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TEACHING MATERIALS

REPRODUCTION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS


The first meeting
1. Reproduction seed plants
a. Vegetative reproduction
Is a method of reproduction without involving male gametes and female gametes.
Vegetative reproduction can occur naturally or artificially.
Natural Vegetative
Artificial Vegetative
reproduction
reproduction
Grafting
Dried rhizome (rhizome / single
root)
Sticking (grafting)
Stolons (stolon)
Connect
Bulbs layer (buld)
Hundreds
Shoot
Stoop
Bulbs trunk
Plant tissue isolation method
Kormus
b. Generative reproduction
Is a way of reproduction involving male gametes and female gametes.
Pollination
Based on the origin of pollen
Pollination is based on factors that help
pollination
1. Autogami
1. Anemogami
2. Kleistogami
2. Hidrogami
3. Geitongami
3. Zoidiogami
4. Aloami (xenogami)
5. Bastar (hibridogami)
Fertilization
Is a process of unification or fusion of male gametes ( sperm ) and female gametes (
ova ) . Typically , the process of fertilization occurs shortly after pollination process.
2. Classification of seed plants
a. Gymnosperms

Plants produce heterospora gymnosperms such as microspores and megaspore.


Microspores develop into microgametophyte (male gametophyte) and contains
pollen. Mean while, a growing megaspore megagametophyte (female
gametophyte). At the ovule (megaspore) There pore structure grains (mikrofil) bags
and pollen (pollen chamber) which replace the function of interest as the female
reproductive organ.
After the pollen is released, pollen grains develop into sperm. At the time of
pollination, the pollen will stick to the seed. Furthermore, sperm moves toward the
egg through the reed sebuk juice. If fertilization occurs, the embryo will be formed
to develop into an embryo and seed. If the seeds fall on the right place, the seeds
will grow and develop into new plants.
Pollination of gymnosperms do with the wind (anemokori). Schematic life cycle of
plants gymnosperms described in the following chart.

Image: Schematic life cycle of plants gymnosperms


Gymnosperms has no real interest. Reproductive organs called cones or cones are
protected by scales. Conifers there are 2 kinds of conifers and conifers male and
female. Conifers have some male mikrosporofil. Each has two mikrosporofil
mikrosporangium in which stem cells are formed microspores. Stem cells will
undergo meiosis microspore produces four haploid microspores. Female cone
consists of a central axis scales glued. Each scale has two ovules (ovules). Each
ovule integument covered by a union with megasporangium. Inside there is a
megasporangium megaspore stem cells will undergo meiosis produces four

megaspore. Three of them will reduce megaspore stay away until the megaspore
functional.
The process of pollination and fertilization occurs as follows: Pollen begin to
germinate and form pollen tubes and into the tissues megasporangium. Generative
cell divides into stem cells and cells of the body. The cells divide to form male
gametes or sperm. Pollen tube will penetrate cells neck of Archegonium and release
their contents into the egg. One sperm cell to unite with the egg and all the rest of
the core will be reduced male gametophyte.

Image: Life Cycle gymnosperms

b. Angiosperms
Angiosperms can breed in generative and vegetative. Here scheme lifecycle
Angiospermae generative.

Image: Schematic life cycle of angiosperms


Characteristics of the main angiosperms is as follows:
a. ovule covered by sporofil shaped carpel or fruit and the overall shape will be a
fruit or ovary.
b. There is clearly a stigma divided into three parts: the stigma, anthers and
ovaries.
c. has a true interest consisting of: jewelry flowers, stamens and pistils.
d. After pollination, fertilization occurs, the ovule will be judged, the wall will be the
fruit flesh.
Part Flowers
1. Petals (back) serves to protect the flower buds.
2. Crown (corolla) serves to attract insects

3. stamens (stamens) consisting of:


a. pollen stalks (filaments)
b. anthers (anthers) consists of 4 bags of juice that serves as a producer of the male
gamete, the pollen.
4. pistil (pistilus) consisting of:
a. anthers (stylus)
b. stigma (stigma)
c. ovule (ovary) in the fruit there will serve as a seed producer female gametes.

Flower parts perfectly:


1. Interest perfect
2. Head of the pistil (stigma)
3. bud stalk (stylus)
4. stalk juice (filament, part of the stamens)
5. The axis of interest (axis)
6. Articulation
7. flower stalk (pedicel)
8. nectar glands
9. stamens (stamens)
10. Will the fruit (ovum)
11. ovule (ovule)
12.
13. Pollen (pollen)
14. Head of cider (anther)
15. Jewelry interest (periantheum)
16. Crown flower (corolla)
17. petals (calyx)
Formation of the female gametophyte derived from the fission core institutions
of primary bladder inside the ovule. The process of formation is as follows: the core
institutions of primary bladder split three times in a row to form a core of eight,

three core areas mikrofil consisting of one egg and two egg cell clamp, called cells
synergids, in three core areas called kalaza antipodes, and two core moves to the
center bladder institutions merged to form the core of the bladder secondary
institutions. So the female gametophyte consisting of an egg cell (n), cell synergids
(n) and a core biological secondary institutions (2n).
Male gametophyte is formed in the bag sari .During Gametogenesis core
splitting produce pollen vegetative nucleus and generative nucleus, which is not as
great. Vegetative cells larger than the generative cells. Generative nucleus divides
by mitosis and menghaslkan 2 sperm.
The process begins with the fertilization of the penyerbuakan. The difference
between pollination and fertilization process is relatively short. At the time of the
pollen falls on the stigma immediately formed a reed pollen .At the end of a reed
pollen vegetative nuclei act as signposts for the two sperm nuclei. Furthermore
bamboo growing pollen extends reach the ovule. In the ovule sperm nucleus I (n)
egg (n) to form a zygote (2n) and the second sperm nucleus (n) to fertilize the core
biological secondary institutions to form the endosperm (3n). Events fertilization is
called double fertilization.