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1. Introduction

An equation involving one or more derivatives of an unknown function is called a differential

equation. Differential equations arise in many physical phenomena and mathematical analysis of

any engineering problems.

A mathematician is interested in proving that a given differential equation possesses a solution;

hence one can obtain the solution and deduce a few properties of that solution. A physicist or an

engineer on the other hand is usually interested in the specific expression of the solution. The

usual compromise is to find the solution.

1.1

Fundamental definitions

An ordinary differential equation is an equation which involves derivatives of an unknown

function y of a single variable x.

Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) arise in many different contexts throughout mathematics

and science (social and natural) one way or another, because when describing changes

mathematically, the most accurate way is differentials and derivatives (related, though not quite

the same). Since various differentials, derivatives, and functions become inevitably related to

each other via equations, a differential equation is the result, describing dynamical phenomena,

evolution, and variation. Often, quantities are defined as the rate of change of other quantities

(time derivatives), or gradients of quantities, which is how they enter differential equations.

Specific mathematical fields include geometry and analytical mechanics. Scientific fields include

much of physics and astronomy (celestial mechanics), geology (weather modeling), chemistry

(reaction rates), biology (infectious diseases, genetic variation), ecology and population

modeling (population competition), economics (stock trends, interest rates and the market

equilibrium price changes). Many mathematicians have studied differential equations and

contributed to the field, including Newton, Leibniz, the Bernoulli family, Riccati, Clairaut,

d'Alembert, and Euler. A simple example is Newton's second law of motion the relationship

between the displacement x and the time t of the object under the force F, which leads to the

differential equation.

Examples:

The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest derivative occurring in it.

The degree of a differential equation is the degree of the highest derivative exists in the

equation, provided the equation is free of radicals and terms with fractional degree.

The order and degree of the differential equations in the above examples are respectively

functions of two or more independent variables.

A differential equation is said to be linear if it is a linear function of the dependent variable and

its derivatives, i.e., it is of degree one in the dependent variable y and its derivatives.

The general linear differential equation of order n is of the form

A solution of a differential equation is a relation between the dependent and independent

variables, having derivative of order equal to order of the differential equation ,which is also free

of the derivatives and satisfying the given differential equation.

Example 1.1

The solution of

is

Since

Example 1.2

Consider the differential equation

Let y = e2x, then

d2y

dy

3 2y 0 .

2

dx

dx

dy

d2y

2e2 x and 2 4e2 x .

dx

dx

d2y

dy

3 2 y 0 implying that y = e2x is a solution of the given differential equation.

Hence

2

dx

dx

x

Also y = e is a solution. These two solutions are particular solutions of the given equation. Note

that y = C1 e2x+ C2 ex is also a solution , where C1and C2 are arbitrary constants. This solution is

called the general solution of the given differential equation, which is the linear combination of

all possible linearly independent solutions.

Note:

A differential equation together with an initial condition is called an Initial Value problem. The

initial condition is used to determine the value of the arbitrary constants in the general solution.

1.2 Formulation of differential equations by eliminating arbitrary constants

In practice, differential equations arise in many ways, one of which is useful in that it gives us a

feeling for the kinds of solutions to be expected. In this section we start with the relation

2

involving arbitrary constants, and, by elimination of those arbitrary constants obtain a differential

equation which is consistent with the original relation. In other words we will obtain a

differential equation for which the given relation is the general solution.

Methods for elimination of arbitrary constants vary the way in which the constants enter the

given relation. Since each differentiation yields a new relation, the number of derivatives that

needs to be used is same as that of the number of arbitrary constants to be eliminated. Thus in

eliminating arbitrary constants from a relation we obtain a differential equation that is

(i) Of order equal to the number of arbitrary constants in the equation.

(ii) Consistent with relation.

(iii)Free from arbitrary constants.

Example 1.2.1

Eliminate the arbitrary constants c1 and c2 from the relation

Since two constants are to be eliminated, obtain the two derivatives,

y 4c1e2 x 9c2e3 x . (3)

c1

The elimination of

y 2 y 15c2e3 x ;

the elimination of

c1

y 2 y 5c2e3 x .

Hence

y 2 y 3( y 2 y),or y y 6 y 0.

Another method for obtaining the differential equation in this example proceeds as follows. We

know from a theorem in elementary algebra that the equations (1), (2), and (3) considered as

equations

in

y

e2 x

y 2e2 x

y ''

4e2 x

the

two

unknowns

c1 and c2 can

have

solutions

only

if

e3 x

3e3 x 0. (4)

9e3 x

Since e-2x and e3x cannot be zero, equation (4) may be rewritten, with the factors e-2x and e3x

removed, as

y

y

y 4 9

This latter method has the advantage of making it easy to see that the elimination of the constants

c1 ,c2 ,..., cn

differential equation

a0

dny

d n1 y

a

... an y 0, in which the coefficients

1

dx n

dx n1

a0 , a1,..., an are

constants. The

Example 1.2.2 Eliminate the constant a from the equation

Direct differentiation of the relation yields

the form

( x a) 2 y 2 a 2 .

( x2 y 2 )dx 2 xydy 0.

The equation

x2 y 2

2a.

x

2

2

0, or ( x y )dx 2 xydy 0, as desired.

2

x

Example 1.2.3 Eliminate B and from the relation

which is a parameter (not to be eliminated).

First we obtain two derivatives of x with respect to t

dx

B sin(t ), (6)

dt

d 2x

2 B cos(t ). (7)

2

dt

On comparing equations (5) and (7) we get

d 2x

2 x 0.

2

dt

Example 1.2.4 Eliminate c from the equation

Differentiating the given equation we get

cxy c2 x 4 0.

c( y xy) c 2 0.

Since c 0, c ( y xy) and substitution into the original leads to the result

x3 ( y)2 x2 yy 4 0.

Exercises 1.2.5

Form the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants

1. x c1 cos t c2 sin t; a parameter.

4

in

2.

y 2 4ax.

3.

y x2 c1e x c2e2 x .

4.

y Ae2 x Bxe2 x .

5.

1.3

Families of curves

A relation involving a parameter, as well as one or both the coordinates of a point in a plane,

represents a family of curves, one curve corresponding to each value of the parameter. For

instance, the equation

of circles, each having its center on the line y = x and each passing through the origin.

If the constant c is treated as an arbitrary constant and eliminated, the result is called the

differential equation of the family represented by the equation. In this case, the elimination of c

is easily performed by isolating c, then differentiating throughout the equation with respect to x.

x2 y 2

2c and hence we can form the differential

Thus, the given equation takes the form

x y

equation.

Note that for a two parameter family of curves, the differential equation will be of order 2.

Example 1.3.1 Find the differential equation of the family of parabolas, having their vertices at

the origin and their foci on the y-axis.

From analytic geometry, we find the equation of this family of parabolas to be

from

that

F

x

and

x 2 4ay. Then

F

then a may be eliminated by differentiation. Thus it follows

y

2 xydx x2dy 0.

Example 1.3.2 Find the differential equation of the family of circles having their centers on the

y-axis.

Since a member of the family of circles of this example may have its center anywhere on the yaxis and its radius of any magnitude, we are dealing with the two-parameter family

x2 ( y b)2 r 2 .

Differentiating the given equation, we get

x ( y b) y 0, from which

x yy

b.

y

Differentiating again,

equation is

0, so the desired differential

( y)2

xy ( y)3 y 0.

Exercises 1.3.3

In each exercise, obtain the differential equation of the family of plane curves described and

sketch several representative members of the family.

1. Straight lines with slope and x-intercept equal.

2. Circles with fixed radius r and tangent to the x-axis.

3. Parabolas with axis parallel to the x-axis.

cy 2 x 2 ( x a) with a fixed.

x3

2

.

5. The cissoids y

ax

6. The strophoids r a(sec tan ).

4. The cubics

1.4

In our study we initially consider only first order and first degree differential equation. Such

equations can be written in the form

Before discussing some of the analytic techniques for finding solutions we shall state an

important theorem concerning to the uniqueness and existence of solution.

Consider

Let T denote the rectangular region defined by

the point

and

and

, a region with

and

in

and

a) A solution of equation (1) in

b) On the interval

c) At

d)

satisfies

,

is unique in

In other wards, the theorem states that if

point

1.5

Variable Separable equations

If the differential equation M(x,y) dx + N(x,y) dy = 0 is simple enough that the variables can be

separated ,i.e., the equation can be rewritten as F(x) dx + G(y) dy = 0, where F is a function of

x alone and G is a function of y alone , then the solution can be obtained by direct integration.

Example 1.5.1

Integrating,

i.e.

Here the variables are not separated but it can be reduced to that form by dividing the equation

by

Then

where the variables are separated.

The solution is

Remark:

From

the

above

can be reduced to variable separable equation.

Example 1.5.3

Solution:

The solution is

Example 1.5.4

Solution:

the

type

x y 1 dx x 2 1 y 2 1 dy 0

Example 1.5.5

Solution:

Then

Integrating,

Exercise 1.5.6

Solve

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

1.6

homogeneous functions of the same degree in

and .

, where

and

are

function of (y/x) only. Let

then

or

. This suggests the substitution (y/x) = v or

= g(v)

Example 1.6.1

Solution:

Put

then

Example 1.6.2

Solution:

then

Integrating,

or

. However, it is sometimes

easier to solve by substituting for the variable whose differential has the simpler coefficient.

Example 1.6.3

Solution:

Integrating,

Exercise 1.6.4

Solve

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

1.7

Case 1: When

Putting x= X + h and y = Y + k, where h, k are constants so that dx = dX , dy = dY

and

Case 2: When

i.e.,

Form by substituting

and hence can be solved..

Example 1.7.1

Solve

Clearly,

ab ab 0

10

put

Substituting,

Finally,

Example 1.7.2

.

Solve

Here

Put

i.e

i.e

Separating,

i.e Solution is

Exercise 1.7.3

Solve

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

11

These are equations of the type

such that is

If the equation

Comparing the above equations, we get

M

F

x

and

F

y

Since

and

(1)

satisfied. Now let us prove the converse of the above result. Let us assume that the condition (1)

M ( x, y ) . (i.e., the function is the result of

x

integrating M dx w.r.t. x alone holding y as a constant.

2 M

2

2 M N

.

xy yx y

x

yx y

On integrating both sides of this equation w.r.t. x holding y fixed we get,

y

Then

Then dF

F

F

dx

dy

dx

B( y ) dy Mdx Ndy.

x

y

x

y

Hence the given equation is exact. Thus , we have proved the following theorem.

M

N

Theorem: If M , N,

are all continuous functions of x and y , then a necessary and

and

y

x

sufficient condition for the differential equation M dx + N dy = 0 to be exact is that

Note : If the differential equation M dx + N dy = 0 is exact then the solution of the equation can

be obtained as follows. Let F be a function of x and y such that dF = M dx + N dy.

F

F

F

Then comparing with the equation dF

= M (x, y).

dx

dy we get

x

x

y

12

F

y y

does not contain x.

M ( x, y)dx B( y)

M ( x, y)dx (terms in N ( x, y) not containg x) dy

=

Example 1.8.1 Solve

M = 3x2y 6x ..(1)

N = x2 +2y ..(2)

and

or,

Exercises 1.8.2:

Solve

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

1.9 Linear Equations

Definition: A differential equation is said to be linear if the dependent variable and its

differential coefficient occur only in the first degree and not multiplied together.

A general linear differential equation is of the form

P dx

To solve, multiply both sides by e

so that

Integrating, we get

If

as required solution.

Dividing throughout by

,

13

where

where

Exercises 1.9.3

Solve

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

1.10. Bernoulli equation

The equation

Bernoullis equation.

To solve, divide both sides by

Put

, so that

. Equation reduces to

which is linear in

can be solved.

Example 1.10.1

Dividing by

Put

Solve

,

.

.

, so

14

and

i.e.

, i.e

I.F =

which is linear in z.

Solution is

i.e.

i.e.

Example 1.10.2

Solve

Dividing by ,

( y 1 y )dy

dx

x

i.e.

Exercise 1.10.3

Solve

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Consider the equation

which is not exact....(1)

Let , a function of

must be exact.

Hence,

must satisfy

.

15

.

First let

be a function of

alone. Then

Then we have

and

becomes

or

alone, we have

By a similar argument, assuming

is a function of

alone, we get

Using the above integrating factors, one can convert the equation to exact form and solve.

Example 1.11.1

Solve

and

Hence,

.

.

.

Solution is

So

I.F =

Multiplying

Exercise 1.11.3

1.

.

.

Solve

2.

3.

4.

16

5.

6.

7.

8.

1.12 Integrating factors by inspection.

Here we are concerned with the equations that are simple enough to enable us to find the

integrating factors by inspection. The ability to do this depends largely upon recognition of

certain common exact differential and upon experience. Below are four exact differentials that

occur frequently:

Using these exact differentials it is possible to group the terms in given differential equation and

obtain the integrating factors.

Example 1.12.1

Solve

.

Group the terms

Dividing by

Solution on integration,

Example 1.12.2

Solve x

.

dy

y

y cos 2 ( )

dx

x

y

xdy ydx cos 2 ( )dx

x

y

y

d ( ) x 2 cos 2 ( )dx

x

x

y

y

dx

sec2 ( )d ( ) 2

x

x

x

y

1

tan( ) c

x

x

Rewriting the given differential equation as (3x2 ydx x3dy) y 4 dy 0 .

Which is nothing but yd ( x3 ) x3dy y 4dy 0. Dividing by y2, the equation becomes,

17

x3

x3 y 3

C.

d y 2 dy 0 , which is exact. Therefore the solution is

y

3

y

Exercise 1.12.4

Solve

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

1.13 Higher Order Linear Differential Equations

The general linear differential equation of order n is an equation that can be written as

.(1)

If R(x) = 0, then the equation is called a homogenous linear differential equation otherwise it is

called non-homogeneous differential equation. The coefficient functions

are

continuous on the interval I.

Consider

If

and

.

are solutions of homogenous equation then

is also a solution of

that equation.

In a similar manner, if y1 ,y2 ,,yn are solutions of (1), then

..(2)

is also a solution where

the

where

linearly independent solutions of the given equation. Where as for the nonhomogeneous equation

the general solution is of the

form y yc y p , where yc is the general solution of the corresponding homogenous

equation

and

y p is a particular

solution of the given equation , which does not contain any arbitrary constants.

1.3.1 An Existence and Uniqueness Theorem:

Given an

order linear differential equation,

18

on an interval I,

suppose that

Example 1.13.1

Solution is

Using

we get

Given the functions

if constants

for all

in

are said to be linearly dependent on that interval. If no such relation exists, the functions are said

to be linearly independent.

1.13.3 The Wronskian of Solution:

To test whether n functions are linearly independent on an interval

let us assume that

each of the functions

is differentiable atleast (

times

c1 f1' c2 f '2 ... cn f n ' = 0

c1 f1'' c2 f 2 ... cn f n = 0

For any fixed value of

in

f1 ( x)

determinant W ( x)

If

f ( x)

.

n 1

f1 ( x)

for some

independent on

f 2 ( x)

'

1

...

f n ( x)

'

f n ' ( x)

.

n 1

f n ( x)

f 2 ( x) ...

.

.

n 1

f 2 ( x) ...

on

. The function

eax

ae

ax

ebx

be

bx

b a e( a b ) x 0 only if a=b.

Example 1.13.3. Let y1 1and y2 x , then y1 0, y2 1

19

1

0

x

1

1

0.

Therefore

y1 1and y2 x

are

linearly

independent.

d

dk

k

Let D then D k for k 1, 2,.... .Then the equation (1) can be expressed as

dx

dx

b0 D n y b1D n1 y ... bn y R( x)

i.e., (b0 D n b1D n1 ... bn ) y R( x)

i.e., f(D) y = R(i) where f(D) = b0 Dn b1Dn1 ... bn is called a differential operator. To

solve such equations we first study the properties of the differential operator.

1.13.4 Properties of differential operator:

1. f(D)eax = eaxf(a)

Proof: Let f(D) = b0 Dn b1Dn1 ... bn .

Since Dkeax = akeax, for k = 1,2,3n. we have,

f(D)eax = b0 D n eax b1D n1eax ... bn eax

b0 a n eax b1a n1e ax ... bne ax

(b0 a n b1a n1 ... bn )eax f (a)e ax

2. f(D)eax y = eaxf(D+a)y

Proof: Let f(D) = b0 Dn b1Dn1 ... bn

We have D eax y = y Deax + eax Dy = y eax a + eax Dy = eax (D+a)y,

Similarly we can show that Dk(eax y) = eax (D+a)ky, k = 1,2,...n.

Substituting in the formula we get the required result.

j 0,1, 2,...k 1

0,

3. ( D a)k eax x j ax

e k !, j k

0, j 0,1, 2,....k 1

Proof: We know that D k x j

then by property(2), the result follows.

k !, j k

1.13.5 The solution of linear homogeneous differential equation with constant coefficients

Consider the linear homogeneous differential equation with constant coefficients

b0

dny

d n1 y

dy

b

... bn1 bn y 0 where

1

n

n 1

dx

dx

dx

20

If y = eax , then by property (1), f(D)y = f(D)eax = eaxf(a) = 0 f(a) = 0.

This equation is called the auxiliary or characteristic equation associated with the given

differential equation. For a nth order differential equation, the auxiliary equation has n roots say,

a1 , a2 ,......an . Then y1 ea1x , y2 ea2 x ,..........., yn ean x are all solutions of the given differential

equation.

Case1: If the roots of the auxiliary equations are all distinct then

y1 ea1x , y2 ea2 x ,..........., yn ean x are linearly independent solutions of the given equation.

Hence the general solution is given by y C1ea1x C2ea2 x ... Cnean x .

Case2: If some roots are equal, say a1 a2 ...... ak a.

Then the solutions y1 y2 ... yk eax . Then the solution is given by y ea1x ea2 x ... ean x

does not contain n arbitrary constants and hence cannot be the general solution. Since first k

roots of the auxiliary equations are equal the given differential equation can be rewritten as

g ( D)( D a)k y 0. Then by property (3), we observe that y j eax x j , j 0,1,......,.k 1 are all

Case3. If some roots of the auxiliary equation are real. Since for equation with real coefficients

the roots exists in conjugate pairs, let 1 a ib and 2 a ib be two roots. Then

y1 e1x e( aib) x eax (cos bx i sin bx) and y2 e2 x e( aib) x eax (cos bx i sin bx) are the two

distinct solutions. Therefore the corresponding solution is y C1e1x C2e2 x , which can be

expressed as y1 eax ( A1 cos bx A2 sin bx) where A1 and A2 are arbitrary constants.

Example 1.13.4: Solve (2D2 + 5D 12)y = 0

Solution: Auxiliary equation is 2m2 + 5m 12 = 0.

That is, (2m 3) (m + 4) = 0 and it has the roots m1 = 3/2 and m2 = - 4 which are real and

distinct. Therefore the general solution is y = C1 e3x/2 + C2e-4x

Example 1.13.5

Solve

d2y

+4y=0

dx 2

21

Therefore m = 2i = 0 2i

Therefore y = C1 cos 2x + C2 sin 2x

Example 1.13.6

dy

d2y

d 3x

Solve

+4

+4

= 0.

3

2

dx

dx

dx

That is, m(m + 2)2 = 0

Therefore m1 = 0, m2 = -2, m3 = -2 are its roots.

Here we find that two roots are equal. Hence the general solution is given by

y = C1 e0x + (C2 + C3x) e-2x

Or y = C1 + (C2 + C3i) e-2x

Example 1.13.7

Solve

d2y

d 4x

+

8

+ 16y = 0

dx 4

dx 2

Solution: Here the auxiliary equation is m4 + 8m2 + 16 = 0, which is simply (m2 + 4)2 = 0.

Therefore we have m2 + 4 = 0 repeated. It gives m2 = -4

Therefore m = 2i.

Thus the roots are m = 2 i, 2i (imaginary, repeated).

Hence the general solution is y = e0x [(C1 + C2x) cos 2x + (C3 + C4x) sin 2x]

That is, y = (C1 + C2x) cos 2x + (C3 + C4x) sin 2x.

Example 1.13.8

dy

d4y

d3y

d2y

Solve

-2

+2

-2

+y=0

4

3

2

dx

dx

dx

dx

The roots are m = 1, 1, i

Therefore the general solution is y = (C1 + C2x) ex + e0x (C3 cos x + C4 sin x)

That is, y = (C1 + C2x)ex + (C3 cos x + C4 sin x).

1.13.6 The solution of linear non-homogeneous differential equation with constant

coefficients

We know that the general solution of nonhomogeneous linear differential equation

22

equation

y p is a particular solution of the given equation , which does not contain any arbitrary constants.

The complementary function can be determined using the method described above. To determine

the particular solution y p , we use the following methods.

1.13.6.1

1

as

f ( D)

d

1

[ (x)] = y , where D is the differential operator

.

dx

f ( D)

Thus f(D) is also a differential operator and

Example 1.13.6.1

1

y ydx

D

1

can be treated as its inverse.

f ( D)

DR( x) y R( x) ydx.

1

1

11

1

x

1 1.dx x , 2 1 1 x xdx

D

DD

D

2

D

Similarly we can showthat

1

xk

1

, k 1, 2,3,.......

k!

Dk

2.

1

eax

ax

e

if f (a) 0.

f ( D)

f (a)

Proof: We know that f(D)eax = eaxf(a), If f(a) 0, then dividing by f(a) we get

1

eax

f ( D)e ax f (a )

f (a)

f (a)

1

eax

ax

e

f ( D)

f (a )

1

1

eax y eax

y

f ( D a)

f ( D)

Proof: From the property f(D)eax y = eaxf(D+a)y the result follows.

3.

4.

1

y eax e ax y dx

Da

Proof: The result follows directly from the result (2) and example (1) .

23

inverse differential operators. If f(D)y = (x) ,then yp =

Case(i): If (x) = eax , then yp =

1

[ (x)]

f ( D)

e ax

if f(a) 0.

f (a)

If f(a) = 0, then f(D) can expressed as f(D) = (D-a)k (D), where (a) 0.for k = 1,2,3,.

Then

1 ax

1

1

e

eax

k

f(D)

(D-a) (D)

(D-a)k

1 ax

1

e

k

(D) (D-a)

eax

(a)

1 1

eax 1

eax x k

ax

e

k

(a) (D-a)k

(a) k !

(a) D

Case(ii): If (x)= cosax or sinax then, since cosax = Re( eiax ) and sinax = Im( eiax ) this case

reduces to the case(i) and hence can be solved.

Case(iii) If (x)= xm, for some positive integer m, then

positive powers of x and hence

1

can be expanded as a series in

f(D)

1 m

x can be determined.

f(D)

Working Rule:

1. If (x) = eax, then

1

eax

eax

if f (a) 0.

f ( D)

f (a )

1

1

eax

ax

ax

If f (a) 0 then

e x

e x

if f (a ) 0,

f ( D)

f ( D)

f (a)

1

x2

eax if f (a ) 0.

f ( D)

1

x2

eax if f (a) 0 and so on...

f (a )

2. If (x) = cos ax or sin ax and if the differential operator can be written as f(D2) then

1

1

[(x)] =

(x) provided f(-a2) 0.

2

2

f (D )

f (a )

1

1

( (x)) = x.

( (x))

2

f(D )

f (-a 2 )

24

Example 1.13.8

dy

d2y

Solve

-6

+ 10 y = cos 2x + e-3x

2

dx

dx

Therefore m =

6 2i

6 36 40 6 4

=

=

=3 i

2

2

2.1

Or m = i, where = 3 and = 1.

Therefore C.F. = e3x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x)

P.I. -

1

1

(cos 2x) + 2

(e-3x)

D 6 D 10

D 6 D 10

2

P.I. =

1

1

(cos 2x) +

e-3x

2

2 6 D 10

(3) 6(3) 10

2

1

1

(cos 2x) +

.e-3x

6 6D

9 18 10

1 1 D

1 -3x

(cos 2x) +

e , multiplying numerator and denominator by 1 + D in the first

2

6 1 D

37

expression.

That is, P.I. =

1 1 D

1 -3x

(cos

2x)

+

e

6 1 (2 2 )

37

1 -3x

1

{1 . cos 2x + D(cos 2x)} +

e .

37

30

That is, P.I =

1 -3x

1

d

(cos 2x 2 sin 2x) +

e , since D =

37

30

dx

Therefore y = e3x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x) +

Example 1.13.9

1 -3x

1

(cos 2x 2 sin 2x) +

e

37

30

That is (m2 + 9)2 = 0. Therefore m = 3i, 3i.

Thus C.F. = e0.x {(C1 + C2 x) cos 3x + (C3 + C4x) sin 3x}

C.F. = (C1 + C2x) cos 3x + (C3 + C4x) sin 3x.

25

P.I =

=

1

(cos3 x)

2

D 18D 81

4

1

D 18D 2 81

4

3

1

cos A + cos 3A).

4

4

( Since Cos3 A =

P.I =

=

1

3

4 cos x 4 cos 3x .

3

1

1

1

(cos x) +

(cos 3x)

4

4

2

4 D 18D 81

4 D 18D 2 81

3

1

1

1

(cos x) +

(cos 3x)

4

2 2

2

4 (1 ) 18(1) 81

4 D 18D 2 81

We observe that f(-a2) = f(-9) = 81 162 + 81 = 0

Also f 1(D) = 4D3 + 36 D + 0 = 4 D(D2 + 9)

Therefore f 1(-9) = 4 D(-9 + 9) = 0, also

Hence

1

1

(cos 3x) = x2 11 2 (cos 3x)

2

D 18D 81

f (D )

4

Hence

That is,

1

1

(cos 3x) = x2, 11

cos 3x

2

D 18D 81

f (3 2 )

4

x2

Thus P.I. =

1 2

1

cos 3x = x cos 3x

72

12(9) 36

3

1

1 1 2

.

cos x +

x cos 3x

4 1 18 81

4 72

Therefore P.I. =

3

1 2

.cos x .x cos 3x.

256

288

Example 1.13.10

3

1 2

cos x x cos 3x.

256

288

That is (m 3)2 = 0. Therefore m = 3, 3

Thus C.F. = (C1 + C2 x)e3x.

26

P.I =

1

(x2 + x + 1)

D 6D 9

2

That is, =

1

1

2

91 D D 2

9

3

(x2 + x + 1)

1 2

1

= . 1 D D 2 (x2 + x + 1)

9 3

9

1

P.I =

9

1 2 2

1 2

2

2

1 D D D D ... (x + x + 1)

9

9

1

2

1

4

{1 +

D - D2 + D2 + higher powers} (x2 + x + 1)

9

3

9

9

1

2

1

(1 + D + D2)(x2 + x+ 1), neglecting D3 and higher powers since we have only 2nd degree

9

3

3

polynomial x2 + x + 1.

Therefore P.I. =

1

2 d 2

1 d2 2

{1(x2 + x + 1) +

(x + x + 1) +

(x + x + 1)}

9

3 dx

3 dx 2

1 2

2

1

{(x + x + 1) + (2x + 1) + (2)}

9

3

3

1 2

7

7

1

x +

x+

=

(3x2 + 7x + 7)

9

27

27

27

Example 1.13.11

Solve

1

(3x2 + 7x + 7).

27

d3y

d2y

+

3

= 1 + x + e-3x

3

2

dx

dx

Thus C.F. = (C1 + C2x) e0x + C3 e-3x or C1 + C2 x + C3 e-3x

P.I. =

=

1

(1 + x + e-3x)

2

D 3D

3

1

D

3 D 2 1

3

(1 + x + e-3x)

27

1

3D 2

D

1

e-3x

1 (1 + x) + x .

2

3

3D 6 D

1

3D 2

D D 2 D3

... (1 + x) + x.

e-3x

1

2

3

9 27

3D 6 D

1

1

1 D

1

= 2

e-3x

(1 + x) + x.

2

3(3) 6(3)

3D 9 D 27 81

1 1

1 1

1

1

x

. 2 (1 + x) - . (1 + x) +

(1 + x) D(1 + x) + e-2x

3 D

9 D

27

81

9

1

x2 1

x2

x3

But

(1 + x) = x +

,

(1 + x) =

+

and D(1 + x) = 1.

2 D2

D

2

6

Therefore P.I. =

1

3

x2 x3 1

1

1

x

x2

+

- x

(1 + x) (1) + e-3x

6 9

9 27

81

9

2

2

2

25 2 1 3 x -3x

x+

x +

x + e

162

18

81 27

9

The term

2

2

x may be neglected in view of the arbitrary C1 + C2x appearing in C.F.

81 27

Example 1.13.12

dy

d3y

d2y

Solve

+2

+

= e2x + x3

3

2

dx

dx

dx

m(m2 + 2m + 1) = 0 or m (m + 1)2 = 0

Therefore m = 0, -1, -1

Thus C.F. = C1 e0x + (C2 + C3 x) e-x or C1 + (C2 + C3 x) e-x

P.I. =

1

1

(e2x) + 3

(x3)

2

2

D 2D D

D 2D D

Now,

1

1

e 2x

2x

2x

(e

)

=

.e

=

18

2 3 2.2 2 2

D 3 2D 2 D

Consider

25 2 1 3 x -3x

x +

x + e

162

18

9

1

(x3)

D 2D 2 D

3

28

Therefore we write,

1

1

(x3) =

(x3)

2

2

D 2D D

D( D 2 D 1)

3

1

1

1

.

(x3) =

(1 + D)-2 (x3)

2

D (1 D)

D

1

1

(x3) =

(1 2D + 3D2 4D3 + 5 D4) (x3), neglecting higher powers of D.

2

D

D 2D D

3

=(

Now,

1

stands for integration, and D, D2 etc. for successive derivatives.

D

1

x4

3

(x

)

=

- 2 .x3 + 3(3x2) 4 (6x) + 5(6).

3

2

4

D 2D D

Therefore

=

1

- 2 + 3D 4D2 + 5 D3) (x3)

D

x4

- 2x3 + 9x2 24x + 30

4

Thus P.I. =

1 2x x 4

e +

- 2x3 + 9x2 24x + 30

18

4

The constant term 30 may be neglected in view of the arbitrary constant C1 in the C.F.

1 2x x 4

Hence, the general solution y = C1 + (C2 e C3) e +

e +

- 2x3 + 9x2 24x.

18

4

-x

-x

Exercise: 1.13.13

dy

d2y

1. Solve 4

+ 16

- 9y = 4 ex/2 + 3 sin (x/4)

2

dx

dx

2. Solve (D2 + 1)y = ex + x4 + sin x.

Answers :

Auxiliary equation is 4m2 + 16 m 9 = 0. The roots are m =

1.

P.I. =

1

[4ex/2 + 3 sin (x/4)]

4 D 16 D 9

=4

1

1

(ex/2) + 3.

[sin (x/4)].

2

4 D 16 D 9

4 D 16 D 9

2

29

1

9

and are the roots.

2

2

2

1

1

1

Therefore f = 4 + 16 - 9 = 1 + 8- 9 = 0.

2

2

2

Therefore

1

1

(ex/2) = x.

(ex/2).

8D 16

4 D 16 D 9

2

P.I = 4x.

1

.

42

1

1

(ex/2) + 3.

[sin (x/4)]

8D 16

1

4 2 16 D 9

4

1

1

.ex/2 + 3.

[sin (x/4)]

1

1

16 D 9

8 16

4

2

1

= xex/2 + 3.

5

37

4

[sin (x/4)]

2

37

256 D 2

4

16 D

37

316 D

1

4

[sin (x/4)]

2

5

1 37

256 2

4 4

1 x/2 12

xe (64 D + 37) sin (x/4)

5

1625

General solution is

y = C.F + P.I. = C1 ex/2 + C2 e-9x/2 +

1 x/2 12

xe {16 cos (x/4) + 37 sin (x/4)}

5

1625

Therefore C.F. = e0x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x) that is, = C1 cos x + C2 sin x.

P.I =

1

1

1

(ex + x4 + sin x) = ex + (x4 12x2 +24) + x . (-cos x )

2

2

D 1

2

1.14

Variation of Parameters

30

1 x 4

x

e + x 12 x2 + 24 cos x.

2

2

y p( x) y q( x) y R( x). (1)

Suppose that

interval a x b. Let us see what happens if we replace both of the constants c1 and c2 with

functions of x.

We consider y Ay1 By2 (2) and try to determine A( x) and B( x) so that

Then y Ay1 By2 Ay1 By2 . (3)

Rather than involved with the derivatives of A( x) and B( x) of higher order than the first, we

now choose some particular function for the expression Ay1 By2 .

For simplicity we choose Ay1 By2 0. (4)

It then follows from (3) that y Ay1 By2 Ay1 By2. (5)

Since y was to be a solution of (1) we substitute from (2), (3), and (5) into equation (1) to obtain

But

y1 and y2

are

solutions

of

the

homogeneous

equation,

so

that

finally

Equations (4) and (6) now give us two equations that we wish to solve for A( x) and B( x).

This solution exists providing the determinant W ( x)

y1

y2

y1

y2

determinant is precisely the Wronskian of the functions y1 and y2 , which are presumed to be

linearly independent on the interval a x b. Therefore, the Wronskian does not vanish on that

interval and we can find

A( x)

y2 R( x)

dx and B( x)

W ( x)

Example 1.14.1

y1R( x)

dx

W ( x)

yc c1 cos x c2 sin x.

31

Then

W ( x)

y1

y2

y1

y2

A( x)

cos x

sin x

sin x cos x

1.

y2 R( x)

sin x sec x tan x

dx

dx tan 2 xdx x tan x.

W ( x)

1

(Constant of integration has been disregarded because we are seeking only a particular solution.)

And

B( x)

y1R( x)

cos x sec x tan x

dx

dx tan xdx ln | sec x | .

W ( x)

1

c1 cos x c3 sin x x cos x sin x ln | sec x |,

where the term ( sin x) in y p has been absorbed in the complementary function term c3 sin x ,

since c3 is an arbitrary constant.

Solve ( D 3D 2) y

2

Example 1.14.2

Here

1

.

1 e x

x

2x

yc c1e x c2e2 x , so we put y p Ae Be .

Then

W ( x)

y1

y2

y1

y2

A( x)

ex

e

e2 x

2e

2x

e3 x .

y2 R( x)

e2 x

e x

dx

dx

dx ln(1 e x ).

-x

3x

x

W ( x)

(1+e )e

1 e

And

B( x)

x

y1R( x)

e2 x

e x

dx

dx

dx e x ln(1 e x ).

x

x

W ( x)

(1 e )

1 e

32

x

2x

(e x e2 x )ln(1 e x ).

Exercises 1.14.3

Solve using variation of parameters:

1. ( D 1) y csc x cot x.

2

2. ( D 1) y sec x.

2

3. ( D 1) y tan x.

2

4. ( D 1) y sec x csc x.

2

5. ( D 2 D 1) y e (e 1) .

2

2x

6. ( D 3D 2) y cos(e ).

2

7. ( D 1) y 2(1 e

2

2 x 1/ 2

8. ( D2 1) y e2 x sin e x .

1.14

dny

d n1 y

dy

x n n k1 x n1 n1 ... kn1 x kn y X ................ 1 , where X is a function of x , and ki ,

dx

dx

dx

i 1, 2..., n, are constants. Equations of this type can be reduced to linear differential equations

with constant coefficients by letting x et . Thus t log x .

d

dy dy dt dy 1

dy

If D , then

. . ; i.e., x

Dy

dt

dx dt dx dt x

dx

2

d 2 y d 1 dy 1 d 2 y dy

2 d y

x

D D 1 y .

;

i.e.,

dx 2 dx x dt x 2 dt 2 dt

dx 2

d3y

D D 1 D 2 y , and so on.

dx3

After making these substitutions in equation (1), we get a linear equation with constant

coefficients which can be solved as before.

2

dy

2 d y

4x 6 y x2

Example 1.15.1

Solve x

2

dx

dx

d2y

d

dy

Solution: Put x et . Then t log x . Let D , then x

Dy , x 2 2 D D 1 y .

dx

dt

dx

2t

2

The given equation becomes D D 1 4D 6 y e ; i.e., D 5D 6 y e2t

Similarly, x3

33

e 2t

1

1

2t

2t

t

te2t

e

t

e

2 2 5

D 2 5D 6

2D 5

The complete solution is y yc y p c1 x 2 c2 x3 x 2 log x

The particular integral is y p

d2y

dy

2 x 12 y x3 log x

2

dx

dx

2

d

dy

2 d y

Solution: Put x et . Then t log x . Let D , then x

,

D D 1 y .

Dy x

dx 2

dt

dx

The given equation becomes D2 D 12 y te3t

Example 1.15.2

Solve x 2

The complementary function is yc c1e3t c2e4t

1

e 3t t 2 1

1

3t

te

t

2

D D 12

7 2 7

49

2

x3 log x 1

1

3

4

log x

The complete solution is y yc y p c1 x c2 x

7

2

7

49

3

2

d y

d y

dy

Example 1.15.3

Solve x3 3 3x 2 2 x y x log x

dx

dx

dx

t

Solution: Put x e . Then t log x .

d2y

d3y

d

dy

, then x

Dy , x 2 2 D D 1 y , x3 3 D D 1 D 2 y

dx

dx

dt

dx

3

t

The given equation becomes D 1 y e t

Let D

1 3i

;

2

t

3

3

The complementary function is yc c1et e 2 c2 cos

t

c

sin

t

3

2

2

et

1

The particular integral is y p 3 et t t

2

D 1

The complete solution is

3

x

y yc y p c1 x 1 x c2 cos

log x c3 sin

log x log x

2

2

Exercise 1.15.4

Solve

d2y

dy

1. x 2 2 2 x 4 y x 4

dx

dx

34

d2y 2

1

y x 2

2

dx

x

x

2

d y

dy

3. x 2 2 x y sin log x log x

dx

dx

Answers

x4

1. y yc y p c1 x 1 c2 x 4 log x

5

1 log x 2 1

2. y c1 x 2 c2

x

x

3

x

2. x

1

1

2

log x cos log x log log x sin log x

4

4

This equation is of the form

n

n 1

y

dy

n d y

n 1 d

... kn1 ax b kn y X ................ 1 ,

ax b n k1 ax b

n 1

dx

dx

dx

where X is a function of x , and ki , i 1, 2..., n, are constants. Equations of this type can be

reduced to linear differential equations with constant coefficients by letting ax b et . Thus

t log ax b .

If D

d

dy dy dt dy

1

dy

, then

. .

.a ; i.e., ax b aDy

dt

dx dt dx dt ax b

dx

2

2

2

d y

a

2 d y

ax

b

a 2 D D 1 y .

;

i.e.,

D

D

1

y

2

2

2

dx

dx

ax b

d3y

a3 D D 1 D 2 y , and so on.

Similarly, ax b

3

dx

After making these substitutions in equation (1), we get a linear equation with constant

coefficients which can be solved as before.

2

dy

2 d y

2 x 3 12 y 6 x

Example 1.16.1

Solve 2 x 3

2

dx

dx

t

Solution: Put 2 x 3 e . Then t log 2 x 3 .

3

2

d

dy

2 d y

22 D D 1 y .

, then 2 x 3 2 Dy , 2 x 3

2

dx

dt

dx

et 3

The given equation becomes 4 D D 1 2 D 12 y 6

;

2

Let D

The complementary function is yc c1e

3 57

;

4

3 57

t

4

c2e

35

3 57

t

4

3et 3

1

t

3

e

9

14 4

4 D 2 6 D 12

3 57

4

c2 2 x 3

3 57

4

3

3

2 x 3

14

4

2

d3y

dy

2 d y

2

x

1

2 4 x 1 4 y 4log x 1

3

dx

dx

dx

d

dy

Solution: Put x 1 et . Then t log x 1 . Let D , then x 1 Dy ,

dt

dx

2

3

2 d y

3 d y

x 1 2 D D 1 y , x 1 3 D D 1 D 2 y

dx

dx

3

The given equation becomes D D2 4D 4 y 4t

Example 1.16.2

Solve x 1

The complementary function is yc c1et c2e2t c3e2t

1

D2

1

...) (t ) t 1

The particular integral is y p 3

4t 1 ( D

2

4

D D 4D 4

2

d2y

dy

x 1 y sin 2log x 1

2

dx

dx

t

Solution: Put x 1 e . Then t log x 1 .

Example 1.16.3

Solve

x 1

2

d

dy

2 d y

D D 1 y .

Let D , then x 1 Dy , x 1

dx 2

dt

dx

The given equation becomes D2 1 y sin 2t

The complementary function is yc c1 cos t c2 sin t

The particular integral is y p

1

1

sin 2t sin 2t

D 1

3

2

1

y yc y p c1 cos log x 1 c2 sin log x 1 sin 2log x 1

3

Exercise 1.16.4

Solve

2

dy

2 d y

5 3x 2 3 y x 2 x 1

1. 3x 2

2

dx

dx

2

dy

2 d y

x 1 y 2sin log x 1

2. x 1

2

dx

dx

2

dy

2 d y

2 x 1 2 y 8 x 2 2 x 3

3. 2 x 1

2

dx

dx

Answers

36

1

7

1

2

3x 2 3x 2

405

27 108

y c1 cos log x 1 c2 sin log x 1 log x 1 cos log x 1

1. y c1 3x 2 3 c2 3x 2

1

2.

1

1

2

2 x 1 2 x 1 log 2 x 1 2

5

2

1.17 System of linear differential equations with constant coefficients

Quite often we come across a system of linear differential equations with constant coefficients in

which there are two or more dependent variables and a single independent variable exists. Such

a system of equation can be solved by eliminating all but one of the dependent variables , and

solving the resulting equation. Then using the given equations, the other dependent variables

can be expressed in terms of the dependent variable which is obtained earlier and can be

determined.

Example 1.17.1

Solve the simultaneous equations:

3. y c1 2 x 1

c2 2 x 1

dx

dy

5 x 2 y t; 2 x y 0 being given x y 0 when t 0.

dt

dt

d

Solution: Taking

D, the given equations become

dt

( D 5) x 2 y t (i)

2 x ( D 1) y 0 (ii)

Eliminate x as if D were an ordinary algebraic multiplier. Multiplying (i) by 2 and operating on

(ii) by (D+5) and then subtracting, we get

( D2 6D 9) y 2t.

Its

complementary

function

is

1

2t 4

(

2

t

)

.

( D 3)2

9 27

Thus y(t ) yc y p .

y p (t )

When t=0, 0 y c1

4

.

27

4 1

t 1

x(t ) c2 c2t e3t .

9 27

27 2

2

When t = 0, 0 x c2 .

9

Hence the desired solutions are

x(t )

1

1

2

2

(1 6t )e3t (1 3t ); y(t ) (2 3t )e3t (2 3t ).

27

27

27

27

37

Example 1.17.2

dx

dy

2 y sin t 0; 2 x cos t 0 given that x = 0 and y = 1 when t = 0.

dt

dt

d

Solution: Taking

D, the given equations become

dt

Dx 2 y sin t (i)

2 x Dy cos t (ii)

Eliminating x by multiplying (i) by 2 and operating on (ii) by D and then adding, we get

( D2 4) y 3sin t.

yc (t ) c1 cos2t c2 sin 2t and a particular integral is

1

sin t sin t.

D 4

Thus y(t ) yc y p .

y p (t ) 3

When t=0, 1 y c1 1.

Substituting the value of y in (ii), we obtain

When t = 0, 0 x c2 1.

Hence the desired solutions are

Example 3:

Solve the simultaneous equations

dx dy

dx dy

dt dt

dt dt

d

Solution: Taking

D, the given equations become

dt

Dx ( D 2) y 2cos t 7sin t (i)

Eliminating y by operating on (i) by D and operating on (ii) by (D-2) and then adding, we get

( D2 2) x 9cos t.

Its

complementary

function

is

xc (t ) c1e

x p (t ) 3cos t.

Thus x(t ) xc x p .

Substituting the value of x in (ii), we obtain

38

2t

c2e

2t

and

particular

integral

is

Where c1 , c2 and c3 are arbitrary constants.

Exercise:

Solve

dx

dy

y sin t 0; x cos t 0 given that x = 2 and y = 0 when t = 0.

dt

dt

ii. ( D 1) x Dy 2t 1;(2D 1) x 2Dy t .

i.

iii. ( D 1) x (2D 1) y e ;( D 1) x ( D 1) y 1 .

t

at x = 0. ( Hint: Eliminate v(x) first and solve for y(x))

2. The small oscillations of a certain system with two degrees of freedom are given by the

2

2

d

D . If x = y =

dt

3. A mechanical system with two degrees of freedom satisfies the equations

d 2x

dy

d2y

dx

2 2 3 4;2 2 3 0. Obtain expressions for x and y in terms of t, given

dt

dt

dt

dt

x, y, dx/dt, dy/dt all vanish at t = 0.

39

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