27/02/2010

Rotary screw compressor - Wikipedia, t…

Rotary screw compressor
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A rotary screw compressor is a gas compressor which uses a rotary type positive displacement mechanism.

Contents
1 Operation 2 Size 3 Applications 3.1 Oil-free 3.2 Oil-flooded 4 Flow control 5 Superchargers 5.1 Comparative advantages 5.2 Related terms 6 See also 7 References

Operation
Rotary screw compressors use two screws to compress the gas. The screws are driven through a set of synchronization gears. Gas enters at the suction side and moves through the threads as the screws rotate. Clearances between the threads decrease and compress the gas. The gas exits at the end of the screws.[1][2] The effectiveness of this mechanism is dependent on close fitting clearances between the helical rotors and the chamber for sealing of the compression cavities.

Size
Rotary screw compressors tend to be compact and smooth running with limited vibration and thus do not require spring suspension. Many rotary screw compressors are, however, mounted using elastomer vibration isolating mounts to absorb high-frequency vibrations, especially in rotary screw compressors that operate at high rotational speeds.

Applications
Typically, they are used to supply compressed air for general industrial applications. Trailer mounted diesel powered units are often seen at construction sites, and are used to power air operated construction machinery.
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27/02/2010

Rotary screw compressor - Wikipedia, t…

Oil-free
In an oil-free compressor, the air is compressed entirely through the action of the screws, without the assistance of an oil seal. They usually have lower maximum discharge pressure capability as a result. However, multi-stage oilfree compressors, where the air is compressed by several sets of screws, can achieve pressures of over 150 psig, and output volume of over 2000 cubic feet per minute (measured at 60 °C and atmospheric pressure). Oil-free compressors are used in applications where entrained oil carry-over is not acceptable, such as medicial research and semiconductor manufacturing. However, this does not preclude the need for filtration as hydrocarbons and other contaminants ingested from the ambient air must also be removed prior to the point-of-use. Subsequently, air treatment comparable to an Oil-flooded screw compressor is frequently still required to ensure a given quality of compressed air.

Oil-flooded
In an oil-flooded rotary screw compressor, oil is injected into the compression cavities to aid sealing and provide cooling sink for the gas charge. The oil is separated from the discharge stream, then cooled, filtered and recycled. The oil captures non-polar particulates from the incoming air, effectively reducing the particle loading of compressed air particulate filtration. It is usual for some entrained compressor oil to carry over into the compressed gas stream downstream of the compressor. In some applications, this is rectified by coalescer/filter vessels.[3] In other applications, this is rectified by the use of receiver tanks that Diagram of a rotary screw compressor reduce the local velocity of compressed air, allowing oil to condense and drop out of the air stream to be removed from the compressed air system via condensate management equipment. Standard oil-flooded compressors are capable of achieving output pressures over 200 psig, and output volumes of over 1500 cubic feet per minute (measured at 60 °C and atmospheric pressure).

Flow control
To adjust the compressor for variable flow conditions a variable speed drive is often required.

Superchargers
The twin-screw type supercharger or twin-screw blower is a positive displacement type device that operates by pulling air through a pair of meshing high-tolerance screws similar to a set of worm gears. Twin-screw superchargers are also known as Lysholm superchargers (or compressors) after its inventor Alf Lysholm.[4]
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27/02/2010

Rotary screw compressor - Wikipedia, t…

Comparative advantages
The rotary screw compressor has low leakage levels and low parasitic losses vs. roots-type. The supercharger is typically driven directly from the engine's crankshaft via a belt or gear drive. Unlike the Roots type supercharger, the twin-screw exhibits internal compression which is the ability of the device to compress air "within" the housing as it is moved through the device instead of relying upon resistance to flow downstream of the discharge to establish an increase of pressure.

High-precision CNC manufacturing techniques make the screw type supercharger a more expensive alternative to other forms of available forced induction. With later technology, manufacturing cost has been lowered while performance increased. All supercharger types benefit from the use of an intercooler to reduce heat produced during pumping and compression.

Lysholm screws. Note the complex shape of each screw. The screws run at high speed and with closely engineered tolerances.

A clear example of the technology applied by the twin-screw in companies like Ford, Koenigsegg, Mercury Marine and Mercedes can also demonstrate the effectiveness of the twin screw. While some centrifugal superchargers are consistent and reliable, they typically don't produce full boost until near peak engine rpm, while positive displacement superchargers such as Roots type superchargers and twin-screw types offer more immediate boost. Many cold-air kits, exhaust upgrades, and most often any engine upgrade can often be retained when installing an after market twin screw.[citation needed]

Related terms
The term "blower" is commonly used to define a device placed on engines with a functional need for additional airflow. The term blower is used to describe different types of superchargers. A screw type supercharger, roots type supercharger, and a centrifugal supercharger are all types of blowers.

See also
Gas compressor Guided rotor compressor Variable speed air compressor Vapor-compression refrigeration

References
1. ^ Screw Compressor (http://www.blackmer.com/tech-screw.jsp) Describes how screw compressors work and include photographs. 2. ^ Fundamentals of natural gas processing (http://books.google.de/books? id=lcLXk9OzDWoC&pg=PA75&dq=rotary+screw#v=onepage&q=rotary%20screw&f=false) 3. ^ Technical Centre (http://www.domnickhunter.com/technicalcentre/3.3.3) Discusses oil-flooded screw compressors including a complete system flow diagram
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Rotary screw compressor - Wikipedia, t…

4. ^ http://www.airends.com/LysholmArticle.htm

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotary_screw_compressor" Categories: Compressors | Chemical engineering | Mechanical engineering This page was last modified on 20 February 2010 at 11:06. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

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