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# Chapter 1:

PROPERTIES OF STEAM
Steam:
Vapour form of water is called STEAM.
Water in solid phase: ICE
Water in liquid phase: WATER

## Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

Application of steam
Food processing industry.
Cooking: hotels, restaurants etc.
Used as a working fluid in steam engines and steam
turbines.

## Used in industries for process heating.

Petrochemical industry.
Washing / drying / sterilizing in hospitals.
Health clinic / gym.
Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

Properties
Definition:
The characteristics of a system that can be used to define
its condition/state is called as a property.
Example:

## Suppose if you were to specify the condition of ice cubes

in a freezer. You may find out that the ice cube is at -4oC
and occupies 1m3 volume upon mesurement.
Here, the temperature and volume are the properties of ice.
Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

## FORMATION OF STEAM EXPERIMENT

(Constant Pressure)

Consider 1 kg of water at

Cylinder

frictionless

piston

as

Pressure
P

shown in figure.
I kg of
water at
OoC

## The initial condition of water at 0oC is represented by the

point A on the Temperature Enthalpy graph

Temperature
Temperature
(ToC)

Enthalpy
(h)
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D
W

TSup

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

Fig. 4

Fig. 3

Temperature
Temperature
(T)oC

Fig. 5
D

DOS

TSat

hfg

hf
Sensible heat

AOS

Enthalpy
(h)

Latent heat

## Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

Definitions
Sensible heat (hf): (Enthalpy of water)
It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature
of 1 kg of water from 00C to the saturation temperature
Tsat0C at a given constant pressure P.

hf = m x Cp x T kJ
Where, m = mass of water in kg.
Cp = specific heat of water
= 4.1868 kJ/kg0K
T = Temperature Difference.
Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

## It is the temperature at which the water begins to boil at

the stated pressure.
Latent heat (hfg): (Enthalpy of evaporation)
It is the amount of heat required to evaporate 1 kg of
water at saturation temperature to 1 kg of dry steam at the
same saturation temperature and at the given constant
pressure P.
Superheated temperature (Tsup):

## It is the temperature of the steam above the saturation

temperature at a given constant pressure.
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## Amount of superheat (AOS): (Enthalpy of superheat)

It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature
of dry steam from its saturation temperature to any
desired higher temperature at the given constant
pressure P.

## AOS = m x Csup (Tsup - Tsat) kJ

Degree of superheat (DOS):

## It is the difference between the superheated temperature

and the saturation temperature.
DOS = (Tsup Tsat)
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## The steam as it is being generated can exist in three

different states,
1. Wet steam
2. Dry saturated steam (dry steam)
3. Superheated steam

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Wet Steam:
A wet steam is defined as a two-phase mixture of
finely divided water particles and steam at the
saturation temperature corresponding to a given

stated pressure.

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Temperature
Tsup

D
Degree of Superheat
B

Ts

hf

hfg

Sensible
Heat

Latent Heat

hg

Enthalpy
Amount of
Superheat

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## The quality of wet steam is specified by the dryness

fraction which indicates the amount of dry steam present in
the given quantity of wet steam and is denoted as x.
The dryness fraction of a steam is defined as the ratio of
mass of the actual dry steam present in a known quantity of

## Mass of Dry Steam present in Wet Steam

Drynessfraction, x
Total Mass of Wet Steam

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Let,
mg = Mass of dry steam present in the sample quantity of
wet steam
mf = Mass of suspended water molecules in the sample
quantity of wet steam

mg
m f mg

## The dryness fraction of wet steam is always less than 1.

The dryness fraction of dry steam is equal to 1.
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## Dry Saturated Steam:

(dry steam)
Dry saturated steam is the steam at saturation
temperature and at a given pressure having no water
molecules entrained in it.

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Superheated Steam:
A superheated steam is defined as the steam at a
temperature higher than the saturation temperature at the
given stated pressure.

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## Advantages of Superheated Steam:

Superheated steam possess very high energy compared

## to dry saturated steam or wet steam at the same pressure,

hence its capacity to do the work will be higher.
It doesnt create any problems like rusting or corrosion of
blades of turbine / engine cylinder.

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## Disadvantages of Superheated Steam:

The high temperature of superheated steam poses
problems in lubrication.
Higher generation & initial cost.

Superheated
steam

>

Dry saturated
steam

>

Wet
steam

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## Enthalpy equations for different states of

steam
a) Enthalpy of Dry saturated Steam (hg):

hg = hf + hfg kJ/kg
Temperature
Tsup

D
Degree of Superheat
B

Ts

hf

hfg

Sensible
Heat

Latent Heat

hg

Enthalpy
Amount of
Superheat

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## b) Enthalpy of Wet Steam (h):

h=

hf + x .hfg kJ/kg
Temperature

Tsup

D
Degree of Superheat
B

Tsat

Enthalpy
hf

hfg

Sensible
Heat

Latent Heat
Amount of
Superheat

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## AOS = Csup (Tsup - Tsat) kJ/kg

where, Csup = Specific heat of the superheated steam
= 2.25 kJ/kg0K
Temperature
Tsup

D
Degree of Superheat
B

Ts

Enthalpy
hf
Sensible
Heat

hfg
Latent Heat

Amount of
Superheat

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## hsup = hf + hfg + Csup (Tsup - Tsat) kJ/kg

Temperature
Tsup

D
Degree of Superheat
B

Tsat

Enthalpy
hf

hfg

Sensible
Heat

Latent
Heat

Amount of
Superheat

hg

22

0C

## DOS = (Tsup - Tsat)

Temperatur
Temperature
Tsup

D
Degree of Superheat
B

Tsat

Enthalpy
hf
Sensible
Heat

hfg
Latent
Heat

Amount of
Superheat

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hg = hf + hfg

kJ/kg

## b) Enthalpy of Wet Steam:

h = hf + x .hfg kJ/kg
c) Enthalpy of Superheated Steam:

## hsup = hf + hfg + Csup (Tsup - Tsat) kJ/kg

d) Degree of superheat (DOS):

0C

## AOS = Csup (Tsup - Tsat) kJ/kg

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## Properties of steam: Numerical

Problem 1: Find the enthalpy of 1 kg of steam at 12 bar

pressure when,
(a) steam is dry saturated,
(b) steam is 22% wet and

## (c) Steam is superheated to 250C.

Assume the specific heat of superheated steam as 2.25
kJ/kgK

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## Problem 2: Determine the conditions of steam from the

following data:
a) Pressure is 10 bar and temperature 200C,
b) Pressure is 12 bar and enthalpy of 2600 kJ/kg.

Problem 3:

## Given enthalpy of 1 kg of steam at 30 bar is 3681 KJ.

Is the steam wet or superheated?
If it is wet; find its dryness fraction.

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Problem 4:
By actual measurement, the enthalpy of steam at 6 bar is
found to be 2500 KJ/Kg.
a) What is the quality of steam?
b) If 500KJ of heat is added to this steam, what is the
1. Superheated temperature
2. Degree of superheat
3. Enthalpy of superheat
Problem 5: 2 Kg of water at 300C is heated continuously
at constant pressure of 5 bar. The total amount of heat
added is 500 KJ. Determine the dryness fraction or
degree of superheat of the resulting steam as the case
may be.
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Problem 6:
5 kg of water is heated from 400C to superheated steam
at 1500C with constant pressure of 3 bar. Find,
a) The total amount of heat added in the heating process
b) Amount of superheat

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Problem 7:
2 boilers, one with super heater and another without super
heater are delivering equal quantities of steam into a
common main.
The pressure in the boiler and main is 20 bar. The

## temperature of steam from a boiler with a super heater is

3500 C and the temperature of steam in the main is 2500 C.
Determine the quality of steam supplied by the other boiler.

## Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

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Problem 8:
1000 Kg of steam at a pressure of 16 bar and 0.9 dry is
generated by a boiler and it enters the super heater, where
its temperature is raised such that the degree of superheat
is 1800C. If the temperature of feed water is 300 C,
determine
a) Total heat added to feed water in the boiler.
b) Total heat absorbed in the super heater.

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Problem 9:

## A dry saturated steam at a pressure of 16 bar is

generated in a boiler. Dry saturated steam leaves the

## boiler to enter a super heater, where it looses heat equal

to 600 kJ/kg. And in the super heater, steam is super
heated to temperature of 380oC. If temperature of feed

## water is 30oC, determine:

Total heat supplied to feed water in the boiler
Dryness fraction of steam at the entry of super heater
Total heat supplied in the super heater.

## Dept. of Mechanical & Mfg. Engg.

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Problem 10:
Steam is generated in a boiler at a pressure of 9 bar and
with a dryness fraction of 0.98. Find the quality and

## temperature of steam under each of the following

operations.
a) When steam loses 50 kJ/kg at constant pressure

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Problem 11:
The steam initially at a pressure of 0.9 MPa and 2% wet
expands in a turbine such that it losses 80 kJ/kg at
constant pressure.
a) What is the quality of steam after expansion?
b) If it receives 160 kJ/kg of heat before expansion, what

## would be the final state and temperature of the steam as

it comes out of the turbine?

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## Critical Temperature &

Pressure.

Temperature

Pc
Pi

At a particular pressure

Tc
P3

into

dry

steam

without
P2

P1

point.
Pc = 221.2 bar
Tc = 374.150C

hf

hf

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hfg

Enthalpy
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Critical pressure:
It is the pressure at which the water is directly converted
into

dry steam

without

undergoing

the state of

evaporation.

Critical temperature:
It is the corresponding temperature at the critical point.

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