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1. Explain how various other disciplines form the foundations of AI.

2. Explain in detail the historical evolution of AI.

3. What is an intelligent agent. What is the significance of PEAS in describing its

environment. Explain with two agent type examples.

4. “We can identify a small number of dimensions along which task

environments can be categorized”: Elaborate

5. What are the characteristics of a vacuum cleaner when it is considered as an

intelligent agent.

6. With the relevant algorithm, explain the operations of the table driven agent.

7. With the relevant schematic diagram and the algorithm, explain the function
of (simple reflex / model based / goal based / utility based) agent. How does
it differ from (model based / simple reflex / utility based / goal based agent).
[Question will be on one agent type, and comparing to another]

8. What are the characteristics of the learning agent.

9. What is a problem solving agent. With the relevant algorithm, explain its

10.“Travelling from one city to another in a country can be formulated as a well

defined problem”: elaborate.

11.Explain in detail how each of these toy problems can be formulated: vacuum
cleaner, 8 puzzle, 8 queens. Compare the complexity of these with real world

12.What is the importance of search strategy in solving problems. Explain the

tree search algorithm.

13.What is “uninformed search”. Explain the BFS and DFS methods.

14.“In searching for solutions, an agent may need to deal with incomplete
knowledge of states/actions”. Elaborate

15.What is an informed search. Explain the greedy best first search and why it is
considered to be an informed search strategy.

16.Explain the A* search algorithm. Compare it with the greedy best first search.

17.What are Adversarial games. Explain how tic tac toe is modeled as such a

18.Explain in detail the minimax algorithm with a suitable example.

19.Explain in detail the alpha beta pruning algorithm with a suitable example.

20.Explain the significance of evaluation functions and cutting off search in the
context of adversarial search.

21.What is a knowledge based agent. Explain it in detail, using “Wumpus World”

as an example.

22.Explain the following:

Inference in propositional logic

Resolution in propositional logic (with the algorithm)


23.Explain the following:

Horn clauses

Inference using forward chaining, backward chaining in propositional


24.Explain the following terms with examples in the context of propositional


a. Knowledge representation, knowledge base

b. Syntax, semantics

c. Entailment

d. Completeness of resolution

25.Compare and contrast in the context of propositional logic:

a. Conjuncts vs disjuncts

b. Antecedents vs consequents

c. Implication vs biconditional

d. Data driven vs goal directed reasoning

e. Sound inference algorithms vs complete algorithms

26.What are the characteristics of first order logic. Compare FOL with
propositional logic.

27.Explain the following: Generalized Modes Ponens, Lifting, Unification

28.Explain the use of forward chaining in the context of FOL, and its algorithm.

29. Explain the use of backward chaining in the context of FOL, and its

30.“Every sentence of FOL can be converted into an inferentially equivalent

CNFsentence”: Explain the same with the rules used, and an example
showing how such a conversion is done.