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Statistics Independent Study

Page 1 of 19
Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
Multiple-Choice Section
Choose the one best answer for each of the following questions.
1. The probability of getting a specific grade in freshman English is given in
the table below. Each letter grade has a specific number of grade points
associated with it. What is the GPA (grade point average) in freshman
English?
Points
Probability
A.

2.0

B.

2.1

C.

1.9

A
4

B
3

C
2

D
1

F
0

.05

.3

.3

.2

.15

D. 1.8
E.

2.25

2. A 99% confidence interval for the proportion of voters who favor a ballot
initiative to lower property taxes is (.68, .76). Which of the following
statements are true?
I. The probability is .99 that between 68% and 76% of voters will vote to
lower property taxes.
II. The procedure used to generate this interval will contain the true
population proportion 99% of the time.
III. About 99% of those responding are in favor of lowering property taxes.
A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

III only

D. I and II only
E.

II and III only

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Statistics Independent Study

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
3. A baseball player wants to be among the top 10% of batters in the league
based on his batting average. The averages for all players in the league are
normally distributed with a mean of .265 and a standard deviation of .023.
What is the lowest batting average the player can have and still be among
the top 10% of batters?
A.

.300

B.

.288

C.

.294

D. .290
E.

.304

A.

B.

D.

C.

E.

design?
A.

Randomization to control for bias between groups

B.

Using blocks when experimental units are known to be similar in some way

C.

E.

Replication on a sufficient number of subjects to control for variation

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Statistics Independent Study

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
6. A standard deck of 52 cards has 26 red cards and 26 black cards. It has 13
each of Diamonds, Hearts, Clubs, and Spades, and 4 (one of each suit) of
Ace, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, Jack, Queen, and King. Suppose you draw one
card at random from a standard deck. Let A = an Ace is drawn. Let D = a
Diamond is drawn. Let F = a 10, Jack, Queen, King, or Ace is drawn. Which
of the following pairs of events are independent?
I. A, D
II. A, F
III. D, F
A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

III only

E.

II and III only

7. An advertisement for a weight loss clinic claims that people who go through
the complete program lose an average of 75 lb. A statistician finds that, at
the .05 level of significance, if the true weight loss is actually equal to 71 lb,
then the power against the claim of 75 lb is .80. Which of the following
statements best explains what this means?
A.

The probability that the true mean weight loss is 71 lb or less is .8.

B.

If the true average weight loss is 71 lb, the probability of rejecting the claim that
it is 75 is .80.

C.

There is a .05 chance of getting a value as deviant as 71 if the true mean weight
loss is really 75 lb.

D. There is a .8 chance of rejecting the claim that the true mean weight loss is 75
lb if a sample value of 71 lb is obtained.
E.

If the true mean weight loss is 71 lb, the probability of getting a finding as large
as 75 lb is .80.

8. You have constructed a 95% confidence interval for a population mean

based on a sample size of 15. You find that it is too wide for your purposes.
You want to have a 95% interval for the mean, but one that is only half as
wide as the one you have. What sample size do you need?
A.

15

B.

60

C.

30

D. 45
E.

225

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Statistics Independent Study

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
9. Which of the following statements are true?
I. A stemplot can be thought of as a histogram where you actually see the
data.
II. A boxplot is an effective way of viewing mean-based measurements.
III. A histogram can be constructed using either frequencies or relative
frequencies.
A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

E.

III only

10. A researcher is interested in assessing the effects of jogging on stress

reduction. He identifies 25 people who jog regularly and 25 who may
exercise in other ways but do not jog. The researcher interviews each of the
50 people to determine their reactions to stress. The 50 subjects did not
know they were part of a study. Which of the following statements is true?
A.

B.

C.

E.

This is survey research based on available data.

11. A sample of the ages of the teachers at a local high school is composed of
the following values: 34, 35, 32, 38, 45, 56, 42, 35, 44, 47. You want to use
these data to generate a 90% confidence interval for the population mean.
What is the upper critical t value (t*) you would use?
A.

1.812

B.

1.372

C.

1.383

D. 1.833
E.

1.860

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Statistics Independent Study

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
12. A data set has the following five-number summary: {31, 50, 58, 62, 87}.
Which of the following pairs of values in this data set would be considered
outliers?
A.

31, 81

B.

32, 81

C.

31, 80

D. 32, 80
E.

33, 86

13. In the game of Chuck-a-Luck, you select a number between 1 and 6, then
roll three dice. You win 1 point for each die showing your number. You lose
a point only if your number fails to come up on any of the three dice. Thus,
in a single turn, you can win 1, 2, or 3 points, or you can lose 1 point. What
is the probability that you will win at least 1 point in a single turn?
A.

75/216

B.

3/4

C.

1/4

D. 125/216
E.

91/216

14. To select three rats from a group of ten, you decide to use the following set
gathered from a table of random numbers: 11793 20495 05907 11384
44982 20751 27498. The rats, named Al, Betty, Chuck, Diane, Ernie, Fran,
Guy, Helen, Ira, and Jean, are numbered 1 to 10, respectively. If you started
from the left of your number set, which of these groups of rats would you
select?
A.

117

B.

C.

E.

Helen, Ira, Diane

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
15. You are testing the hypothesis H0 : p = .25, and wish to construct a 95%
confidence interval for the true population proportion (to see if it contains
.25). What is the minimum number of people you will need to interview to
have a margin of error no greater than .05?
A.

289

B.

385

C.

256

D. 384
E.

1,537

16. You survey a random sample of 75 teenagers to determine whether they

prefer to buy CDs or cassettes. You find that 50 of the teenagers say they
prefer CDs. You perform a significance test of the hypothesis that the
population proportion of those who prefer CDs is .6 ( H0 : p = .6). For this
test, what is SE p ?
A.

.0029

B.

.054

C.

.049

D. .057
E.

.544

17. The following regression equation is used to predict College GPA based on
High School GPA: College GPA = .29 + .98(High School GPA). The residual
when the High School GPA is 3.1 is .052. What is the actual value of the
College GPA when the High School GPA equals 3.1?
A.

2.6

B.

2.9

C.

3.0

D. 2.7
E.

2.8

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Statistics Independent Study

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
18. Chris, Duane and Carl have a free-throw contest. Normally, Chris has an
80% chance of making a free throw, Duane has a 70% chance, and Carl has
a 60% chance. Assuming that these probabilities are independent, what are
the probabilities that all three make their first shot, and that all three miss
their first shot?
A.

.336; .024

B.

.336; .128

C.

.336; .664

D. .664; .024
E.

.664; .128

19. Which of the following statements about r, the correlation coefficient, are
true?
I. Given a set of data ( x i , y i ), the correlation coefficient is the same as
the data set we would get if we reversed each x and y value.
II. Consider a bivariate data set ( x i , y i ), and a corresponding data set,
( z xi , z yi ), made up of the z-scores of the original data. For the set
( z xi , z yi ), r = the slope of the regression line.
III. r 2 represents the proportion of the variation in the dependent variable
explained by the regression on the independent variable.
A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

III only

E.

20. Consider the discrete probability distribution shown below. What is X ?

X
Probability
A.

B.

2.24

C.

1.55

0
.17

2
.30

3
.21

4
.08

D. 2.08
E.

1.79

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Statistics Independent Study

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
21. Researchers conduct a clinical trial on a new headache medicine. Fifty
subjects are each randomly assigned to one of two groups. One of the
a placebo. The researcher notes that the group receiving the placebo
experiences significant relief from headaches. Which of the following are
true?
I. The new medication has been shown to be ineffective in the treatment
II. This is an example of the placebo effect: Improvement might be
observed even in the absence of any real treatment.
III. Since the placebo is effective in treating headaches, doctors should
prescribe it rather than a drug that might have potentially serious side
effects.
A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

III only

D. II and III only

E.

I and II only

22. You construct a confidence interval for the difference between two
population means. Which of the following statements are true?
I. Unless we are justified in pooling our estimates of the population
variance, this distribution is only approximated by a t distribution.
II. Unlike procedures for a single mean, which require t procedures,
z-procedures are usually appropriate for the difference between two
means.
III. If there is some third variable that exerts an explanatory influence on
both variables whose means are being estimated, we are dealing with
one-sample rather than two-sample procedures.
A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

III only

E.

II and III only

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
23. A data set is found to have a mean of 18 and a standard deviation of 4. The
data set is transformed by the linear transformation x* = .5x + 3. That is,
each term in the set is first multiplied by .5 and then has 3 added to the
result. The mean and standard deviation, respectively, of the transformed
data set are:
A.

12; 2

B.

12; 5

C.

12; 7

D. 9; 2
E.

9; 5

24. Which of the following statements are correct?

I. A random variable is a numerical outcome of a random phenomenon.
II. A density curve lies on or above the horizontal axis, and has an area of 1
under the curve and above the axis.
III. If two independent random variables X and Y are combined,

X + Y = 2X + Y2 .
A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

III only

E.

I, II, and III

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
25. You are interested in learning how many of the teachers and students at
your school would support a constitutional amendment prohibiting flagburning. You obtain a simple random sample of students and teachers at
your school and ask the following question: "Since many people have died in
support of our flag, do you think flag-burning should be prohibited?" Which
of the following is most likely true?
A.

The sample proportion agreeing with the statement would probably be less than
the true population proportion supporting the amendment.

B.

Within normal limits of variation, the sample proportion agreeing with the
statement would probably be very close to the true population proportion
supporting the amendment.

C.

The sample proportion agreeing with the statement would probably be greater
than the true population proportion supporting the amendment.

D. This question suffers primarily from interviewer biasthe responses will be

biased based on the gender of the interviewer.
E.

Since the sample size is not specified, it is not possible to predict the direction of
bias, if any.

26. Farley's score on his first statistics test of the year was 58. The scores for
the entire class were normally distributed with a mean of 65 and a standard
deviation of 5. His score on the second statistics test of the year was 70, but
this was an easier test and the class average was 78 with a standard
deviation of 6. Which of the following statements is true?
A.

Farley is improving in relation to the rest of the class because his score went up.

B.

Farley appears to be improving in relation to the rest of the class because he

was not as far below the class average.

C.

Farley did better on the first test because his z-score was greater.

D. Farley did better on the first test because he was not as far away from the class
average.
E.

In relation to the rest of the class, Farley did equally well on both tests.

27. You conduct a 2 test of independence to see if voting preference is related

to ethnicity. You categorize respondents from five different ethnic groups
into four different political preference groups. When the analysis is
complete, you get a X 2 of 25.27. The P-value for this test is:
A.

B.

C.

E.

.01 < p < .02

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
28. You want to play a new game that involves rolling a six-sided die. You win
if you roll an odd number and lose if you roll an even number. The
probability of each number coming up is shown in the table. Given that you
win rather than lose, what is the probability that you rolled a 3?
Number
Probability

A.

.333

B.

.15

C.

.265

1
.1

2
.1

3
.15

4
.20

5
.20

6
.25

D. .122
E.

.58

29. You are designing a survey and plan to draw a simple random sample from
a well-defined population, but are worried that the sample you have in mind
might have more variability than you want. Which of the following would
help control for the amount of variability in the sample?
I. Increase the sample size.
II. Stratify your sample to make sure each group of interest is
proportionately represented.
III. Simplify the wording of the questions in your survey.
A.

I only

B.

I and II only

C.

II only

E.

I, II, and III

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
30. Consider the scatterplot shown below. The point marked A is an influential
point. If you removed point A and computed a new regression equation,
which one of the following would be true?

A.

The correlation would be weaker and the slope of the regression line would be
closer to 1.

B.

The correlation would be stronger and the slope of the regression line would be
closer to 1.

C.

The correlation would be stronger and the slope of the regression line would be
closer to 1.

D. The correlation would be weaker and the slope of the regression line would be
closer to 1.
E.

Both the correlation coefficient and the slope of the regression line would be
closer to 0.

31. The table shown below gives the observed values for a 2 test of
independence. What is the expected value for the cell in the fourth row,
second column (the cell with the "10" in it)?
15
12
18
15
14
A.

11.0

B.

9.8

C.

10.6

8
12
9
10
12

D. 10.2
E.

9.4

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
32. The regression equation for ln y on x for the data shown in the table is
given by ln y = .400 + .565x. What is the residual when x = 4?
x
1
2
3
4
5
6
A.

11.34

B.

.296

C.

.21

y
2
5
11
14
30
34

ln y
.69315
1.60944
2.39790
2.63906
3.40120
3.52636

D. .296
E.

.021

33. You find the correlation coefficient between two variables to be .90. You
may conclude that:
A.

high values of the explanatory variable are associated with low values of the
response variable.

B.

approximately 90% of the variation in the response variable is explained by

regression on the explanatory variable.

C.

low values of the explanatory variable are associated with low values of the
response variable.

D. a cause-and-effect relationship exists between the explanatory variable and the

response variable, since the correlation is so strong.
E.

high values of the explanatory variable are associated with high values of the
response variable.

A.

B.

Stratified random sample

C.

Systematic sample

D. Judgement sample
E.

None of these are probability samples

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
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35. Given that the computations in the output shown here were based on 12
ordered pairs, what is a 99% confidence interval for the slope of the
regression line?
Regression Analysis

The regression equation is

Value =

Age
Predictor
Constant
Age
s = 1.451

Coef
34.6795
4.2179
R-sq = 97.1%

A.

4.22 3.169(.232)

B.

4.22 3.103(.232)

C.

4.22 3.169(1.451)

Stdev
0.9150
0.2324

t-ratio
37.90
18.15

p
0.000
0.000

D. 4.22 3.103(1.451)
E.

34.68 3.169(.232)

36. Referring to the computer output shown here, which of the following
statements are true?
I. The standard error of the slope of the regression line is .2324.
II. There appears to be a statistically significant relationship between
"Age" and "Value."
III. The standard error of the residuals is 1.451.
Regression Analysis

Value =

Age
Predictor
Constant
Age
s = 1.451
A.

I only

B.

II only

C.

III only

Coef
34.6795
4.2179
R-sq = 97.1%

Stdev
0.9150
0.2324

t-ratio
37.90
18.15

p
0.000
0.000

E.

I, II, and III

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
37. A random variable X has X = 6. Each term in the distribution is
transformed by x* = 3 + 6x. What is the value of 2 * ? (That is, what is the
X
variance of the new distribution?)
A.

36

B.

C.

1,296

D. 216
E.

144

38. You roll two dice, A and B. What is the probability that both dice show the
same number given that one of the dice shows a 3 or larger? (Use the table

A2

B1
(1, 1)
(2, 1)

B2
(1, 2)
(2, 2)

B3
(1, 3)
(2, 3)

B4
(1, 4)
(2, 4)

B5
(1, 5)
(2, 5)

B6
(1, 6)
(2, 6)

A3
A4
A5
A6

(3, 1)
(4, 1)
(5, 1)
(6 ,1)

(3,
(4,
(5,
(6,

(3,
(4,
(5,
(6,

(3,
(4,
(5,
(6,

(3,
(4,
(5,
(6,

(3,
(4,
(5,
(6,

A1

A.

8/9

B.

1/8

C.

1/9

2)
2)
2)
2)

3)
3)
3)
3)

4)
4)
4)
4)

5)
5)
5)
5)

6)
6)
6)
6)

D. 1/16
E.

1/4

_____________

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
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39. You roll two dice, A and B. Given that at least one of the dice shows a 5,
what is the probability that die A shows a 5? (Use the table below to help

A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A.

11/36

B.

1/6

C.

1/11

B1
(1, 1)
(2, 1)
(3, 1)
(4, 1)
(5, 1)
(6, 1)

B2
(1, 2)
(2, 2)
(3, 2)
(4, 2)
(5, 2)
(6, 2)

B3
(1, 3)
(2, 3)
(3, 3)
(4, 3)
(5, 3)
(6, 3)

B4
(1, 4)
(2, 4)
(3, 4)
(4, 4)
(5, 4)
(6, 4)

B5
(1, 5)
(2, 5)
(3, 5)
(4, 5)
(5, 5)
(6, 5)

B6
(1, 6)
(2, 6)
(3, 6)
(4, 6)
(5, 6)
(6, 6)

D. 6/11
E.

1/2

40. You collect data on two independent random samples from normal
populations. You conduct a two-sided hypothesis test and pool the
estimates of the population variance. The data are: x1 = 17.5, s x1 = 1.33,
n1 = 28, x 2 = 18.2, s x2 = 1.48, n2 = 30, s p = 1.40, s x1 x2 = .37. What is
the value of t for this test and what is the corresponding P-value?
A.

B.

C.

E.

2.05; .04 < p < .05

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Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
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Free-Response Section
Introduction
These questions simulate the Free-Response section of the AP Exam. Questions 1-5
should take about 10-15 minutes each. Question 6 is an "Investigative Task," and
should take about 20-30 minutes. You should do all that you can do in no more than 90
minutes.
1. Prospective lawyers must pass the bar exam before they can practice law. They do
not all pass it the first time. A group of 75 practicing lawyers were asked how many
times they had to take the bar exam before they passed. The results were as
follows:
Times
Attempted
Number of
Lawyers
A.

40

12

Construct a cumulative relative frequency plot of these data on the graph

below:

C
U
M
R
E
L
F
R
E
Q

B.

1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0

3
4
5
NUMBER OF ATTEMPTS

What are the mean and median number of attempts needed to pass the bar
for these 75 lawyers?

2. As research director for a drug company, you want to determine the effectiveness of
a new treatment for arthritis. You suspect that the drug might have different effects
at different treatment levels (the levels under consideration are 350 mg and 500
mg). You also suspect that men and women might react differently to the
medication, and that people 60 and over might experience different effects than
those under 60. You have available to you 180 volunteers who suffer from arthritis.
Exactly half of these volunteers are men and half are women, and exactly half of the
volunteers are 60 years old or older.
A.

Is blocking needed to create the best possible experimental design in this

case? If yes, what would the blocks be and why? If not, why not?

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B.
C.

Describe the design of an experiment to measure the effectiveness of this

new drug. Include elements from your answer to part A as needed.
Suppose your research team had developed a 1-10 scale for arthritis relief
to determine whether real differences existed between treatment levels.
Thinking only in terms of 350 mg vs. 500 mg dosages (that is, do not
consider the placebo responses here), describe the method of analysis you
would use to support your findings.

3. Researchers conduct a program to improve the mathematical skill of noncollege math majors of 12 volunteers. The math skills of the volunteers are
evaluated before and after the training. The results are as follows:
Subject
Archie
Betty
Chuck
Dolores
Eddie
Fran
George
Helen
Irving
Janice
Ken
Loretta

Pre-test
56
63
72
59
58
65
61
74
52
60
60
79

Post-test
58
62
75
61
57
69
63
74
54
58
64
80

Does this provide evidence that the program was effective in improving
mathematics skill for these subjects? Use good statistical reasoning in your
4. The California State Lottery "Pick 6" game allows you to pick six different numbers
from 1 through 51. A machine randomly picks six different numbers from 1 through
51 (once a number is chosen, it is not returned to the box and cannot be chosen
again). You can win money if you match at least 3 of the numbers. Let X = the
amount of numbers that you match.
A. What is P(X = 6)? That is, what is the probability that you match all six
numbers? Provide an understandable explanation.
B. Consider a variation of this game in which each number could be repeated.
That is, once a ball is drawn with a number on it, it is returned to the box
and can be drawn again. What is the probability that you will get at least
one match in the first 5 drawings?
C. What is the probability that the first match comes on the fifth drawing?

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Statistics Independent Study

Page 19 of 19
Mixed Practice with Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Questions
Study Sheet
5. Over the years, approximately 60% of the students that have attempted the AP
Statistics Exam have passed with a grade of 3 or higher out of a possible 5. Smart
Academy, a prestigious private school, believes its students do better on the Exam,
on average. This year, Smart Academy had 36 students take the AP Statistics Exam.
For some reason, the school has scores for only 35 studentsone score is missing.
Of these students, 26 received a grade of 3 or better. You are hired to advise the
administration as to whether they should claim in their advertising that their
students do better than the national average.
A. Perform a significance test of the hypothesis H0 : p = .6 based on the 35
scores received by the school. Use a significance level of .05.
B. The missing test turns up under a pile of papers on the Assistant Principal's
If the missing test was discovered before the analysis was done, is it
possible that this would have affected the school's decision to publicize
their success?
6. In a study, the blood cholesterol levels of 500 American men were recorded
and summarized in the table below (data from Primer for the Biomedical
Sciences, by O.J. Dunn, NY, Wiley, 1977). The corresponding sample mean
and standard deviation were calculated to be 275 and 47, respectively. Do
the data provide evidence that the blood cholesterol levels are normally
distributed? Use at least one graphical technique for an intuitive argument
and one test of significance to support your conclusion. Note: Use of the
Empirical Rule is not an acceptable approach in this case.
Cholesterol Level
Less than 189.5
189.5 219.5
219.5 249.5
249.5 279.5
279.5 309.5
309.5 339.5
339.5 369.5
369.5 399.5
Over 399.5

Frequency
17
41
80
134
118
71
24
13
2

TI-83 screens are used with the permission of the publisher. Copyright 1996, Texas
Instruments, Incorporated.
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