This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
frequency magnetic field induced nonlinear Kerr effect changes in
considerable length of single mode (S.M) fiber (50 meters) to
compensate the effect of Group Velocity Dispersion and
subsequent evolution with time of high energy narrow Soliton
pulses by intelligent closed loop feedback of frequency modulated
constant voltage signal. 50 meters of SM fiber has been coiled on a
cylindrical bus bar filled with bekellite whose central conductor
carries a high frequency modulated constant voltage signal which
generates a high frequency magnetic field, the corresponding
electric field due to electromagnetic induction causes induced
nonlinearity in SM fiber material. The pulsed laser intensity with
temporal variation coupled to the SM fiber has been determined
at each instant and transformed to temporal variation of
frequency (50MHz. Centre frequency) to feed back as a time
dependent current flow (magnetic field) to the central conductor
of the cylindrical formar. This intelligent closed loop structure is
expected to evolute Soliton pulse in SM fiber from the gaussian
low energy pulse shape. The theory approach has been delineated
in this report. The experimental observations made in this regard
is in close proximity to the theoretical results.
I Introduction
Group Velocity Dispersion (GVD) is the effect which causes
enormous distortion (phase & shape of pulse) for pulsed laser
light propagating through SM fiber [1], [2]. The pulse spread
out along length of fiber for GVD and the way to minimise
GVD is to generate Soliton pulse (high peak power secant
hyperbolic shaped pulse) in SM fiber [1], [2]. The evolution of
Soliton pulse along length of fiber [2] follows Nonlinear
Schroidinger (NLS) equation which may be stated as the GVD
term reduced by Kerr nonlinearity term (proportional to E
2
or
u
2
, where E: electric field intensity of pulsed laser light) and
attenuation of gain or loss term is equal to second degree
partial derivative of u or E [2]. From NLS equation it is
apparent that the Kerr nonlinearity term compensates the GVD
term (for negative GVD parameter) and a situation may be
contemplated where less SM fiber length (50m. instead of 250
Km.) is required for complete evolution of Soliton pulse within
fiber. This requires, time dependent pulse shape of external
electric field (which enhances Kerr Nonlinearity), which is
exactly equal to the light intensity pulse shape within
fiber, to be supplied as a feedback
[2]. Here, a novel technique has been reported which follows
the same principle and intelligent generation of Kerr
nonlinearity in fiber produced to ease the generation of Soliton
pulse.
The technique used in this reporting for creation of
time dependent external electric field to SM fiber length is the
proper utilization of Radio Frequency (50M.H.z Centre
frequency) magnetic field which is converted to electric field
(Faraday’s electromagnetic law) [3], of sufficient magnitude
( )
meter
volts
6
10 with proper structure. It has been shown
in earlier paper [4] that an electric field above 10
6
volts/meter
causes sufficient Kerr effect in SM fiber to act as compensator
for GVD [2].
The theoretical analysis has been stated in support of
the physical principle and practical findings are also reported.
It has been found that the experimental results conforms to the
theoretical findings within 1.5% of accuracy limit.
II Theory
The magnetic induction B
r
of a long straight wire (infinite)
carrying a current I amps. shall be seen to be directed along the
normal to the plane containing the wire and the observation
point [6], so that the lines of magnetic induction are concentric
circles around the wire. The magnetic induction B
r
is given by
[5].
R
I
B
r
π
µ µ
2
0
=
r
……………………….(1)
Where, R is the distance of the point from straight wire in
meters and µ
r
is the relative permeability of medium where
point is placed, µ
0
is permeability of free space in Henry/meter
If current in the wire is of frequency f then
I = I
o
Sin (2Πft) …………… (2)
Where, I
o
is the amplitude of current waveform.
The Faraday’s electromagnetic law states that [5], [6]
t
B
E
∂
∂
= × ∇
r
r r
………………………..(3)
Report on Soliton Pulse Generation Within 50m.
Length of S.M. Fiber by High Frequency Induced
Nonlinear Intelligent Feedback Method
Santanu Chakraborty
IEEE Conference Publishing
A.P.C. Ray Polytechnic, Jadavpur, Kolkata – 700 032
Again, Faraday’s integral law for moving circuit may be stated
as [5]:
∫ ∫
− =
s c
da n B
dt
d
l d E
r
r r r
. . ……………..(4)
Where, E
r
is the electric field directed along the wire.
As, B
r
is along contour around the wire.
Equation – (4) takes the form:
B
dt
d
A E
r r
= ……………………..(5)
Where A is the crosssection area of the cylindrical formar.
Putting equation (1) in equation (5), we get:
I
dt
d
R
A
E
r
π
µ µ
2
0
=
or, ) ( ft Sin I
dt
d
R
A
E
r
π
π
µ µ
2
2
0
0
=
or, ) ( ft Cos I
R
f A
E
r
π
π
π µ µ
2
2
2
0
0
= ……………….(6)
Hence, the magnitude of electric field vector E
r
is :
R
fI A
E
r
2
0 0
µ µ
= …………………(7)
Again, the SM fiber is coated with ferrite on its two sides
(0.5mm thickness), hence µ
r
may be replaced by µ
ferrite
:
Thus,
R
f I A
E
ferrite
2
0 0
µ µ
= ………………(8)
For a particular case, where, R = 0.01 meter f = 50 X 10
6
Hz.,
µ
ferrite
= 5 X 10
4
,
µ
o
= 4Π X 10
7
H/m, I
o
= 8A, A = 0.0003 m
2
, the value of
electric field within fiber is:
meter
volts
E
6
10 ≈
The corresponding Kerr effect nonlinearity (change in R.I. due
to Kerr effect) for unit meter of fiber is:
λ
2
KE n = ∆ …………………(9)
In our particular case, for l = 50 meters of coiled fiber, the
cumulative Kerr effect is:
l KE n λ
2
= ′ ∆ ……………..(10)
From calculation, we find that, this high frequency magnetic
field induced electric field produces a considerable
nonlinearity ) ( n′ ∆ of the order: 0.001 – 0.002.
A. Soliton Generation:
When a narrow highintensity pulse traverses a
medium with negative Group Velocity Dispersion parameter
(where negative GVD parameter is produced by pulsed
Infrared laser of wave length greater than 1.3µm. in SM fiber),
for the constituent frequencies, GVD counteracts the chirp
produced by Self Phase Modulation (SPM). Now, GVD retards
the low frequencies at the front end of the pulse and advances
the high frequencies at the back of the pulse. As a result, the
high intensity sharply peaked Soliton pulse changes neither its
shape nor its spectrum as it travels through the SM fiber [2].
To derive the evolution of the pulse shape along the
length of fiber required for Soliton transmission, the NLS
equation is given as [2]:
u j u u N
t
u
z
u
j 
¹

\

− −
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
−
2 2
1 2
2
2
2
α
…(11)
Where, u (z, t) is the pulse envelop function, z is the
propagation distance along the fiber, N is the order of Soliton
and α is the coefficient of energy loss/unit length.
The different terms of the NLS (eqn. 11) may be
delineated as:
(i) The first term
∂
∂
2
2
2
1
t
u
represents GVD effects
of the fiber. Acting by itself, the dispersion tends
to broaden pulses in time.
(ii) The second nonlinear term ( ) u u N
2
2
states the
fact that the RI of the SM fiber depends on the
light intensity i.e. if u is considered as the varying
electric field of EM wave i.e.
2
u : light intensity,
this term is equivalent to the nonlinearity
produced by Kerr effects.
(iii) The third term

¹

\

− u j
2
α
represents the
effect of energy loss/unit meter of fiber.
The temporal changes (evolution) of a high intensity
pulse, that is subjected to Kerr effect as it travels through a
nonlinear dispersive SM fiber medium, which has negative
GVD parameter (λ>1.3µm) is given in Fig.1.
But for a normal SM fiber the Kerr nonlinearity (In case there
is no externally applied electric field)
Fig.1. Soliton Pulse Evolution in a Nonlinear Dispersive Fiber with Negative
GVD Parameter
causes the pulse to evolute for a length of 250 Km. along SM
fiber to take shape of a Soliton pulse for negative GVD
parameter.
In case of externally applied electric field perpendicular to the
fiber length (magnitude ∼ 10
6
volts/meter), the evolution
length, so that Soliton pulse is created is reduced to 50 meter
due to enhanced Kerr effect nonlinear changes.
To achieve the shorter evolution length (50 meters of SM
fiber), a feedback technique is applied, in which, the pulsed
laser intensity pulse shape within fiber has been continuously
monitored and fed back by a frequency modulated pulse
waveform external electric field (same attribute as pulsed laser
intensity temporal variation) so that the evolutionary process is
eased i.e.
) (t U ⇔E(t).
III Construction of current Carrying Former
The central conductor of the formar (Fig.2) is 3/20 copper wire
which is covered with dielectric (bekellite) material of
cylindrical shape with 0.92 cm. radius. The outer of the
dielectric material is coated with a ferrite coating of 0.4mm.
thickness and 50 meters of SM fiber is coiled with no
overlapping on the cylindrical formar over the ferrite coating.
Additional ferrite coating of 0.4 mm. is again placed in annular
fashion on the outer side of the fiber. A cylindrical conductor
jacket is placed on the cylindrical formar.
Fig.2. A) Cross Sectional B) Side View of the Formar
Fig.3. Distribution of Electric and Magnetic Field within the Cross Section of
Formar
IV Experimental Setup
The SM fiber is coupled with InfraRed pulse Laser source
(Fig.4) of wavelength 1.5µm (which produces negative GVD).
At the middle of the coiled fiber, an Ycoupler branch of the
SM fiber has been taken out whose output is detected with
precision
Fig.4. Experimental Setup
photodetector and the Electrical output is supplied to the VCO
(Voltage Controlled Oscillator). The VCO response has been
fed back to the central conductor as a high frequency
modulated current. The output of the 50 meters coiled SM fiber
is detected and consecutively its pulse shape has been
analysed.
V Experimental Results
High peak power Soliton pulse has been successfully
developed through experimentation within considerably shorter
length (50 meters) of SM fiber by proper time dependent pulse
generation through Kerr nonlinearity. The evolution of Soliton
pulse with time has been shown in Fig.5. The Soliton pulse
selectivity has been found to be continuously reduced with
time and after 10 seconds the selectivity is of the order of a few
picoseconds. As the light intensity pulse shape follows the
external electric field frequency time pulse shape the voltage
controlled oscillator (VCO) is selected with temporal
resolution of 0.1mv/ps with intensity resolution of 0.1mv/ps.
The VCO centre frequency is selected as 50MHz and the
frequencytime curve of VCO output as evoluted with time is
shown in Fig.6. The VCO output is amplitude limited to 12
volts. The photodetector used which detects the light intensity
pulse has an intensity resolution of 0.1 mv/ps. The SM fiber is
coiled on the formar with diameter 2cm., thus, the nonlinearity
in SM fiber due to microbending has been minimized. The
intelligent feedback path has been realized with proper B.N.C.
cable arrangement and proper grounding.
Fig.5. Evolution of Secant Hyperbolic Soliton Pulse with Time
Fig.6. Frequency Time Curve of VCO
VI Conclusion
In this paper the authors have delved into the intricacies
concerning the generation of external electric field induced
Kerr nonlinearity within SM fiber and subsequent evolution of
Soliton pulse within a shorter (50 meters) length of fiber by
intelligent feedback method. The theoretical analysis of this
paper has been based upon modern mathematical purview of
fiber optic communication and Instrumentation. The
experimental achievement of generation of Soliton pulse by
evolution is intriguing. To conclude, the whole experimental
process has been carried out in the Electronics and
Instrumentation Laboratory of A.P.C. Ray Polytechnic,
Kolkata.
References
[1] J. Gower, Optical Communication System, PrenticeHall of India Pvt. Ltd.,
2
nd
Edition, 1993.
[2] G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communication, McGrawHill International
Editions, 3
rd
Edition, 2000.
[3] A. Melloni, M. Frasca, A. Garagli, M. Mertinelli, “Direct Measurement of
Electrostriction in Optical Fibers”, Optical Letters, vol23, no.9, May, 1998,
pp.691693.
[4] S. K. Ghosh, S. K. Srakar, S. Chakraborty, “Design and Development of a
Fiber Optic Intrinsic Voltage Sensor”, Proceedings, IMEKO TC4 International
Symposium, September, 2002, pp. 415419.
[5] J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, John Willy and Sons Inc., 3
rd
Edition, 2005.
[6] S. K. Ghosh, S. K. Sarkar, S. Chakraborty, S. Das, “High Frequency Field
Effect on Plane of Polarization in Single Mode Fiber”, proceedings, photonics
2006, Hyderabad, India, 2006, A454 photo.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.