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TOYOTA ENGINEERING STANDARD

NO.:
TITLE:
CLASS:

TSM0504G
FLAMMABILITY TEST METHOD FOR NON-METALLIC MATERIALS IN
ENGINE COMPARTMENT

C2

Established/Revised:

Rev. 1

( Oct. 2003 )

The International System of Units (SI) has been used (adopted) as a sole basis of units and numerical
values.

Prepared and Written by:


Organic Material Dept.
Material Engineering Div. 2

Engineering Information
Management Dept.
Engineering Administration Div.
TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION

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TOYOTA ENGINEERING STANDARD

TSM0504G

CLASS

C2

FLAMMABILITY TEST METHOD FOR NON-METALLIC MATERIALS IN ENGINE COMPARTMENT

1. Scope
This standard covers the standard test method for flammability of automobiles. The classification
and application of the test method shall conform to Table 1.
Table 1
Test method
Method A
Method B

Application
To be applied to the flammability of non-metallic materials used mainly in engine
compartment (horizontal test method)
To be applied to the flammability of non-metallic materials used mainly in engine
compartment (vertical test method)

2. Flammability Test Method (Method-A)


2.1 Test Equipment

Fig. 1 (Unit: mm)


(1) A test chamber, enclosure, or laboratory hood free from induced or forced draft during the test
(2) Experimental burner
A Bunsen or Tirrill burner having a 100 10 mm long tube with an inside diameter of 9.5 0.3
mm. Such an end attachment as a stabilizer shall not be used for the tube.
(3) Wire netting
A 127 mm square wire netting of 20 mesh (20 openings per 25.4 mm), made of 0.43 mm
diameter wire
(4) Gas supply source
A technical grade methane gas source with a regulator and meter for uniform gas flow. Natural
gas having a heat content of 37 MJ/m3 has been found to provide similar results. Other fuel
gases, such as butane, propane, and acetylene (which have a higher heat value) may also be
used. If a question arises, however, technical grade methane gas shall be used.

NOTES: The recipient of this standard shall undertake the following confidentiality obligations upon the receipt of this standard.
- The recipient shall discard by shredding or fire, or return to Toyota Motor Corporation if appropriate, the documents contained in this standard when they
are no longer necessary due to the termination of the work concerned or the revision of current version of this standard,
- This standard and the technical information related thereto are owned by and under sole control of Toyota Motor Corporation. They shall not be disclosed
in whole nor in part to ant third party without prior written consent of Toyota Motor Corporation..

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TOYOTA ENGINEERING STANDARD

TSM0504G

(5) Ring stand


A ring stand provided with a clamp, or an equivalent, to hold the test specimen and wire netting
horizontal
(6) A stopwatch or other timing device
(7) A conditioning room or chamber which can be controlled at a temperature of 23 2
and a
relative humidity of 50 5 %
(8) A metallic fixture as illustrated in Fig. 2 for testing specimens that sag or bend at their free ends

Fig. 2 (Unit: mm)


2.2 Test Method
2.2.1 Test Specimen Condition
(1) Test specimens
Prepare test specimens of 127 mm in length, 12.7 mm in width, and maximum thickness not
exceeding 12.7 mm. For the test, use two specimens; one with the minimum thickness and the
other with a thickness of 3.18 0.13 mm. No test on the latter specimen is required, however, if
the minimum thickness exceeds 3.18 0.13 mm or the maximum thickness is less than
3.18 0.13 mm. The test specimens shall have a maximum width of 13.2 mm. They shall
have smooth edges and corner radius not exceeding 1.3 mm.
(2) Conditions for color, density, melt flow and reinforcement content
(a) To examine the materials in terms of a certain range of color, density, melt flow, and
reinforcement, prepare test specimens representing these ranges, too.
(b) Test specimens in the natural color (if used in this color) and in the most heavily pigmented
light and dark colors shall be prepared and considered representative of the color range, if the
test results are essentially the same.
(c) Provide an additional set of test specimens of the heaviest organic pigment loading, unless the
most heavily pigmented light and dark colors include the highest amount of organic pigment.
(d) When certain color pigments (red, yellow, or the like, for example) are known to have
particularly critical effects, also prepare test specimens for such colors.

NOTES: The recipient of this standard shall undertake the following confidentiality obligations upon the receipt of this standard.
- The recipient shall discard by shredding or fire, or return to Toyota Motor Corporation if appropriate, the documents contained in this standard when they
are no longer necessary due to the termination of the work concerned or the revision of current version of this standard,
- This standard and the technical information related thereto are owned by and under sole control of Toyota Motor Corporation. They shall not be disclosed
in whole nor in part to ant third party without prior written consent of Toyota Motor Corporation..

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TSM0504G

(e) For density and melt flow, prepare test specimens with the pigment content at respective
extremes. They may be considered to represent the range if the test results are essentially
the same.
(f) If the burning characteristics are not essentially the same for all test specimens representing
the range, the test results shall be evaluated as the ones specific to the materials in the color,
density, melt flow, and reinforcement content that have been tested.
(g) Or additional test specimens in intermediate color, density, melt flow, and reinforcement
content shall be provided for additional tests.
2.2.2 Test Specimen Conditioning
Prior to the test, condition the test specimens for at least 48 h at 23 2
50 5 %.

and a relative humidity of

2.2.3 Test Procedure


(1) Conduct the burning test in a test chamber, enclosure, or laboratory hood free of induced or
forced draft. An enclosed laboratory hood provided with a heat- resistant-glass window and an
exhaust fan for removing the combustion products after the test is recommended.
(2) Mark two lines, across the test specimen each of which is 25.4 and 102 mm distant from one end.
Clamp the test specimen at the end farthest from the 25.4 mm mark, with its longitudinal axis
horizontal and its transverse axis inclined 45 . Hold the wire netting horizontally beneath the
test specimen, with a distance of 9.5 mm between the lowest edge of the test specimen and the
wire netting, and with the free end of the test specimen aligning with the edge of the wire netting.
If the test specimen sags at its free end during the initial set up, locate the fixture illustrated in Fig.
2 under the test specimen, with the small protrusion on the fixture located 19 mm distant from the
free end of the test specimen. Provide enough clearance at the test specimen clamping end so
that the fixture can be freely moved sideway. As the test specimen burning progresses,
withdraw the fixture at the same rate.
(3) Place the burner apart from the test specimen, ignite it, and adjust it until the flame becomes
blue and 25 mm high. For the above procedure, regulate the gas supply and adjust the air port
opening of the burner at first until a 25 mm high, yellow tipped blue flame is obtained. Then
increase the air supply until the yellow tip disappears. Measure the flame height again, and
adjust it if required. Apply the flame to the lower side of the free end of the test specimen, while
keeping the center line of the burner in the same vertical plane as the longitudinal bottom edge of
the test specimen (and inclined toward the end of the test specimen) at an angle of
approximately 45
with respect to a horizontal plane. Without changing the burner position,
apply the flame to the test specimen for 30 s to a depth of approximately 6.4 mm at the front
edge of the test specimen. Then remove the burner from the test specimen. If the test
specimen burns to the 25.4 mm mark before the flame has been applied for 30 s, stop applying
the flame when it reaches the 25.4 mm mark.
(4) If the test specimen continues to burn even after removal of the test flame, measure the time for
the flame to pass from the 25.4 mm mark from the free end to the 102 mm mark from the free
end. Then determine the rate of burning.

NOTES: The recipient of this standard shall undertake the following confidentiality obligations upon the receipt of this standard.
- The recipient shall discard by shredding or fire, or return to Toyota Motor Corporation if appropriate, the documents contained in this standard when they
are no longer necessary due to the termination of the work concerned or the revision of current version of this standard,
- This standard and the technical information related thereto are owned by and under sole control of Toyota Motor Corporation. They shall not be disclosed
in whole nor in part to ant third party without prior written consent of Toyota Motor Corporation..

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2.2.4 Test
For materials which fall in Method A, the test is conducted according to Section 2.2.1 to 2.2.3 and the
results are evaluated. The Method A materials shall meet one of the following requirements.
(1) For test specimens of 3.05 to 12.7 mm in thickness, the burning rate over the 76.2 mm span
shall not exceed 38.1 mm per minute.
(2) For test specimens of less than 3.05 mm in thickness, the burning rate over the 76.2 mm span
shall not exceed 76.2 mm per minute.
(3) The burning shall stop naturally before reaching the 102 mm mark.
If only one of the three test specimens in one set does not meet the requirements, conduct the test
again with another set of three test specimens. To approve a material as Class 1 for its thickness, all
three test specimens of the second set must meet the requirements.
3. Flammability Test Method (Method-B)
3.1 Test Equipment

Fig. 3 (Unit: mm)


(1) A test chamber, enclosure, or laboratory hood free of induced or forced draft during the tests
(2) Experimental burner
A Bunsen or Tirrill burner having a 100 10 mm long tube with an inside diameter of 9.5 0.3
mm. Such an end attachment as a stabilizer shall not be used for the tube.
(3) Ring stand
A ring stand with a clamp or equivalent which can adjust the vertical positioning of test
specimens.
(4) Gas supply source
A technical grade gas supply source equipped with a regulator and meter for uniform gas flow.
Natural gas having a heat content of 37 MJ/m3 has been found to provide similar results. If a
question arises, however, use technical grade methane gas. Other fuel gases, such as butane,
propane, and acetylene having higher heat contents, are unacceptable.
(5) A stopwatch or other timing device
(6) A desiccator containing anhydrous calcium chloride
(7) A conditioning room or chamber which can be controlled at a temperature of 23 2
and a
relative humidity of 50 5 %.
(8) Conditioning oven
A full draft air-circulating oven that can be controlled at 70 1
NOTES: The recipient of this standard shall undertake the following confidentiality obligations upon the receipt of this standard.
- The recipient shall discard by shredding or fire, or return to Toyota Motor Corporation if appropriate, the documents contained in this standard when they
are no longer necessary due to the termination of the work concerned or the revision of current version of this standard,
- This standard and the technical information related thereto are owned by and under sole control of Toyota Motor Corporation. They shall not be disclosed
in whole nor in part to ant third party without prior written consent of Toyota Motor Corporation..

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TOYOTA ENGINEERING STANDARD

TSM0504G

3.2 Test Method


3.2.1 Test Specimen Condition
(1) Test specimens
Prepare 127 mm long, 12.7 mm wide, and 12.7 mm maximum thick test specimens. Their
intermediate thicknesses shall not exceed 3.18 mm. They shall meet the following requirements.
The maximum width shall be 13.2 mm. Their edges shall be smooth with corner radius not
exceeding 1.27 mm.
(2) Conditions for color, density, melt flow and reinforcement content
(a) To examine the materials in terms of a certain range of color, density, melt flow, and
reinforcement, prepare additional test specimens representing these ranges.
(b) Test specimens in the natural color (if used in this color) and in the most heavily pigmented
light and dark colors shall be prepared and considered representative of the color range, if the
burning characteristics are essentially the same.
(c) Provide an additional set of test specimens of the heaviest organic pigment loading, unless the
most heavily pigmented light and dark colors include the highest amount of organic pigment.
(d) When certain color pigments (red, yellow, or the like, for example) are known to have
particularly critical effects, also prepare test specimens for such colors.
(e) For density, melt flow, and reinforcement, prepare test specimens in their extremes. They
may be considered representative of the range if the burning characteristics are essentially the
same.
(f) If the burning characteristics are not essentially the same for all test specimens representing
the range, the test results shall be evaluated as the ones specific to the materials in the
specific color, density, melt flow, and reinforcement content that have been tested.
(g) Or prepare additional test specimens in intermediate color, density, melt flow, and
reinforcement content for additional tests.
3.2.2 Test Specimen Conditioning
Condition each set of test specimens as follows:
(1) Prior to the test, condition each set of five test specimens for at least 48 h at a temperature of
23 2
and a relative humidity of 50 5 %.
(2) Prior to the test, condition each set of five test specimens at 70 1
in an air-circulating oven
for 168 h and then cool them in a desiccator containing anhydrous calcium chloride down to
room temperature for at least 4 h.
<Exception>
As an alternative to 168 h at 70 1 , industrial laminates may be conditioned for 24 h at
125 1 .

NOTES: The recipient of this standard shall undertake the following confidentiality obligations upon the receipt of this standard.
- The recipient shall discard by shredding or fire, or return to Toyota Motor Corporation if appropriate, the documents contained in this standard when they
are no longer necessary due to the termination of the work concerned or the revision of current version of this standard,
- This standard and the technical information related thereto are owned by and under sole control of Toyota Motor Corporation. They shall not be disclosed
in whole nor in part to ant third party without prior written consent of Toyota Motor Corporation..

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3.2.3 Test Procedure


(1) Conduct a burning test in a chamber, enclosure, or laboratory hood free of induced or forced
draft. An enclosed laboratory hood with a heat resistant glass window and an exhaust fan for
removing combustion products after the test is recommended.
(2) Using the clamp of the ring stand, support each test specimen at a point 6.4 mm distant from its
upper end, with its longitudinal axis being vertical. Locate a burner apart from the test
specimens, ignite it, and adjust it to produce a 19 mm high blue flame. For the above procedure,
regulate the gas supply and control the air port opening of the burner at first so that a 19 mm
high, yellow-tipped blue flame is obtained. Then increase the air supply until the yellow tip
disappears. Measure the flame height again and correct it if necessary.
(3) Apply the test flame for 10 s to the lower center of the test specimen. Then withdraw the flame
at least 152 mm away from the test specimen, and measure and record the time duration when
the specimen blazes up. Immediately after the blazing ceases, apply the test flame to the lower
end of the test specimen again. After 10 s withdraw the test flame again, and measure and
record the time durations of flaming and glowing. If it is difficult to visually distinguish flaming
from glowing, bring a small piece of surgical cotton of approx. 50.6 square mm into contact with
the area in question. If the cotton catches fire, it indicates flaming.
(4) If molten or flaming substances drop from the test specimen during each test flame application,
tilt the burner to 45
or slightly withdraw the burner from either one of the 12.7 mm sides of the
test specimen to prevent material from entering the burner tube. If the test specimen drops
molten or flaming substances or if it continue flaming, hold the burner with hand and keep a
distance of 9.5 mm between the lower end of the test specimen and the burner tube edge during
the flame application. Ignore any molten strings of the material and apply the flame to the
central area of the test specimen.
(5) Observe and record the following.
(a) Time duration of flaming after the first flame application
(b) Time duration of flaming after the second flame application
(c) Time duration of flaming plus glowing after the second flame application
(d) Whether or not the test specimen burned up to the holding clamp

NOTES: The recipient of this standard shall undertake the following confidentiality obligations upon the receipt of this standard.
- The recipient shall discard by shredding or fire, or return to Toyota Motor Corporation if appropriate, the documents contained in this standard when they
are no longer necessary due to the termination of the work concerned or the revision of current version of this standard,
- This standard and the technical information related thereto are owned by and under sole control of Toyota Motor Corporation. They shall not be disclosed
in whole nor in part to ant third party without prior written consent of Toyota Motor Corporation..

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3.2.4 Criteria
Test the materials according to Section 3.2.1 to 3.2.3, and classify them into TV-0 and TV-1.
(1) Materials to be classified into TV-0 shall meet the following requirements.
(a) All test specimens shall not burn with flaming for 10 s or longer after each application of the
test flame.
(b) When the test flame is applied 10 times to each set of five test specimens, the total time of
burning with flame shall not exceed 50 s.
(c) For every test specimen, the burning with flame or glow shall not reach the holding clamp.
(d) After the second withdrawal of the test flame, all test specimen shall not continue burning with
glow for 30 s or longer.
(2) Materials to be classified into TV-1 shall meet the following requirements.
(a) All test specimens shall not burn with flaming for 30 s or longer after each application of the
test flame.
(b) When the test flame is applied 10 times to each set of five test specimens, the total time of
burning with flame shall not exceed 250 s.
(c) For every test specimen, the burning with flame or glow shall not reach the holding clamp.
(d) After the second withdrawal of the test flame, all test specimens shall not continue burning
with glow for 60 s or longer.
(3) If only one of five test specimens does not meet the requirements, test another set of five test
specimens. For the total flame-burning time, test an additional set of five test specimens if the
totals are in the range of 51 to 55 s for TV-0 and 251 to 255 s for TV-1. To classify the
materials in that thickness into TV-0 or TV-1, all test specimens of the second set shall meet the
requirements concerned.

NOTES: The recipient of this standard shall undertake the following confidentiality obligations upon the receipt of this standard.
- The recipient shall discard by shredding or fire, or return to Toyota Motor Corporation if appropriate, the documents contained in this standard when they
are no longer necessary due to the termination of the work concerned or the revision of current version of this standard,
- This standard and the technical information related thereto are owned by and under sole control of Toyota Motor Corporation. They shall not be disclosed
in whole nor in part to ant third party without prior written consent of Toyota Motor Corporation..

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