edition. (with Patrick Nolan)
A modern classical, uncovering the causal agents behind societal evolution
and change.
Blute, Marion [2005]
Ecological-Evolutionary Theory: Principles and Applications
Canadian Journal of Sociology Online, September-October 2005
Elwell, Frank
Lenski‘s Ecological-Evolutionary Social Theory

Lévi-Strauss, Claude Gustav [b. 1908]

[1958] Structural Analysis in Linguistics and in Anthropology
From: Claude Lévi-Strauss [1968] Structural
Anthropology, Chapter II. Allen Lane:
[1963] The Structural Study of Myth
From: Claude Lévi-Strauss [1963] Structural
Anthropology. New York: Basic Books, pp.
[1984] The Birth of Historical Societies
(Hitchcock Lectures) Listen to the lecture
recorded on 3rd and 4th October at the
Berkeley Language Center.
Klages, Mary (U. Colorado, Boulder) [1997]
Claude Levi-Strauss: The Structural Study of
Myth - Lecture notes on the essay.
Wiens, Elmer G.: Linguistic and Commodity
An examination of the structural differences
between barter and monetary commodity
exchanges and oral and written linguistic exchanges.
Wikipedia: Levi-Strauss

Luhman, Niklas [1927 - 1998]

Causality in the South

Niklas Luhmann, Soziale Systeme, 1995:1.
Policies of development using legal and monetary mechanisms have not been
very successful. Resistance against modernization has been explained by
factors such as ―tradition‖, ―culture‖, ―mentalities―. For Luhmann these are
more or less tautological explanations. He proposes to replace them by the
factor ―social construction of causality―. Relations between causes and effects
can no longer be treated as objective aspects of the world and as a question
of true or false judgment. Rather, causality is an infinity of possible
combinations of causes and effects which requires highly selective attribution
processes to be of any cognitive or practical value. In Luhmann‘s mind
causality is a medium of loosely couples possibilities which requires the
selection of forms, i.e. tight couplings, of interesting causes and interesting
[1995] Kausalität im Süden
In: Soziale Systeme 1(1): 7-28.
[2000] Das Medium der Religion. Eine soziologische Betrachtung über Gott
und die Seelen [pfd]
In: Soziale Systeme 6(1): 39-53.
[2008] Are There Still Indispensable Norms in Our Society?
In: Soziale Systeme 14(1): 18-37. Translation of ―Gibt es in unserer
Gesellschaft noch onverzichtbare Normen?‖ (1993).
A Norwegian project on Luhmann, Bateson, Spencer, Maturana, Misheva,
Massehi, Pierce and others.
Bornmann, Lutz (Kiel, Germany)
Glossar zu Niklas Luhmanns Theorie sozialer Systeme
Christis, Jacq [2001] (Nijmegen, Netherlands)
Luhman‘s theory of knowledge: beyond realism and constructivism? [pdf]
In: Soziale Systeme 7(2): 328-49.
Heil, Ragner (Germany)
System Thinking
Editor: Ragner Heil.
Jokisch, Rodrigo (Berlin, Germany)
 [1996] Logic of Distinctions - A Protologic for a Theory of Society
English summaries of chapters I to V, from: Logik der Distinktionen.
Zur Protologik einer Theorie der Gesellschaft. Opladen:Westdeutscher
Verlag, 1996.
 [2001] Problems with Theory Construction of Grand Theories - Niklas
Luhmann‘s Theory of Social Systems, as an Example
From: SysteMexico, Special Edition: The Autopoietic Turn: Luhmann‘s
Recoceptualisation of the Social, Tecnológico de Monterrey - Tec -
Campus Ciudead de México, 2001, p. 16-23.
Jottings on Luhmann
A discussion mailing list on Luhmann. The primary goal is to encourage the
discussion of and increase the visibility of Niklas Luhmann‘s work outside of
his native Germany, especially in the English-speaking world. The most
exciting possibility is to have at our fingertips the best resource for people,
interests and events. The academic fields may range from economics to
physics to law to organizational systems to social sciences, and more.
Kopplin, Holger (Germany) ―Liebe‖ aus systemtheoretischer Sicht
Article on Luhmann‘s book ―Liebe als Passion. Zur Codierung von Intimität‖.
Leydesdorff, Loet [1999]
Luhmann, Habermas, and the Theory of Communication
In: Systems Research and Behavioral Science.
Mein Leben mit Luhmann [Moved to ...?]
A short story from the perspective of a fictional partner of a fictional sociology
professor on a fictional University of Bielefeld. All persons and events are
fictional. It includes a rough glossary to Luhmann‘s system theory.
Niklas Luhmann systemteori (Danish)
Porr, Bernd [1997]
Provost, Wallace H.
 [1985] Contingency and Complexity in the Social Theory of Niklas
Originaly published in the International Journal of General Systems, in
1985. This article illustrates the power of non-linear philosophy for
explaining very difficult concepts in relatively simple terms Even with
the obscure language used by Niklas Luhmann.
 [1989] Complex Organization and Niklas Luhmann‘s Sociology of Law
Published in the International Journal of General Systems, in 1989 this
article uses the principles of non-linear philosophy to illustrate and
expand on the brilliant approach toward the sociology of Law of Niklas
Hutter, Michael [1996](Bielefeld, Germany)
Zur Diskussion gestellt: Niklas Luhmann, ―Die Kunst der Gesellschaft‖
In: Soziale Systeme 2(1): 153-77.
Tække, Jesper [2003] (Denmark)
Media Theory and Social Systems [pdf]
Terpstra, Mike (Portland, OR, USA)
America on Luhmann
Whitaker, Randall
Autopoiesis and Enaction
Wikipedia: Niklas_Luhmann
Luhmann Mailingliste

Malinowski, Bronislaw [1884 - 1942]

[1921] La sexualité et sa répression dans les sociétés primitives

French translation of The sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia.
[1933] Moeurs et coutumes des Mélanésiens
Trois essais sur la vie sociale des primitifs.
[1941] Les dynamiques de l‘évolution culturelle
Recherche sur les relations raciales en Afrique.
[1944] Une théorie scientifique de la culture et autres essais
o Bronislaw Malinowski
A short story on his live and works, presented by the the EMuseum
(Minnesota State University, Mankato, USA).
o Wikipedia: Bronislaw_Malinowski
Goldfarb, David A. [1994]
Argonauts of the Western Pacific: S.I. Witkiewics and Bronislaw Malinowski

Mann, Michael

Professor Michael Mann - Department of

Sociology, University of California, Los
[1984] The Autonomous Power of the
State: Its Origins, Mechanisms and
First published in Archives européennes
de sociologie, vol. 25, 1984, pp. 185-
[1986] The Sources of Social Power -
Vol. I, Chapter 1
A history of power from the beginning to
A.D. 1760.
[1987] Ruling Class Strategies and
In: Sociology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 339-
54. August 1987.
[1993] The Sources of Social Power -
Vol. II, Chapter 3
The rise of classes and nation-states,
[1993] The Sources of Social Power - Vol. II, Chapter 20
Theoretical conclusions: Classes, states, nations, and the sources
of social power.
[1997] Has globalization ended the rise of the nation-state?
In: Review of International Politica Economy, 4:3 Autumn 1997:
[2000] Were the Perpetrators of Genocide ―Ordinary Men‖ or ―Real
In: Holocaust and Genocide Studies, V14, N3, Winter 200, pp. 331-66.
[2001] The Colonial Darkside of Democracy
[2002] The Crisis of the Latin American Nation-State
Paper presented at the University of Andes, Bogotá, Colombia, to the
Conference ―The Political Crisis and International Conflict in Colombia‖, April
10-13, 2002.
[2003] Incoherent Empire - Introduction
London: Verso.
[2004] The Dark-Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing: Chapter 1
Short cv of Michael Mann [pdf]

Mannheim, Karl [1893 - 1947]

The Karl Mannheim Fundation

One of the aims of this institute of sociology and social policy is to support the
preservation and publication of the ouvre of outstanding Hungarian
sociologists, especially Karl Mannheim, Karl Polányi, Pál Szende and István
Bibó. The Karl Mannheim Fundation is located within the Institute of Sociology
and Social Policy at Eötvös Loránd University in Hungary.
Encyclopædia Britannica - Karl Mannheim
50 Klassiker der Soziologie
Biography of Mannheim
Perdue, William D. [1986]
Karl Mannheim (1883-1947)
In: Sociological Theory: Explanation, Paradigm, and Ideology. Palo Alto, CA:
Mayfield. pp. 388-93.
Gebhardt, Winfried [1993/8]
Karl Mannheim (in German)
In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches KirchenLexicon, Band V, Verlag Traugott
Bautz. pp. 703-8.
Weller, Wivian [2005]
A contribuição de Karl Mannheim para a pesquisa qualitativa: aspectos
teóricos e metodológicos (Karl Mannheim‘s contribution to qualitative
research: theoretical and methodological aspects)
Wikipadia: Karl Mannheim

Marcuse, Herbert [1898 - 1979]

Primary Sources

[1941] Reason and Revolution: II Rise of

Social Theory - III Hegel‘s First System
[1941] Einige gesellschaftliche Folgen
moderner Technologien
First published as ―Some Social
Implications of Modern Technologies‖,
in: Studies in Philosophy and Social
Science, Vol. IX, 1941`, p. 414-39.
Translation in: Herbert Marcuse,
Schriften Bd. 3, p. 286-319. Frankfurt:
In this essay Marcuse analyses
technology as a social process.
[1943] Staat und Individuum im Nationalsozialismus
First published in Le Monde Diplomatique.
[1964] One Dimensional Man [] | idem [Herbert Marcuse
Boston: Beacon.
[1964] One Dimensional Man - 5. Negative Thinking: The Defeated Logic of
[1965] Repressive Toleranz [] | idem [inforpartisan]
In: Eobert Paul Wolff / Barrington Moore / Herbert Marcuse: A Critique of Pure
Tolerance (Boston: Beacon, 1969), pp. 95-137. Originally published in 1965,
Kritik der reinen Toleranz.
[1967] Liberation from the Affluent Society
In: David Cooper (ed.), The Dialectics of Liberation
(Harmondsworth/Baltimore: Penguin, 1968), pp. 175-92.
[1967] The Eind of Utopia (or German version) and The Problem of Violence
(or German version)
In: Five Lectures (Boston: Beacon), 1970.
[1967] Aggressiveness in Advanced Industrial Society
From: Negations: Essays in Critical Theory (1968)
[1978] Protosozialismus und Spätkapitalismus
Versuch einer theoretischen Synthese von Bahros Ansatz.
First published in ―Zeitschrift für sozialistische Diskussion‖, 19(6).

Secondary Sources

Herbert Marcuse
Created by Harold Marcuse. Includes extensive excerpts from Marcuse‘s
writings and links to secondary essays on-line.
City and university library Frankfurt am Main.
Illuminations Classics: H. Marcuse
Bibliographie - Dialectiques
Claussen, Detlev [1998]

Dem Weltgeist in die Nüstern spucken

Ein Erinnerung an Herbert Marcuse zum hundertsten Geburtstag.
Feenberg, Andrew (San Diego State University, USA)
o [1992] Marcuse: Obstinacy as a Theoretical Virtue
A comment on one of Marcuse‘s last speeches, first
published in Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, Sept.
1992, pp. 38-40.
o [1996] Marcuse or Habermas: Two Critiques of
Inquiry 39: 45-70.
Fuchs, Christian

On the Topicality of Selected Aspects of Herbert Marcuse‘s Works

You can also read the German version

Hinman, J.L.

One-Dimensional Man in the Postmodern Age

In: Negations Winter 1997/8.
Hinman is re-thinking ―the bourgeois subject‖ in the path Marcuse has

Keller, Douglas
o Biography
o From 1984 to One-Dimensional Man
o Marcuse, Liberation, and Radical Ecology
Soares, Jorge Coelho

A recepção das idéias de Marcuse no Brasil

Steuernagel, Trudy

Marcuse and Biotechnology

In: Negations Winter 1998/9.


Wikipedia: Herbert_Marcuse

Marx, Karl [1818 - 1883] Marxism Socialism

Cyber Marxisme Links

An independent platform for radical change. There‘s a small list of links on
Karl Marx, Rosa Luxembourg, Anarchism, Feminism and liberation
movements. Editors: Adriaan Boiten and Noemi Vedi. Dutch and English
Klassiker des Marxismus-Leninismus
Some original texts of Marx, Engels and Lenin in German language.
Marx/Engels‘ Writings
A collection of writings in economic and social theory, presented by: The
English Server. The search engine allows a very fast Marx/Engels search.
search term(s)

case insensitive search whole word return full text

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max hits: max lines: errors allowed:

Marx-Engels-Marxismus Forschung, Japan

Michio Akama has created a nice index of Japanese contributions to marxist
inspired science. Some articles are full text and free, but you won‘t
understand much if you don‘t speak Japanese.
Marxism Page
Contains plain text files of marxist classics, introductions to marxist politics,
contemporary marxist material etc. You can even listen to The Internationale
if you like (and read the lyrics or background of the song). Created by: Rick
Marxist Internet Archive - Colorado
Contains a library (a chronology of the works of Marx and Engels), a
biographical archive, a photo gallery, other marxist writers (like Lenin,
Riazanov, Trotsky, and Pannekoek) and a search engine that searches the
entire Marx/Engels Internet Library.

Match All
Display Detailed
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Spoon Marxism Space, The

This marxism space is designed to enable diverse yet focussed and
experimental discussions on a broad range of issues pertinent to marxism. It
is conceived as an environment which increases flexibility, enables more
participation, and encourages focus while still promoting cross-fertilization.
The site also contains papers in the marxism space archive, archives of
discussions and online marxism resources.
Beamish, Bob [1998] - (Dept. of Sociology, Queen‘s University, Ontaria,
The Making of the Manifesto
A paper presented for the virtual seminar of the Progressive Sociologists‘
Network to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the publication of the Manifesto
of the Communist Party. The ―Manifesto‖, the most widely read and defining
single text in the history of modern socialism, was first published in
February, 1848.
In: Socialist Register, 34, 1998, pp. 218-39.
Leys, Colins / Panitch, Leo [1998]
The Political Legacy of the Manifesto
In: Socialist Register, 34, 1998,
Karl Marx Haus
Museum in Trier, Germany.

Mauss, Marcel [1872 - 1950]

Fournier, Marcel [2005]

Marcel Mauss: A Biography The first intellectual biography of the father of
modern ethnology and a leading early figure in the French school of sociology.
Princeton University Press.
Anthropology Biography Web, developed by the anthropology students at
Minnesota State University, Mankato.
[1995] Retour sur le don (Revisiting the Gift)
Anthropologie et Sociétés 19 (2/3).
Beaucage, Pierre [1995]
Présentation Échange et société: avant et après Mauss
Anthropologie et Sociétés 19 (2/3).
Wikipedia: Marcel_Mauss

McLuhan, Marschall [1911 - 1980]

Marshall McLuhan Center

A very short biography, selection of main publications and some quotes.
Marshal McLuhan Global Research Network
A non-profit knowledge media design and public policy think thank that
supports collaborations among scholars, researchers and practitioners
whose work extends the insights of McLuhan. The network is incubated at
the McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology, University of Toronto
(Canada). The site includes a biography and bibliography, a timeline,
photos and an ortal history of McLuhan.
Understanding McLuhan
Article on the ideas and influence of McLuhan, presented by Sulekha
(Connecting Indians Worldwide).
Andrews, Jim [1995]
McLuhan Reconsidered
An examination of some of the ideas of Marshall McLuhan, the seminal
media/technology analyst of the sixties and seventies.
Press, Larry [1995]
McLuhan Meets the Net
In: Communications of the ACM, 8(7): 15-20.
Sturrock, John [1989]
Wild Man of the Global Village - Review of Laws of the Media: The New
Science, by McLuhan and McLuhan. From: The New York Times (Feb. 26,
Wolf, Gary [1996]
The Wisdom of Saint Marshall, the Holy Fool
Article about communications theorist Marshall McLuhan and what he stands
for. From: Wired magazine (January 1996).
Wikipedia: Marshall_McLuhan

Mead, George Herbert [1863 - 1931]

Mead Project 2.0

A document repository for the publications of Mead. The page also provides
access to related publications by other writers, including sources documents
referenced by Mead, some biographical and historical notes, and
commentaries on Mead‘s work. It is a great service with many full-text
articles. This site is a part of the Mead Project at the Department of
Sociology, Brock University, in St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada.
[1925] The Genesis of the Self and Social Control
International Journal of Ethics 35:251-77.
[1932] Mind Self and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist
Chicago: University of Chicago.
Giovanni Cozzolino [Dec. 2000]
La psicologia sociale di George Herbert Mead
In: Psychomedia. Sezione: Scienze e pensiero. Area: Sociologia.

Mead, Margaret [1901-1978]

―Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed
citizens can change the world, indeed, it‘s the only thing
that ever has.‖

[1949] Male and Female

Mead explains: ―What is it to be a man?
What is it to be a women?‖
[1962] Creative Intelligence: Female
Listen to the introduction and questions
recorded in 1962 at the Berkeley Language
Center (The Silent Revolution: Creative
Man in Contemporary Society, 1962)
Margaret Mead: Human Nature and the
Power of Culture
An online exhibition that commemorates
the 100th anniversary of Margaret Mead‘s
birth, presented by the Library of Congress
(USA). It contains a selection of materials
from the extensive Mead collection of the
LOC. The collection includes manuscripts,
diaries, letters, field notes ,drawings,
prints, photographs, sound recordings, and film.
Margaret Mead
Download archival footage of Margeret Mead at the American Museum of
Natural History.
Margeret Mead
A hypertextual biography presented by Celebration of Women
The Women of the Hall: Margaret Mead
A short biography.
A list of books by and about Margaret Mead
Presented by Malaspina Great Books Home Page.
Welty, Gordon [1990]
The Attack on Mead and the Dialectics of Anthropology
In: Science and Nature 9:14-24.
A discussion of Derek Freeman‘s 1983 attack on Margaret Mead‘s Coming of
Age in Samoa (1928). Focus is on the history and significance of the doctrine
of Popperian falsifiability in anthropology. Welty argues that the ‗falsifiability‘
canon has a longer history than Popperians acknowledge, dating back at least
to Claude Bernard‘s ‗Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine‘
[1865]; moreover, this canon entails a dialectical conception of science and
its development. In light of these dialectical considerations, it is claimed that
Boasian anthropology is the negation of Biologism (sociobiology), and that the
dialectical negation of both these doctrines (biologism and Boasian
anthropology) is social evolutionism and its philosophical recapitulation,
historical materialism.
Wikipedia: Margaret Mead

Merton, Robert K. [1910 - 2003]

By Merton
[1940/50] Bureaucratic Structure and Personality
In: Alvin W. Gouldner (ed.) [1950] Studies in Leadership -
Leadership and Democratic Action. New York: Harpers & Brothers.
Also in: Robert K. Merton [1957] Social Theory and Social Structure.
Glencoe, IL: Free Press, pp. 195-206. Reprinted from Social
[1957] Manifest and Latent Functions
From: Robert K. Merton [1957] Social Theory and Social Structure.
Glencoe, IL: Free Press, pp. 60-9.
[1957] The Role-Set: Problems in Sociological Theory
In: British Journal of Sociology, 8: 106-20.
[1968] The Matthew Effect in Science: The Reward and Communication of
Systems of Science are Considered [pdf]
Science 159(3810): 56-63.
[1968] The Matthew Effect in Science, II: Cumulative Advantage and the
Symbolism of Intellectual Property [pdf]
ISIS 79: 606-623.
[1995] The Thomas Theorem and the Matthew Effect [pdf]
Social Forces 74(2): 379-424.
The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations
Edited by Norman W. Storer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973, ch.
1 (‗Paradigm for the Sociology of Knowledge‘), ch. 13 (‗The Normative
Structure of Science‘), ch. 14 (‗Priorities in Scientific Discovery‘).

On Merton

Barber, Bernard [1975]

Toward a New View of the Sociology of Knowledge
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 103-16.
Blau, Peter M. [1975]
Structural Constraints of Status Complements
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 117-38.
Camp, Sarah (Florida State University)
Robert K. Merton‘s Anomie Theory
In Merton‘s anomie theory the methods of achieving one‘s goals are conflicted
with the goal. Individuals according to their situation may take on one of the
five adaptations: conformity, innovations, ritualistic, rethreatist, or rebellion.
Sarah Camp explicates Morton‘s anomie theory and discusses some
Cole, Jonathan R. / Zuckerman, Harriet [1975]
The Emergence of a Scientific Specialty: The Self-Exemplifying Case of the
Sociology of Science
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 139-74.
Cole, Stephan [1975]
The Growth of Scientific Knowledge: Theories of Decviance as a Case Study
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 175-220.
Coleman, James S. [1975]
Legitimate and Illegitimate Use of Power
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 221-36.
Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975]
The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton
New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Coser, Lewis A. [1975]
Merton‘s Uses of the European Sociological Tradition
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 85-102.
Coser, Lewis A. /Nisbit, Robert [1975]
Merton and the Contemporary Mind: An Affectionate Dialogue
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 3-10.
Coser, Rose Laub [1975]
The Complexity of Roles as a Seedbed of Individual Autonomy
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 237-64.
Robert K. Merton‘s ―Dream Machine‖
An Explication of Merton‘s Social Structure and Anomie (1938).
Elster, Jon [1990]
Mertons‘s Functionalism and the Unintended Consequences of Action
In: Jon Clark / Celia Mogdil / Sohan Modgil (eds.) Robert Merton: Consensus
and Controversy. London /New York: Falmer Press, pp. 129-35.
Harris, C. Dodd [1996]
The Unanticipated Consequences of Human Action: Structure-Functionalist
Theory of Robert K. Merton
Hyman, Herbert H. [1975]
Reference Individuals and Reference Idols
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 265-82.
Keller, Suzanne [1975]
The Planning of Communities: Anticipations and Hindsights
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 283-300.
Kendall, Patricia [1975]
Theory and Research: The Case of Studies in Medical Education
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 301-22.
Lazarsfeld, Paul F. [1975]
Working with Merton
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 35-66.
Melo, Diane de
Merton‘s Strain Theory
Merton argues that strain is not created by a sudden social change, but rather
by a social structure that holds out the same goals to all its members without
giving them equal means to achieve them. Merton‘s theory focusses upon
various acts of deviance, which may lead to criminal behavior. De Melo
concentrates her short explanation on the modes of adapting to strain caused
by the restricted access to socially approved goals and means.
Parsons, Talcott [1975]
The Present Status of Structural-Functional Theory in Sociology
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 67-84.
Schneider, Louis [1975]
Ironic Perspective and Sociological Thought
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 323-38.
Selvin, Hanan C. [1975]
On Formalizing Theory
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 339-54.
Stinchcombe, Arthur L. [1975]
Merton‘s Theory of Social Structure
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 11-34.
Williams, Robin, M. Jr.[1975]
Relative Deprivation
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 355-78.
Wright, Charles R. [1975]
Social Structure and Mass Communications Behavior: Exploring Pattern
through Constructional Analysis
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 379-417.

Michels, Robert [1876-1936]

[1915] Iron Law of Oligarchy [abstract]

From: Robert Michels [1966] Political Parties. New York: Free Press
Paperback, pp. 61-62, 65-73, 81-84, 87-89, 99-100, 103-4, 109-11, 167-68,
170-71, 172-73, 177-80, 364-71.
Cochran, Bert [1957]
Socialism, Power Elites and Bureaucracy
Welty, Gordon [1981]
American Religious Culture as the Seedbed of Sociology
Paper presented at the National Meeting of the American Culture Association,
Cincinnati, Ohio (March 27, 1981)
An essay that considers William Ellery Channing‘s 1829 article ‗Remarks On
Associations‘ as a candidate for the origin of the Iron Law of Oligarchy.
Wikipedia: Robert Michels

Millett, Kate [1934]

[1998] The feminist time forgot

The Guardian (London), Tuesday June 23, 1998.
o Books by and about Kate Millett [Amazon]
Photo of Millett, taken by Cynthia MacAdams
Crawford, Leslie [1999]
Kate Millett, the ambivalent feminist
Wikipedia: Kate Millett

Mills, Charles Wright [1916 - 1962]

C. Wright Mills - Official website

[1957] The Power Elite
From: C. Wright Mills [1957] The Power Elite. New York: Harper, pp. 269-97.
See also excerpts from the Third World Traveler.
[1958] Structure of Power in American Society
In: British Journal of Sociology, 9(1): 29-41.
[1958] The Causes of World War Three
New Yor: Simon and Schuster.
[1959] The Sociological Imagination (Excerpt)
[1960] Letter to the New Left Review
In: New Left Review, no. 5, September-October 1960.
Aronowitz, Stanley [2003]
A Mills Revival?
In: Logos, Summer 2003.
Becker, Howard S. [1994]
Professional Sociology: The Case of C. Wright Mills
In: Ray Rist (ed.) [1994] The Democratic Imagination: Dialogues on the Work
of Irving Louis Horowitz. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, pp. 175-87.
Dawson, Michael
Interview with Mill‗sdaughters: Kathryn and Pamela
Domhoff, G. William [2006]
Mills‘s The Power Elite 50 Years Later
Elwell, Frank
C. Wright Mills‘ Homepage
Reynolds, H.T. [1996]
The Power Elite
Thomas, Rachel [1997]
The Power Elite by C. Wright Mills [ Moved to ??]
An article review.
The Sociological Imagination
Animated gif of C. Wright Mills‘ book.
Sociological Imagination and the Power Elite = Zur Aktualität von C. Wright
Soziologie-Kongress Kön, 26-29 September 2000.
Wikipedia: Charles_Wright_Mills

Moreno, Jacob Levy [1889 - 1974]

Dr. J.L. Moreno
A bibliography and Moreno links.
Brody, Robert
What is Psychodrama?
Yalom, Victor
Psychodrama & Life with J.L. Moreno An
interview with Zerka Moreno who developed
the theory and practice of pschodrama together
with her late husband J.L. Moreno.
Wikipedia: Jacob_L_Moreno

Morgan, Lewis H. [1818 - 1881]

[1877] Ancient Society

Researches in the Lines of Human Progress from Savagery through Barbarism
to Civilization.
London: MacMillan & Company
[1881] Houses and House-life of the American Aboriginals (Project
Wikipedia: Lewis_H._Morgan

Offe, Claus [1940]

Claus Offe
Information on person and work. Humboldt-University,
Actual list of all publications
[1982] Theses on the Theory of the State Claus Offe and
Volker Ronge
In: A. Giddens / D. Held (eds.) [1982] Classes, Power and
Conflict. Classical and Contemporary Debates. London:
Macmillan Press.
[1987] Challenging the Boundaries of Institutional
Politics: Social Movements since the 1960s
In: Charles S. Maier (ed.) [1987] Challenging the Boundaries of the Political.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 63-106.
[1999a] How can we trust our fellow citizens?
In: Warren, Mark E. (ed.) Democracy and Trust. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1999.
[1999b] Democracy and Trust
Wikipedia: Claus Offe
Pareto, Vilfredo [1848 - 1923]

Centre d‘etudes interdisciplinaires Walras Pareto (Université de Lausanne)

It includes a biography and bibliography of Pareto. French only.
Profiles: Vilfredo Pareto
The Presented by the History of Economic Thought.
Selected Primary and Secundarry Works (Univ. of Bristol, UK)
[1893] Leçon d‘économie pure à l‘Université de Lausanne [Moved to ?]
History of Economics Ideas, vol. 5, no. 3, 1997.
[1897] The New Theories of Economics
Journal of Political Economy, vol. 5, 1897.
[1916] Mind & Society
This is considered Pareto‘s greatest work, in which he inquires into the nature
and bases of individual and social action. He argues that social classes are
formed because persons of superior ability seek to confirm and aggrandise
their social position. In an effort to rise into the elite of the upper strata,
privileged members of the lower-class groups continually strive to use their
abilities and thus improve them; the opposite tendency obtains among the
elite. The best-equipped persons from the lower class rise to challenge the
position of the upper-class elite. This is the famous ‗circulation of elites‘.
[1935] Circulation of the Elites
From Vilfredo Pareto [1935] The Mind and Society, ed. Arthur Livingston
trans. Andrew Bongiomo (NewYork: Harcourt, Brace & Co.), Vols. III and IV,
Sections 2026-9 and Sections 2233-6.
Thornton, Fr. James [1997]
Vilfredo Pareto: A Concise Overview of His Life, Works, and Philosophy
Zanni, Alberto [1999]
Pareto in Toscana (Italian)

Park, Robert Ezra [1864 - 1944]

Biography - Encyclopædia Britannica
Park, R.E. / Burgess, E.W. Competition, Conflict, Accommodation and
From: Lewis A. Coser [1977] Masters of Sociological Thought, pp. 366-367.
Park - Dead Sociologist Society
Biografical information and a summary of his ideas.

Parsons, Talcott [1902 - 1979]

Talcott Parsons
Provides biographical information on, and access to articles by the
functionalist sociologist Talcott Parsons. The information on Parsons is
organised into several areas including the evolution of societies and action
theory and the human condition .
Talcott Parsons on Institutions and Social Evolution: Selected Writings
Edited by Leon R. Mayhew. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982, chs.
1-5 (early writings), ch. 6 (‗The Pattern Variables‘), ch. 7 (‗Integration and
Institutionalization‘), ch. 9 (‗Illness and the Role of the Physician‘), ch. 15
(‗On the Concept of Influence‘), ch. 19 (‗Evolutionary Universals in Society‘).
[1937] The Unit Act of Action Systems
From: Talcott Parsons [1937] The Structure of Social Action. New York: Free
Press, pp. 43-8.
[1939] The Professions and Social Structure
Essays in Sociological Theory. Glencoe IL; Free Press, 1954, ch. 2.
[1942] Age and Sex in the Social Structure of the U.S. [extract]
From: Talcott Parsons [1954] Essays in Sociological Theory. Glencoe IL; Free
Press, ch. 5.
[1943] Sex Roles in American Kinship System
From: Talcott Parsons [1954] ―The Kinship System of the Contemporary
United States‖, Essays in Sociological Theory. New York: Free Press, pp. 189-
[1951] Toward a Genral Theory of Social Action (with Schills and Klucklohn)
[1956] Suggestions for a Sociological Approach to the Theory of Organizations
In: Administrative Science Quarterly (1956): 63-85, 225-39.
[1971] Action Systems and Social Systems
From: Talcott Parsons [1971] The System of Modern Societies. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, pp.4-8.
[1973] The American University
[1975] The Present Status of Structural-Functional Theory in Sociology
In: Coser, Lewis A. (ed.) [1975] The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor
of Robert K. Merton. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 67-84.
[1977] The Evolution of Societies
This book consists of the republication in one volume of two previously
published books by Talcott Parsons on the subject of societal evolution:
(i)Societies: Evolutionary and Compartive Perspectives and (2) The System of
Modern Societies.
[1981] Action Theory and the Human Condition
In: Sociological Analysis, 42(1): 77-8.
An Outline of the Social System, pp. 30-79.
Popper, Karl Reimund [1902 - 1994]

[1972] Science: Conjectures and Refutations

Popper explains the apparent progress of scientific knowledge—how it is that
our understanding of the universe seems to improve over time. This problem
arises from his position that the truth content of our theories, even the best
of them, cannot be verified by scientific testing, but can only be falsified. If
so, then how is it that the growth of science appears to result in a growth in
The Karl Popper Web
Information on person and work of Karl Popper, including a Newsletter
archive. Editor: Ray Scott Percival.
Karl Popper Speeches & Audio Recordings
Burgess, Mike [1996]
A discussion of Karl Popper‘s critique of Marxism in The Open Society and its
Enemies, and The Poverty of Historicism
Gardner, Martin [2001]
A Skeptical Look at Karl Popper
In: Skeptical Inquirer, 25(4): 13-4,72.
Jira, Milan
In Memoriam - Karl Popper in Prague
Karl Popper Institute
Including a complete bibliography.
Hickey, Thomas J. [1995/2005]
Karl Popper and fasificationist criticism
In: idem, History of Twentieth-Century Philosophy of Science, Book V.
Singer, Peter [1974]
Discovering Karl Popper
In: The New York Review of Books, 21(2) (May 2, 1974].
Yue-Ching Ho, Eugene / Lund, Pui-Chong [1994]
Sir Karl Raimund Popper: In Memoriam
Originally published in Intellectus, 32: 1-3.
Wikipedia: Karl Popper
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques [1712 - 1778]

Original Texts

[1750] Discours sur les Sciences et les Arts. The

English version Discourse on the Moral Effects of
the Arts and Sciences has been translated by
G.D.H. Cole.
[1754] Discours sur L‘origine et les Fondements
des inégalités parmi les hommes | What is the
origin of inequality among men, and is it
authorised by natural law? (translated by G.D.H.
Cole) | mirror | Gutenberg.
[1755] A Discourse on Political Economy
(translated by G.D.H. Cole) | mirror | text edition
[1762] Émile, ou l‘education
French and English version, translated by Grace
Roosevelt. Presented by the Institute for Learning
[1761] The Social Contract and Discourses
Translated with an introduction by G.D.H. Cole.
[1762] Du Contract Social ou Principes du Droit politique (Athena)| Du
Contract Social ou Principes du Droit politique (Abu) | The Social Contract or
Principles of Political Right (translated by G. D. H. Cole) | mirror | extract
[1782] Les Confessions | The Confessions (translated by W. Conyngham
Mallory) | Gutenberg
Les rêveries du promeneur solitaire (Abu)

On Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
A short bibliographical page on Rousseau. Written by Garth Kemerling.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
A brief article in ―The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy‖.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Association
Information on the man, his works, his music, including images of Rousseau
and his world.
Björn Christensson Guide to Philosophy.
Monney, Jean-Jacques [1997]
J-J Rousseau: His Life and Work in Postcards
Roosevelt, Grace [1999]
The Usefulness of Rousseau‘s Emile to Inner-City Adult Students
Presented at the American Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies Meeting.
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, March 28, 1999.
Wikipedia: J-J. Rousseau

Schütz, Alfred [1899 - 1959]

Center for Advanced Research in Phenomenology (CARP)
Bibliography of Secondary Sources on Alfred Schutz
An international and multidisciplinary listing of secondary sources,
compiled by John Drabindski and edited by Edward B. Rackley.
Krämer, Horst Jürgen [2000]
Alfred Schütz und die ―Strukturen der Lebenswelt‖ im Modell. Analyse
einer Alltagssimulation aus der Unterhaltungsindustrie

Simmel, Georg [1858 - 1918]

The Person
From: Lewis A. Coser [1977] Masters of Sociological Thought, pp. 194-95.
[1890] Zur Psychologie des Geldes
In: Jahrbuch für Gesetzgebung, Verwaltung und Volkswirtschaft im Deutschen
Reich (hrsg. von Gustav Schmoller), 13: 1251-54.
[1895] Zur Psychologie der Mode
In:Die Zeit, Wiener Wochenschrift für Politike, Volkswirtschat, Wissenschaft
und Kunst. 5 Band, Nr. 54 vom 12. 10:22-24.
[1898] Zur Soziologie der Religion
In: Neue Deutsche Rundschau (Freie Bühne), 9: 111-23.
[1900] A Chapter in the Philosophy of Value
American Journal of Sociology, vol. 5, 1900.
[1905] Philosophie der Mode
In: Reihe Moderne Zeitfragen (hrsg. Hans Landsberg), Berlin: Pan-Verlag.
[1908] Das Problem der Soziologie
In: Soziologie. Untersuchungen über die Formen der Vergesellschaftung.
Duncker & Humbolt Verlag, Berlin 1908 (1. Auflage), Kapitel I, S. 1-21.
[1910/11] How is Society Possible?
American Journal of Sociology, vol. 16, 1910-11. The same text from
[1912] Die Religion
Band 2 von ―Die Gesellschaft‖, Sammlung sozialpsychologischer
Monographien (hrsg. von Martin Buder), 2. Auflage. Frankfurt a. M.: Rütten
und Löning.
[1917] Grundfragen der Soziologie
Berlin/Hamburg: G.J. Göschen‘sche Verlagshandlung.
[1918] Vom Wesen des historischen Verstehens
In: Geschichtliche Abende im Zentralinstitut für Erziehung und Unterricht,
Heft 5. Berlin: Ernst Siegfied Mittler und Sohn.
Conflict as Sociation
From Kurt H. Wolff, (Trans.) [1950] The Sociology of Georg Simmel. Glencoe,
IL: The Free Press, pp. 13-17.
The Stranger
From Kurt Wolff (Trans.) [1950] The Sociology of Georg Simmel. New York:
Free Press, pp. 402-8.
On individuality and social forms
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Ch. 9 (‗Sociability‘), ch. 16 (‗Subjective
Georg Simmel Online
Presented by: Sociology in Switzerland. Some major works of Simmel in
German language. Editing committe: Christoph Brönnimarin, Hans Geser,
Jürgen Stremlow (Sociological Institute, Zürich, Switzerland). It contains: Zur
Soziologie der Familie (1895); Zu einer Theorie des Pessimismus
(1900); Sozialismus und Pessimismus (1900); Persönliche und sachliche
Kultur (1900); Soziologie. Untersuchungen Ÿber die Formen der
Vergesellschaftung (1908); Philosophische Kultur (1919).
Welty, Gordon [1996]
Simmel on ‗The Lie‘
In: European Journal for Semiotic Studies, 7(2):

Sorokin, Pitirim Aleksandrovič [1889 - 1968]

The Person
In: Coser 1977.
American Sociological Association: Pitirim Aleksandrovich Sorokin
[1959] Sociology of Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
Presidential Address of Sorokin as the 55th President of the American
Sociological Association. The address was published in the American
Sociological Review 30(6): 833-43.
[1959] Social Mobility
From: Pitirim Sorokin [1959] Social and Cultural Mobility. New York: Free
Sociology of Knowledge
From: Lewis A. Coser [1977] Masters of Sociological Thought, pp. 469-72.
Bosch, Bart van den [1999]- Univ. of Amsterdam
Crisis, katharsis en wederopstanding. Het leven en denken van P.A. Sorokin
A historical and sociological biography of Sorokin.
Wikipedia: Piterim_Sorokin

Spencer, Herbert [1820 - 1903]

[1852] Use and Beauty

From: The Works, vol. 14; 1966 Osnabrück.
[1862] First Principles
London: Williams & Norgate.
[1864] Laws in General
[1864] Reasons for Dissenting from the Phuilosophy of M. Comte
[1884] The Man versus the State
[1896] The Principles of Sociology
From: Robert Bierstedt, The Making of Society. New York: Modern Library,
1959, pp. 253-73.
The Nature of Society [excerpt]
Spencer Bibliography
Works by and about Spencer. Editor: Ed Stephan (Western Washington
Published Work of Herbert Spencer
Sciabarra, Chris Matthews [1999]
The First Dialectical Libertarian
First Published in the August 1999 issue of Liberty.
Graber, Robert Bates (Truman State University, USA)
Founding Figures: Herbert Spencer

Taylor, Frederick Winslow [1856 - 1915]

F. W. Taylor Collection
The F. W. Taylor Project is preserving and
disseminating the F. W. Taylor Collection at the
Stevens Institute of Technology by establishing the
on-line Taylor archive to digitally store and
represent the contents of the collection. The Taylor
archive is described in the Classified Guide to the
Frederick Winslow Tayler Collection. Editor: Doris
[1911] The Principles of Scientific Management -
Text provided by Eric Eldred.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
The Gilbreth‘s motion studies on how a task was
done, and how best to eliminate unneeded,
fatiguing steps in any process. Their work is
commonly linked with Taylor‘s time studies and
grouped within the various ‗laws and principles‘ of
scientific management. See also the expose on the
Gilbreth‘s motion studies, including pictures.
Becker, T. [1996]
Industrieller und technologischer Wandel
An analysis of the history of production methods:
pre-industrial production, industrial mass production (Taylorism, Fordism) en
Benschop, Albert (Univ. of Amsterdam)
Het Scientific Management van Frederick W. Taylor (in Dutch)
Kaiser, Walter [1994] (Aachen, Germany)
Von Taylor und Ford zur ―lean production‖
Analyses the historical development of mass production, the introduction of
taylorism in Europe, and emergence of the flexible or lean production in
Kuchenbrod, Matthias
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) - Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der
modernen Rationalisierung
A study on taylorism as a secular form of the protestant ethic.
Reshef, Yonatan (Alberta, Canada)
Taylor: Scientific Management
Sandrone, Vincenzo [1997] (Sydney, Australia)
Frederick W. Taylor: Master of Scientific Management
Scientific Management - The Journal of Management History: Contents,
Volume 1 Number 2.
Smulyan, Susan (Brown University) and Vandenberg-Davis, Jodi (National
History Day) [Moved to ...??]
Factories and Technology in Industrializing America
A history course that examines the ‗modernization‘ of factories and of work
practices in factories from different perspectives. The first two parts of the
lesson examine the modernization of the textile industry in the North and
South, the third part concentrates on ‗scientific management‘ as a
prescription for thoroughly modernizing workers, machines and management

Thomas, William Isaac [1863 - 1947]

Primary Sources

[1995] Review of Aspects of the Social

The American Journal of Sociology 1: 230.
[1896] The Scope and Method of Folk-
American Journal of Sociology 1: 434-45.
[1897] On a Difference in the Metabolism of
the Sexes
American Journal of Sociology 3: 31-63.
[1898] The Relation of Sex to Primitive Social
American Journal of Sociology 3:754-75.
[1899a] Sex in Primitive Industry
American Journal of Sociology 4: 474-88.
{1899b] Sex in Primitive Morality “...if men define situations as real,
they are real in their consequences”
American Journal of Sociology 4: 774-87.
[1899c] The Psychology of Modesty and Clothing
American Journal of Sociology 5: 246-62.
[1905] The Province of Social Psychology
American Journal of Sociology 10: 445-55.
[1907a] The Mind of Woman and the Lower Races
American Journal of Sociology 12:435-69.
[1907b] Sex and Society: Studies in the Social Psychology of Sex
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[1907c] The Significance of the Orient for the Occident
American Journal of Sociology 13: 729-42.
[1908] Response to Reinsch, Tenney, Unger, Asakawa, and Jenks Discussion
of W.I. Thomas, ―The Significance of the Orient for the Occident‖
American Journal of Sociology 13: 754-55.
[1908a] The Psychology of the Yellow Journal
Amarican Magazine 65: 491-6.
[1908b] The Psychology of Woman‘s Dress
American Magazine 67: 66-72.
[1908c] The Mind of Woman
American Magazine 67:146-52.
[1908d] The Older and Newer Ideals of Marriage
American Magazine 67: 546-52.
[1909] Women and the Occupations
American Magazine 68: 463-70.
[1923] The Unadjusted Girl with cases and standpoint for behavior analysis
Boston: Little Brown and Company.
[1923] Definition of the Situation
From: W. I. Thomas [1923] The Unadjusted Girl. Boston: Little, Brown, and
[1927a] The Behavior Pattern and the Situation
Publications of the American Sociological Society, Vol. XXII (1927): 1-13.
[1927b] The Configurations of Personality
In: The Unconscious: A Symposium. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1927. pp. 143-
[1936] The Comparative Study of Cultures
American Journal of Sociology 42: 177-85.

Biographies & Bibliographies

Coser, Lewis [1977:530-6] Biography of W.I Thomas

In: Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context.
NY:Harcourt Brace & Jovanovitch 1977.
Bibliography of W.I. Thomas
Presented by the Mead Project of the Department of Sociology, Brock
University, St. Catharines, Canada.

Secundary Sources

Bogardus, Emory S. [1949]

The Sociology of William I. Thomas
Sociology and Social Research 34: 34-48.
Bogardus, Emory S. [1959]
W.I. Thomas and Social Origins
Sociology and Social Research 43: 365-9.
Bogardus, Emory S. [1963]
Some Pioneer American Sociologists
Sociology and Social Research 47: 25-33.
Burgess, Ernest W. [1948]
William I. Thomas as a Teacher
Sociology and Social Research 32: 760-4.
Faris, Ellsworth [1948]
In Memoriam: William Isaac Thomas, 1863-1947
American Journal of Sociology 53: 387.
Faris, Ellsworth [1948]
W.I. Thomas: 1863-1947
Sociology and Social Research 32: 755-9.
Young, Kimball [1948]
William I. Thomas (1863-1947)
American Sociological Review 13: 102-4.
Young, Kimball [1963a]
Contributions of William Isaac Thomas to Sociology I - The First
Sociology and Social Research 47: 123-37.
Young, Kimball [1963b]
Contributions of William Isaac Thomas to Sociology II - The Second Phase:
Social Origins
Sociology and Social Research 47: 123-37.
Young, Kimball [1963c]
Contributions of William Isaac Thomas to Sociology III - The Third Period: The
Psychology of Culture
Sociology and Social Research 47: 251-72.
Young, Kimball [1963d]
Contributions of William Isaac Thomas to Sociology IV - The Fourth Period:
The Situational Approach
Sociology and Social Research 47: 381-97.
Znaniecki, Florian [1948]
William I. Thomas as a Collaborator
Sociology and Social Reseach 32: 765-7.

Tocqueville, Alexis de [1805 - 1859]

[1835] Democracy in America

Still one of the most influential works in
political thought. Tocqueville‘s America is a
project of the American Studies Programs
at The University of Virginia. They take up
the task of re-contextualizing Tocqueville‘s
famous political and cultural analysis of
American democracy. The objective is, over
time, to return that book to its origins, to
the America of 1831-32. For it was on that
very specific ground and at that very
specific historical moment that Tocqueville
[1856] L‘Ancien Régime et la Révolution
Biography of Alexis de Tocqueville
Lacroix, André [1998] Alexis de Tocqueville
In Search of Tocqueville‘s Democracy in America
Contains a biography, information on Tocqueville‘s visit to America, modern
references to Tocqueville and a list of resources.
Democracy in America: Tocqueville‘s America
A project of the American Studies Program at The University of Virginia that
wants to re-contextualize Tocqueville‘s famous political and cultural analysis
of American democracy. Prepare yourself for a virtual tour to America of
Pitney, John J. [1995] The Tocqueville Fraud
Democracy in the 21st Century: Teaching with Tocqueville Teaching
Presented by
Great Books Index: Alexis de Tocqueville
Wikipedia: Alexis de Tocqueville

Toffler, Alvin

Alvin Toffler: still shocking after all these years

New Scientist meets the controversial futurologist. New Scientist, 19 March
1994, pp. 22-25.
Perspectives for a Changing World
A Return Visit with Alvin Toffler, by: Mary Eisenhart. Microtimes, 1995.
Finley, Michael [2002]
Alvin Toffler and the Third Wave
Books by Alvin Toffler
Wikipedia: Alvin Toffler

Tönnies, Ferdinand [1855 - 1936]

Ferdinand Tönnies-Gesellschaft
The aim of the Ferdinand Tönnies Society is to cultivate the spiritual legacy of
Tönnies. The FTG maintains a Tönnies-Forum (free for members). The main
activitie is the realisation of the complete works of Tönnies (De Gruyter).
On Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
Reprinted from Community and Society: Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft by
Ferdinand Tonnies, translated and edited by Charles P. Loomis, pp. 223-31.
1957, The Michigan State University Press.
Tonnies makes a distinction between two basic types of social groups. Groups
in which the membership is based on a feeling of togetherness he termed
Gemeinschaft (often translated as community). Groups in which membership
is sustained by some instrumental goal or definite endhe termed Gesellschaft
(often translated as society). Gemeinschaft is exemplified by the family or
neighborhood; Gesellschaft, by the city or the state.
Ferdinand Tönnies Gesamtausgabe
Complete works of Tönnies by De Gruyter.
Deflem, Mathieu [1999] (Purdue University)
Ferdinand Tönnies on Crime and Society - An Unexplored Contribution to
Criminological Sociology [pdf]
In: History of the Human Sciences 12(3): 87-116.
Wikipedia: Ferdinant Tönnies

Touraine, Alain [1925]

[1978] Théorie et pratique d‘une sociologie de l‘action [pdf]

Sociologie et Sociétés, 10(2): 149-88.
[1991] Au-delà d‘une société du travail et des mouvements sociaux? [pdf]
(Beyond a Society of Work and Social Movements?)
Sociologie et Sociétés, 23(2): 27-41.
[1994] La recomposition du monde
Lecture presented at the Institut d‘Etudes Politiques in Aix-en-Provence, 9
May 1994.

[1996] Entretien avec Alain Touraine

Ulas Candas interviews Alain Touraine.
[1999] America Latina se despierta
[2002] Indicadores para el diálogo intercultural
In: la factoría, no. 16.
[2002] La hegenomia de EE.UU. y la guerra islamita
In: Venezuela Analítica, 16 September 2002.
Hamel, Jacques [1997] (University of Montreal)
Sociology, Common Sense, and Qualitative Methodology. The position of
Pierre Bourdieu and Alain Touraine
Canadian Journal of Sociology 22:95-112.
Alain Touraine - Ten Nobels for the future
Wikipedia: Alain Touraine

Toynbee, Arnold [1852 - 1883]

Toynbee Hall
The official Toynbee site.
Wikipedia: Arnold_Toynbee
[1884] Lectures on The Industrial Revolution in
England | mirror_1 | mirror_2
Discusses the industrial and agrarian revolution at
the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th
centuries. The first part deals with Adam Smith
(England on the eve of the Industrial revolution and
the causes of wealth), the second part deals with
Malthus (distribution of wealth and causes of
poverty), the third part deals with Ricardo (doctrine
of rent and wages and theories of economic
Library of Congress Citations
Marshall, Alfred [1887]
On Arnold Toynbee
From: A. Marshall On Arnold Toynbee, introduced and edited by John K.
Wothaker, Marshall Studies Bulletin 8: 45-8.
Creative Quotations from Arnold Toynbee (1852-1883)
For instance: ―It is a paradoxical but profound true and important principle of
life that the most likely way to reach a goal is to be aiming not at that goal
itself but at some more ambitious goal beyond it.‖

Veblen, Thorstein [1857 - 1929]

[1898-9] The Beginning of Ownership

American Journal of Sociology, vol. 4, 1898-9.
[1898-9] The Barbarian Status of Women
American Journal of Sociology, vol. 4, 1898-9.
[1898-9] The Instinct of Workmanship and the Irksomeness of Labor
American Journal of Sociology, vol. 4, 1898-9.
[1899] The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions |
mirror at McMaster
New York: The Macmillan Company.
[1902] Conspicuous Consumption
From Thorstein Veblen [1902] The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic
Study of Institutions. New York:Macmillan, pp. 68-101.
[1904] The Theory of Business Enterprise (Brock Univ.) | idem at McMaster
New York: Charles Scribner‘s Sons.
[1906] The Socialist Economics of Karl Marx and his Followers (Part 1)
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 20, 1906.
[1906] The Socialist Economics of Karl Marx and his Followers (Part 2)
The Substance of Lectures before students in Harvard University in April,
1906 (text files at McMaster).
[1914] The Instinct of Workmanshiop and the State of the Industrial Arts
New York: Macmillan.
[1917] An Inquiry into the Nature of Peace and the Terms of its Perpetuation
New York: The Macmillan Company.
[1918] The Higher Learning in America
A Memorandum on the Conduct of Universities by Business Men.
New York: B.W. Huebsch.
[1919] The Vested Interests and the Common Man
New York: Huebsch.
Biographical information and links to other text: Akama and Veblenite
Veblen: McMaster University Archive
A Veblen project page that introduces his personality and work, and shows
the importance of his thoughts at the present time. It also places all of
Veblen‘s works as a repository to everyone‘s disposal (as far as not copyright
protected). The project is managed by Ralf J. Schreyer.

Walby, Sylvia

[1997] Gender Transformations [order book]
London: Routledge.
[2004] The Cost of Domestic Violence
[2007] Gender (in)equality and the future of work
European Union, Equal Opportunities Commission,
Working Paper Series, No. 55.
Wikipedia: Sylvia_Walby

Wallerstein, Immanuel [1930]

Curriculum Vitae [pdf]

Presented by the Fernand Braudel Center.
Articles by Wallerstein
[1976] World System Theory [Summary]
From Immanuel Wallerstein [1976] The Modern
World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the
Origins of the European World-Economy in the
Sixteenth Century. New York: Academic Press.
The summary has been written by Paul Halsall,
editor of the Internet history sourcebooks
[1995] Social Science and Contemporary
Society: The Vanishing Guarantees of Rationality
Inaugural Address, Convegno Internazionale di
Studi of Associazione Italiana di Sociologia,
Palermo, October 26-28,1995.
[1999] Interview on Cultural Globalization
On June, 25th 1999 Wallerstein was interviewed in Paris by Anand Kumar,
Frank Welz and Gabriele Tysarzik.
[2006] Mother of All Defeats
Festschrift for Immanuel Wallerstein, Part I + Part II
In: Journal of World-Systems Research, 200, 6(3). Edited by Giovanni Arrighi
& Walter L. Goldfrank.
Literature about world-system theory and Wallerstein (English and German)
World-Systems Archive
Valuable information for scholars engaged in research on world systems. The
archive contains papers, bibliographies, and announcements. The archive is
located at the Insittute for Research on Wolrd-Systesm (IROWS), at the
University of California, Riverside.
Journal of World-Systems Research
A refereerd ejournal that publishes research and theoretical articles on topics
relevant to the analysis of world-systems.
Wikipedia: Emanuel_Wallerstein

Ward, Lester Frank [1841 - 1913]

Biography - Encyclopædia Britannica

Lester Frank Ward - A Guide to Resources
Editor: Ralf Schreyer.
Lester Frank Ward - A Guide to Resources
Editor: Robert Bannister (Swarthmore College).
Lester Frank Ward Papers - Smithsonian Institution
[1893] The Psychic Factors of Civilization
Boston: Ginn & Company.
[1893/7] Dynamic Sociology, Volume I, Volume 2
[1895-1897] Contributions to Social Philosophy
American Journal of Sociology.
[1897] Outlines of Sociology [pdf]
[1902] Contemporary Sociology [pdf]
[1903] Pure Sociology [pdf]
A Treatise on the Origin and Spontaneous Development of Society.
[1906] Applied Sociology [pdf]
A Treatise on the Conscious Improvement of Society by Society.
Wikipedia: Lester_Frank_Ward

Weber, Max [1864-1920]

Willis, Paul
[1974] Symbolism and Practice - A Theory for the Social Meaning of Pop
[1977] Learning to Labor: How the Working Class Kids Get
Working Class Jobs
New York: Columbia Univ. Press [1977/81], chs. 2, 8.
Willis demonstrates how the rebellion of poor and working
class kids against school authority prepares them for working
class jobs.
Kleijer, Henk / Tillekens, Ger [2002]
Twenty-five years of Learning to Labour
An interview on the impact of his work on cultural studies
and ethnographic research.

Znaniecki, Florian Witold [1882 - 1958]

Biografie & Bibliography of Znaniecki

Life and Main Works - Polish Philosophy Page
Edited by Grzegorz J. Kaczynski.
Biography - In Polish
[1919] Cultural Reality
Chicago: University of Chicago.
[1925] The Laws of Social Psychology
Chicago: University of Chicago.
[1931] Group Crises Produced by Voluntary Undertakings
In: K. Young (ed.) Social Attitudes. New York: Henry Holt. pp.265-90.
[1932] The Analysis of Social Processes
In: Publications of the American Sociological Society: Papers and Proceedings,
Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting. XXVII: 37-43.
[1948] William I. Thomas as a Collaborator
Sociology and Social Reseach 32: 765-7.
Halas, Elzbieta [2001]
The Humanistic Approach of Florian Znaniecki
Halas, Elzbieta [2006]
Classical Cultural Sociology: Florian Znaniecki‘s Impact in a New Light
In: Journal of Classical Sociology. 6:257-282.
Wikipedia: Florian Znaniecki


Les Classiques des sciences sociales + Les sciences sociales contemporaines

(Université du Québec à Chicoutimi)
Dead Sociologists Society
A list of the various theorists, some biographical information and a summary
of their work. Comte, Marx, Spencer, Durkheim, Simmel, Weber, Veblen,
Cooley, Mead, Park, Pareto and Sorokin.
Great Thinkers and Visionaries
The live and works of great thinkers, from Leonado Da Vinci via Newton and
Einstein to Chomsky and Hawking. Provided by Alexander Chislenko.
Personal Home pages of Sociologists (SocioSite)
Time line for the history of sciene and social science
A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew
Roberts‘ book Social Science History and to other resources, including
extracts and works of authors. The alphabetical index of authors is very
helpful. And so is the ABC Study Guide in plain English.
Timeline of Sociology from 1600
A chronological list of sociologists. The selection of sociologists is rather
selective (you won‘t find German sociologists such as Adorno and
Horkheimer) and the works that are mentioned are even more arbitrary. Rosa
Luxemburg‘s The Accumulation of Capital wasn‘t written in 1951, but first
published in 1913. Editor: Ed Stephan (Western Washington University, USA).

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Editor dr. Albert Benschop

Social & Behavioral Studies
University of Amsterdam
Created July, 1996
Last modified 04th January, 2010