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PROPERTIES OF STEAM

Steam:

Vapour form of water is called STEAM.

Water in solid phase: ICE

Water in liquid phase: WATER

Application of steam

Food processing industry.

Cooking: hotels, restaurants etc.

Used as a working fluid in steam engines and steam

turbines.

Petrochemical industry.

Washing / drying / sterilizing in hospitals.

Health clinic / gym.

Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

Properties

Definition:

The characteristics of a system that can be used to define

its condition/state is called as a property.

Example:

in a freezer. You may find out that the ice cube is at -4oC

and occupies 1m3 volume upon mesurement.

Here, the temperature and volume are the properties of ice.

Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

(Constant Pressure)

Consider 1 kg of water at

Cylinder

frictionless

piston

as

Pressure

P

shown in figure.

I kg of

water at

OoC

point A on the Temperature Enthalpy graph

Temperature

Temperature

(ToC)

Enthalpy

(h)

Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

D

W

TSup

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

Fig. 4

Fig. 3

Temperature

Temperature

(T)oC

Fig. 5

D

DOS

TSat

hfg

hf

Sensible heat

AOS

Enthalpy

(h)

Latent heat

Definitions

Sensible heat (hf): (Enthalpy of water)

It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature

of 1 kg of water from 00C to the saturation temperature

Tsat0C at a given constant pressure P.

hf = m x Cp x T kJ

Where, m = mass of water in kg.

Cp = specific heat of water

= 4.1868 kJ/kg0K

T = Temperature Difference.

Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

the stated pressure.

Latent heat (hfg): (Enthalpy of evaporation)

It is the amount of heat required to evaporate 1 kg of

water at saturation temperature to 1 kg of dry steam at the

same saturation temperature and at the given constant

pressure P.

Superheated temperature (Tsup):

temperature at a given constant pressure.

Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature

of dry steam from its saturation temperature to any

desired higher temperature at the given constant

pressure P.

Degree of superheat (DOS):

and the saturation temperature.

DOS = (Tsup Tsat)

Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

different states,

1. Wet steam

2. Dry saturated steam (dry steam)

3. Superheated steam

10

Wet Steam:

A wet steam is defined as a two-phase mixture of

finely divided water particles and steam at the

saturation temperature corresponding to a given

stated pressure.

11

Temperature

Tsup

D

Degree of Superheat

B

Ts

hf

hfg

Sensible

Heat

Latent Heat

hg

Enthalpy

Amount of

Superheat

12

fraction which indicates the amount of dry steam present in

the given quantity of wet steam and is denoted as x.

The dryness fraction of a steam is defined as the ratio of

mass of the actual dry steam present in a known quantity of

Drynessfraction, x

Total Mass of Wet Steam

13

Let,

mg = Mass of dry steam present in the sample quantity of

wet steam

mf = Mass of suspended water molecules in the sample

quantity of wet steam

mg

m f mg

The dryness fraction of dry steam is equal to 1.

Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

14

(dry steam)

Dry saturated steam is the steam at saturation

temperature and at a given pressure having no water

molecules entrained in it.

15

Superheated Steam:

A superheated steam is defined as the steam at a

temperature higher than the saturation temperature at the

given stated pressure.

16

Superheated steam possess very high energy compared

hence its capacity to do the work will be higher.

It doesnt create any problems like rusting or corrosion of

blades of turbine / engine cylinder.

17

The high temperature of superheated steam poses

problems in lubrication.

Higher generation & initial cost.

Superheated

steam

>

Dry saturated

steam

>

Wet

steam

18

steam

a) Enthalpy of Dry saturated Steam (hg):

hg = hf + hfg kJ/kg

Temperature

Tsup

D

Degree of Superheat

B

Ts

hf

hfg

Sensible

Heat

Latent Heat

hg

Enthalpy

Amount of

Superheat

19

h=

hf + x .hfg kJ/kg

Temperature

Tsup

D

Degree of Superheat

B

Tsat

Enthalpy

hf

hfg

Sensible

Heat

Latent Heat

Amount of

Superheat

20

where, Csup = Specific heat of the superheated steam

= 2.25 kJ/kg0K

Temperature

Tsup

D

Degree of Superheat

B

Ts

Enthalpy

hf

Sensible

Heat

hfg

Latent Heat

Amount of

Superheat

21

Temperature

Tsup

D

Degree of Superheat

B

Tsat

Enthalpy

hf

hfg

Sensible

Heat

Latent

Heat

Amount of

Superheat

hg

22

0C

Temperatur

Temperature

Tsup

D

Degree of Superheat

B

Tsat

Enthalpy

hf

Sensible

Heat

hfg

Latent

Heat

Amount of

Superheat

23

hg = hf + hfg

kJ/kg

h = hf + x .hfg kJ/kg

c) Enthalpy of Superheated Steam:

d) Degree of superheat (DOS):

0C

Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

24

Problem 1: Find the enthalpy of 1 kg of steam at 12 bar

pressure when,

(a) steam is dry saturated,

(b) steam is 22% wet and

Assume the specific heat of superheated steam as 2.25

kJ/kgK

25

following data:

a) Pressure is 10 bar and temperature 200C,

b) Pressure is 12 bar and enthalpy of 2600 kJ/kg.

Problem 3:

Is the steam wet or superheated?

If it is wet; find its dryness fraction.

26

Problem 4:

By actual measurement, the enthalpy of steam at 6 bar is

found to be 2500 KJ/Kg.

a) What is the quality of steam?

b) If 500KJ of heat is added to this steam, what is the

1. Superheated temperature

2. Degree of superheat

3. Enthalpy of superheat

Problem 5: 2 Kg of water at 300C is heated continuously

at constant pressure of 5 bar. The total amount of heat

added is 500 KJ. Determine the dryness fraction or

degree of superheat of the resulting steam as the case

may be.

Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

27

Problem 6:

5 kg of water is heated from 400C to superheated steam

at 1500C with constant pressure of 3 bar. Find,

a) The total amount of heat added in the heating process

b) Amount of superheat

28

Problem 7:

2 boilers, one with super heater and another without super

heater are delivering equal quantities of steam into a

common main.

The pressure in the boiler and main is 20 bar. The

3500 C and the temperature of steam in the main is 2500 C.

Determine the quality of steam supplied by the other boiler.

29

Problem 8:

1000 Kg of steam at a pressure of 16 bar and 0.9 dry is

generated by a boiler and it enters the super heater, where

its temperature is raised such that the degree of superheat

is 1800C. If the temperature of feed water is 300 C,

determine

a) Total heat added to feed water in the boiler.

b) Total heat absorbed in the super heater.

30

Problem 9:

generated in a boiler. Dry saturated steam leaves the

to 600 kJ/kg. And in the super heater, steam is super

heated to temperature of 380oC. If temperature of feed

Total heat supplied to feed water in the boiler

Dryness fraction of steam at the entry of super heater

Total heat supplied in the super heater.

31

Problem 10:

Steam is generated in a boiler at a pressure of 9 bar and

with a dryness fraction of 0.98. Find the quality and

operations.

a) When steam loses 50 kJ/kg at constant pressure

32

Problem 11:

The steam initially at a pressure of 0.9 MPa and 2% wet

expands in a turbine such that it losses 80 kJ/kg at

constant pressure.

a) What is the quality of steam after expansion?

b) If it receives 160 kJ/kg of heat before expansion, what

it comes out of the turbine?

33

Pressure.

Temperature

Pc

Pi

At a particular pressure

Tc

P3

into

dry

steam

without

P2

P1

point.

Pc = 221.2 bar

Tc = 374.150C

hf

hf

hfg

Enthalpy

34

Critical pressure:

It is the pressure at which the water is directly converted

into

dry steam

without

undergoing

the state of

evaporation.

Critical temperature:

It is the corresponding temperature at the critical point.

35

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