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Keys to
Nursing Success
T H I R D

E D I T I O N

Janet R. Katz
Carol Carter
Joyce Bishop
Sarah Lyman Kravits

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey


Columbus, Ohio

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Keys to nursing success / Janet R. Katz . . . [et al.]. 3rd ed.
p. ; cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-13-513085-8 (pbk.)
ISBN-10: 0-13-513085-9 (pbk.)
1. Nursing. 2. NursingStudy and teaching. 3. NursingVocational
guidance. 4. Test-taking skills. I. Katz, Janet R., 1953[DNLM: 1. Nursing. 2. Career Choice. 3. Education, Nursing. WY 16
K44 2009]
RT71.K49 2009
610.73dc22
2008010118
Vice President and Executive Publisher: Jeffery W. Johnston
Executive Editor: Sande Johnson
Development Editor: Bryce Bell
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This book was set in Sabon by S4Carlisle Publishing Services. It was printed and bound by Edwards Brothers. The
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Copyright 2009, 2004, 2001 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458.
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10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-703684-4
ISBN 10: 0-13-703684-1

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To the Student
his book is your guide to college and nursing. College and nursing provide you with the tools you need to realize change and a
better life. Change is part of daily life. For instance, last year you
may have worn flared leg jeans and this year they are straight leg. What
was your favorite song last year? Is it the same this year? Can you even
imagine what you will be wearing, fashion- and style-wise, in five years?
You will have new friends, new ideas, and new kinds of fun. Today, the
idea of learning and memorizing every bone, muscle, tendon, and nerve in
the human body may not be your idea of fun. But, later, when you take
anatomy, it may be. So keep an open mind as you use this book. Change
is happening.
In writing this book, I kept you in mind. I think of you being as
young as 18 years old and as old as 45 or even 55 years old. I think you
are women. I think you are men. Some of you are Muslim, Jewish,
Christian, Bahai, Buddhist, and many other religions. Some of you are
atheists. Many of you come from ethnic backgrounds that are different
from the majority white female nurse. I know you are Mexican American, Latino, African American, American Indian, Alaska Native,
Chinese American, Japanese American, and combinations of these ethnicities. Many of you may be far from home in an environment unlike
any youve been in before. You might look around and see few, if any,
faces that look like yours. If so, seek out support: Look for student
groups or teachers who can help you adjust.
I see nursing students from many countries, too: Vietnam, India,
Africa, and even the island of Yap in the Pacific. I know that some of you
are learning English as you progress in college and your career. I work
with many students from countries around the world and know you have
special challenges. I also know you can succeed: I see you graduating with
degrees in nursing. I have seen you come to nursing school full of anxiety
about succeeding and I have seen you graduate with honors. I also know
that you add value to our schools and to nursing. As one student from
Iran said, We are role models for the American students. He said, We
show them that even with all the adversity we have had in our lives, and
not having English as a first language, we can make it. We inspire them,
too.
I know that many of you have little idea of what nursing is all about
and probably are wondering what college will be like. Please use this book
to help you reach your goals. You deserve the best, and through your
progress, you will ease suffering and pain in our world. I welcome you to
college, to nursing, and to this book!

Janet R. Katz, PhD, RN


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Photo Credits
All individual photos for Real-Life Questions,
Practical Answers provided by photo subjects.
Michal Heron/PH College, p. 76; Image Source,
p. 140; BSIP/Phototake NYC, p. 248; Doug
Menuez/Getty ImagesPhotodisc, p. 310; David
Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit Inc., p. 346;
EyeWire Collection/Getty ImagesPhotodisc,
p. 374; Digital Vision, p. 404.

Hemera Technologies Inc., pp. 87, 92, 97, 160,


171, 172, 174, 207, 220, 223, 230, 238, 244,
253, 254, 255, 257, 267, 270, 289, 333, 355,
368, 378, 388, 422, 425.
All other chapter-opening and marginal photos
in this text from Corbis Images, Digital
Graphics, Digital Vision, EyeWire, Hemera
Technologies Inc., and PhotoDisc royalty-free
sources.

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Brief Contents
Chapter 1

Researching Your Nursing Education: Collecting the Basic Data 2

Chapter 2

Discovering Nursing: Exploring Your Options 44

Chapter 3

Values, Goals, Time, and Stress: Managing Yourself 76

Chapter 4

Learning Styles, Majors, and Careers: Knowing Your Talents and Finding
Your Direction 110

Chapter 5

Critical, Creative, and Practical Thinking: Solving Problems and Making


Decisions 140

Chapter 6

Reading and Studying: Focusing on Content 180

Chapter 7

Listening, Note Taking, and Memory: Taking In, Recording, and Remembering
Information 216

Chapter 8

Test Taking: Showing What You Know 248

Chapter 9

Researching and Writing: Gathering and Communicating Ideas 274

Chapter 10

Relating to Others: Communicating in a Diverse World 310

Chapter 11

Personal Wellness: Taking Care of Yourself 346

Chapter 12

Managing Career and Money: Reality Resources 374

Chapter 13

Creating Your Life: Building a Successful Future 404

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Contents
To the Student

iii

Photo Credits
Preface

BUILDING WORLD-CLASS SKILLS

FOR COLLEGE, CAREER, AND LIFE SUCCESS

iv

38

xiii

Acknowledgments

xvii

About the Authors

xxi

Chapter 2
DISCOVERING NURSING: Exploring Your
Options 44

Chapter 1

REAL-LIFE QUESTIONS/PRACTICAL ANSWERS

RESEARCHING YOUR NURSING EDUCATION:


Collecting the Basic Data 2
REAL-LIFE QUESTIONS/PRACTICAL ANSWERS

WHAT OPPORTUNITIES AWAIT NURSING


STUDENTS? 47

The Supply Problem: Not Enough Nurses The


Demand Problem: More Nurses Needed Curing the
Nursing Shortage: Recommendations

WHAT ARE THREE WAYS TO BECOME AN RN?

BSN
ADN
Diploma
Additional Paths to Nursing
Degrees Data on Enrollment in all Nursing Programs

Science and Humanities


People

Student Life: Facts and Challenges

12

12

Nursing Needs

HOW DOES AN EDUCATION IN NURSING PROMOTE


SUCCESS? 21

Shortage of Nurses
of Graduate School

Salaries in Nursing

GET PRACTICAL: Face Your Fears

The Role

Interest in Health Care and

Solution

52

WHAT SKILLS DO YOU NEED TO DEVELOP TO


SUCCEED IN NURSING? 53

Caring Compassion Knowledge Dedication


Professionalism Advocacy Creativity
Mathematics Observation Critical Thinking

WHAT ARE SOME OF THE CAREER OPTIONS IN


NURSING? 55

22

GET ANALYTICAL: Learn from a Mistake

49

GET CREATIVE: Map Out a Nursing Shortage

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF DIVERSITY IN NURSING?

The History of Nursing and Diversity


Diversity

GET ANALYTICAL: Explore Your Interests

WHAT IMPORTANT SKILLS DO YOU ALREADY


HAVE? 51

WHO ARE RNs TODAY, AND WHAT CHALLENGES


DO STUDENTS FACE? 10

GET CREATIVE: See Yourself at Your Best

46

Practice Settings Populations Advanced Practice


Nursing Less Common Nursing Roles

24

WHY DO NURSES NEED TO STUDY A VARIETY OF


ARTS AND SCIENCES? 26

How Education, Not Just Nursing Education, Promotes


Life Success
WHAT BASICS SHOULD YOU KNOW AS YOU BEGIN
NURSING SCHOOL? 29
HOW CAN SUCCESSFUL INTELLIGENCE HELP YOU
REACH YOUR GOALS? 36

HOW DO HEALTH CARE TRENDS AFFECT


NURSING? 64

How Will Changes in Educational Preparation Affect RNs?


WHAT CAN YOU EXPECT ONCE YOU ARE ENROLLED
IN SCHOOL? 67

GET PRACTICAL: Discover New Options

68

BUILDING WORLD-CLASS SKILLS

FOR COLLEGE, CAREER, AND LIFE SUCCESS

69

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Chapter 3

WHY DO YOU NEED SCIENCE AND MATH TO BE A


NURSE? 125

VALUES, GOALS, TIME,


AND STRESS: Managing Yourself

HOW CAN YOU CHOOSE A NURSING MAJOR?

76

REAL-LIFE QUESTIONS/PRACTICAL ANSWERS

Short-Term Goal #1: Use Learning Styles Assessments


to Identify Interests and Talents Short-Term Goal #2:
Explore Academic Options Short-Term Goal #3:
Establish Your Academic Schedule Be Flexible as
You Come to a Decision

78

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW WHAT YOU


VALUE? 79

Identifying and Evaluating Values How Values Affect


Your Educational Experience Academic Integrity:
How Ethical Values Promote Success at School
Values and Cultural Diversity
GET ANALYTICAL: Explore Your Values

81

HOW DO YOU SET AND ACHIEVE GOALS?

84

Set Long-Term Goals Set Short-Term Goals


Prioritize Goals Work to Achieve Goals

GET CREATIVE: Map Out a Personal Goal

Successful Time Management and Goal Setting


Relieve Stress Stress-Management Strategies

Managing a

FOR COLLEGE, CAREER, AND LIFE SUCCESS

101

Chapter 4
LEARNING STYLES, MAJORS,
AND CAREERS: Knowing Your Talents and
Finding Your Direction 110
REAL-LIFE QUESTIONS/PRACTICAL ANSWERS

112

136

Chapter 5
CRITICAL, CREATIVE, AND
PRACTICAL THINKING: Solving Problems
and Making Decisions 140
142

WHAT IS SUCCESSFULLY INTELLIGENT THINKING?

The Value of Learning Styles Assessments Putting


Assessment Results in Perspective Assess Your
Multiple Intelligences Assess Your Personality with
the Personality Spectrum
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF KNOWING HOW YOU
LEARN? 119

Workplace

HOW CAN YOU IMPROVE YOUR ANALYTICAL


THINKING SKILLS? 146

Gather Information Analyze and Clarify Information


Evaluate Information

153

HOW CAN YOU IMPROVE YOUR CREATIVE THINKING


SKILLS? 153

Brainstorm Shift Your Perspective


for Creativity Take Risks

Set the Stage

HOW CAN YOU IMPROVE YOUR PRACTICAL THINKING


SKILLS? 158

Experience Helps Develop Practical Thinking Skills


The Emotional Intelligence Connection Practical
Thinking Means Action

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143

Successfully Intelligent Thinking Is Balanced


Successfully Intelligent Thinking Means Asking and
Answering Questions Successfully Intelligent
Thinking Requires Knowing Your Purpose
Successfully Intelligent Thinking Is Yours to Build

GET ANALYTICAL: Assess Analytical Thinking Skills

HOW CAN YOU DISCOVER YOUR LEARNING


STYLES? 113

FOR COLLEGE, CAREER, AND LIFE SUCCESS

REAL-LIFE QUESTIONS/PRACTICAL ANSWERS

BUILDING WORLD-CLASS SKILLS

viii

BUILDING WORLD-CLASS SKILLS

94

Classroom Benefits

130

HOW CAN MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES HELP YOU


EXPLORE MAJORS AND CAREERS? 131

Identifying a Learning Disability


Learning Disability

HOW DO YOU COPE WITH THE STRESS OF COLLEGE


LIFE? 97

ests to Intriguing Majors Including Nursing

HOW CAN YOU IDENTIFY AND MANAGE LEARNING


DISABILITIES? 131

87

Identify Your Time-Related Needs and Preferences


Build a Schedule Use Scheduling Techniques
Fight Procrastination Be Flexible

Study Benefits
Benefits

GET ANALYTICAL, CREATIVE, & PRACTICAL: Link Your Inter-

Career Exploration Strategies

HOW CAN YOU MANAGE YOUR TIME


EFFECTIVELY? 88

GET PRACTICAL: Make a To-Do List

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GET CREATIVE: Assess Creative Thinking Skills

159

GET PRACTICAL: Assess Practical Thinking Skills

GET PRACTICAL: Form a Study Group

162

205

BUILDING WORLD-CLASS SKILLS

HOW ARE ANALYTICAL, CREATIVE, AND PRACTICAL


THINKING USED TOGETHER IN NURSING? 162

Solving a Problem Making a Decision Ethical


Dilemmas: Is There One Right Way to Respond?
Keeping Your Balance

FOR COLLEGE, CAREER, AND LIFE SUCCESS

208

Chapter 7

HOW ARE CRITICAL THINKING AND THE


SCIENTIFIC METHOD USED IN EVIDENCE-BASED
PRACTICE? 169

LISTENING, NOTE TAKING,


AND MEMORY: Taking In, Recording, and
Remembering Information 216

BUILDING WORLD-CLASS SKILLS

REAL-LIFE QUESTIONS/PRACTICAL ANSWERS

FOR COLLEGE, CAREER, AND LIFE SUCCESS

171

GET ANALYTICAL: Discover Yourself as a Listener

READING AND STUDYING: Focusing on


Content 180
REAL-LIFE QUESTIONS/PRACTICAL ANSWERS

GET PRACTICAL: Face a Note-Taking Challenge


184

Take an Active Approach to Difficult Texts Choose


the Right Setting Define Your Purpose for Reading
Develop Special Strategies for Math and Science
Texts Develop Strategies to Manage Learning
Disabilities Build Reading Speed Expand Your
Vocabulary
GET CREATIVE: Be the Author of Your Life

185

Recite

GET ANALYTICAL: Find the Main Idea

Review

200

Use Knowledge of Fact and Opinion to Evaluate


Arguments Media Literacy

236

WHAT MEMORY STRATEGIES CAN IMPROVE


RECALL? 238

Use Mnemonic Devices

GET CREATIVE: Craft Your Own Mnemonic

Personal Triumph Case Study

243

244

BUILDING WORLD-CLASS SKILLS

FOR COLLEGE, CAREER, AND LIFE SUCCESS

WHY AND HOW SHOULD YOU STUDY WITH


OTHERS? 204

HOW CAN YOU WRITE FASTER WHEN TAKING


NOTES? 235

Develop Helpful Strategies

HOW CAN YOU RESPOND CRITICALLY TO WHAT YOU


READ? 202

Leaders and Participants


Success

Take Notes in Outline Form Use the Cornell NoteTaking System Create a Think Link Use Other
Visual Note-Taking Strategies

How Your Brain Remembers: Short-Term and LongTerm Memory Retaining Information in Long-Term
Memory

HOW CAN SQ3R HELP YOU OWN WHAT YOU


READ? 193

Read

226

WHICH NOTE-TAKING SYSTEM SHOULD YOU


USE? 230

HOW DOES MEMORY WORK?

WHAT KINDS OF READING WILL YOU DO FOR


NURSING AND SCIENCE COURSES? 192

224

Record Information in Class Record Information


Effectively During Class Review and Revise Your
Notes

182

HOW CAN YOU SET THE STAGE FOR READING?

Question

219

HOW CAN YOU MAKE THE MOST OF NOTE


TAKING? 224

WHAT WILL HELP YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU


READ? 183

HOW CAN YOU BECOME A BETTER LISTENER?

Know the Stages of Listening Manage Listening


Challenges Become an Active Listener

Chapter 6

Survey

218

245

Strategies for Study Group

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Chapter 8
TEST TAKING: Showing What You Know
REAL-LIFE QUESTIONS/PRACTICAL ANSWERS

248

GET PRACTICAL: Discover Your College Library

250

Identify Test Type and Material Covered Create a


Study Plan and Schedule Prepare Through Careful
Review Take a Pretest Prepare Physically
Make the Most of Last-Minute Studying

252

255

Test Anxiety and the

285

Planning

Drafting

Revising

286

Editing

294

HOW CAN YOU DO AN EFFECTIVE


PRESENTATION? 298

Prepare

Write Down Key Facts Begin with an Overview


Read Test Directions Mark Up the Questions Take
Special Care on Machine-Scored Tests Work from
Easy to Hard Watch the Clock Master the Art of
Intelligent Guessing Maintain Academic Integrity
HOW CAN YOU MASTER DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEST
QUESTIONS? 259

Multiple-Choice Questions True/False Questions


Matching Questions Fill-in-the-Blank Questions
Essay Questions

Practice Your Performance

BUILDING WORLD-CLASS SKILLS

FOR COLLEGE, CAREER, AND LIFE SUCCESS

267

Try to Identify Patterns in Your Mistakes Rework the


Questions You Got Wrong After Reviewing Your
Mistakes, Fill in Your Knowledge Gaps Talk to Your
Instructors If You Fail a Test, Dont Throw It Away
GET PRACTICAL: Learn from Your Mistakes

270

RELATING TO OTHERS:
Communicating in a Diverse World

310

REAL-LIFE QUESTIONS/PRACTICAL ANSWERS

312

Diversity Affects Everyone


Diversity in Nursing

313

Diversity on Campus

WHAT IS CULTURAL COMPETENCE IN NURSING?

271

Chapter 9
REAL-LIFE QUESTIONS/PRACTICAL ANSWERS

276

Communicating Respect to Patients: The Top 10


Questions

Value Diversity Identify and Evaluate Personal


Perceptions and Attitudes Be Aware of What
Happens When Cultures Interact Build Cultural
Knowledge Adapt to Diverse Cultures

Diversity

320

HOW CAN MINORITY STUDENTS MAKE THE MOST OF


COLLEGE? 323

Define Your Perspective

HOW CAN YOU MAKE THE MOST OF YOUR


LIBRARY? 277

Define Your Experience

GET PRACTICAL: Make a Difference

325

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GET CREATIVE: Expand Your Perception of

RESEARCHING AND WRITING:


Gathering and Communicating Ideas 274

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HOW CAN YOU DEVELOP CULTURAL


COMPETENCE? 317

BUILDING WORLD-CLASS SKILLS

FOR COLLEGE, CAREER, AND LIFE SUCCESS

301

Chapter 10

HOW DO YOU EXPERIENCE DIVERSITY?

265

HOW CAN YOU LEARN FROM TEST MISTAKES?

GET CREATIVE: Google (Yes, Its a Verb)

GET ANALYTICAL: Avoid Plagiarism

WHAT GENERAL STRATEGIES CAN HELP YOU


SUCCEED ON TESTS? 257

GET ANALYTICAL: Write to the Verb

The Basics Use Search Directories and Search


Engines Use Analytical Thinking to Evaluate Every
Source

WHAT IS THE WRITING PROCESS?

HOW CAN YOU WORK THROUGH TEST ANXIETY?

Preparation Attitude
Returning Student

281

HOW CAN YOU DO RESEARCH ON THE


INTERNET? 283

HOW CAN PREPARATION IMPROVE TEST


PERFORMANCE? 251

GET CREATIVE: Write Your Own Test

Start with a Road Map Learn How to Conduct an


Information Search Conduct Research Using a
Search Strategy

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HOW CAN YOU COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY?

326

Adjust to Communication Styles Know How to Give


and Receive Criticism Understand Body Language
Communicate Across Cultures Manage Conflict
Manage Anger
GET ANALYTICAL: Give Constructive Criticism

FOR COLLEGE, CAREER, AND LIFE SUCCESS

340

Investigate Paths in Nursing


Want Expect Change

Know What Employers

GET ANALYTICAL: Connect Values to Career

382

Use Information as a Guide, Not a Label Avoid


Thinking That Challenges Are Weaknesses Know
That You Are Capable of Change
HOW CAN YOU EXPLORE CAREER OPTIONS IN
NURSING? 385

Chapter 11
PERSONAL WELLNESS: Taking Care of
Yourself 346
REAL-LIFE QUESTIONS/PRACTICAL ANSWERS

Use Available Resources Make a Strategic Job


Search Plan Your Rsum, Cover Letter, and Interview
GET CREATIVE: Make a Dream Rsum

348

HOW CAN YOU MAINTAIN A HEALTHY BODY AND


MIND? 349

Eat Right Exercise Get Enough Sleep Review


Your Immunizations Stay Safe Recognize Mental
Health Problems
GET PRACTICAL: Improve Your Physical Health

355

HOW CAN YOU MAKE SUCCESSFULLY INTELLIGENT


DECISIONS ABOUT ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, AND
DRUGS? 357

Drugs

Identifying and Over-

GET ANALYTICAL: Evaluate Your Substance Use

359

HOW CAN YOU MAKE SUCCESSFULLY INTELLIGENT


DECISIONS ABOUT SEX? 363

376

WHAT DOES YOUR LEARNING STYLE MEAN FOR


YOUR CAREER? 383

338

BUILDING WORLD-CLASS SKILLS

Birth Control

374

HOW CAN YOU PREPARE FOR WORKPLACE


SUCCESS? 377

Use Positive Relationship Strategies Avoid


Destructive Relationships Choose Communities That
Enhance Your Life

Alcohol Tobacco
coming Addiction

MANAGING CAREER AND


MONEY: Reality Resources

REAL-LIFE QUESTIONS/PRACTICAL ANSWERS

328

HOW DO YOU MAKE THE MOST OF PERSONAL


RELATIONSHIPS? 334

Personal Triumph Case Study

Chapter 12

Sexually Transmitted Infections

GET CREATIVE: Find More Fun

388

WHAT WILL HELP YOU JUGGLE WORK AND


SCHOOL? 388

Establish Your Needs


While in School

Analyze Effects of Working

HOW CAN YOU CREATE A BUDGET THAT


WORKS? 390

Figure Out What You Earn Figure Out What You


Spend Evaluate the Difference Adjust Spending
or Earning Make Successfully Intelligent Financial
Decisions
GET PRACTICAL: Map Out Your Budget

394

HOW CAN YOU MANAGE YOUR CREDIT CARDS?

How Credit Cards Work

395

Managing Debt

BUILDING WORLD-CLASS SKILLS

FOR COLLEGE, CAREER, AND LIFE SUCCESS

400

364

BUILDING WORLD-CLASS SKILLS

FOR COLLEGE, CAREER, AND LIFE SUCCESS

369

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Chapter 13
CREATING YOUR LIFE: Building a Successful
Future 404
REAL-LIFE QUESTIONS/PRACTICAL ANSWERS

406

HOW DO ETHICAL DILEMMAS AFFECT NURSING?

407

You Can Help Others You Can Get Involved Locally


and Nationally You Can Help Preserve Your
Environment
GET ANALYTICAL: Evaluate Your Involvement

in Communities

418

HOW CAN YOU CONTINUE TO ACTIVATE YOUR


SUCCESSFUL INTELLIGENCE? 420

Nursing Is Complex
WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF NURSING?

HOW CAN YOU CREATE AND LIVE YOUR PERSONAL


MISSION? 421

408

Present and Future Changes in Health Care


Research Nursing Theory

Nursing

Aim for Your Personal Best

GET PRACTICAL: Explore Your Personal Mission

HOW WILL WHAT YOUVE LEARNED BRING


SUCCESS? 411

Personal Triumph Case Study

New Attitudes and Skills Prepare You to Succeed


Flexibility Helps You Adapt to Change Lifelong
Learning
GET CREATIVE: Think 50 Positive Thoughts

Live with Integrity

423

424

BUILDING WORLD-CLASS SKILLS

FOR COLLEGE, CAREER, AND LIFE SUCCESS

Index

426

437

414

HOW CAN YOU MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN YOUR


COMMUNITY? 415

NOTE: Every effort has been made to provide accurate and current Internet information in this book. However, the
Internet and information posted on it are constantly changing, so it is inevitable that some of the Internet addresses
listed in this textbook will change.

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Page xiii

Preface
In writing the third edition of Keys to Nursing Success we asked this question: How can
students get the most out of college and use what they learn to achieve their goals in an
ever-changing world? We found an important answer in the concept of successful intelligence, developed by psychologist Robert J. Sternberg.1

New to the third edition of Keys


to Nursing Success

Building on successful intelligence


Successful people, says Sternberg, are more than
their IQ score. Focus on the two most important
parts of Sternbergs message and you can change
your approach to education in a way that will
maximize your learning and life success.
One: Successful intelligence gives you tools to
achieve important goals. Successful intelligence
goes beyond doing well on tests (analytical
thinking). Only by combining that analytical
skill with the ability to come up with innovative
ideas (creative thinking) and the ability to put
ideas and plans to work (practical thinking) will
you get where you want to go.
Two: Intelligence can grow. The intelligence you
have when you are born does not stay the same
for the rest of your life. You can build and
develop your intelligence in the same way that
you can build and develop physical strength or
flexibility.

This book connects you with the ideas


and experiences of others

Every chapter of Keys to Nursing Success


helps you to build successful intelligence. How?

Chapter coverage: The theme, introduced at


the end of Chapter 1, is covered in detail in
the thinking chapter (Chapter 5), and continued throughout the book. Successful
intelligence concepts are referenced throughout chapters of the text.
In-text exercises: Three exercises within the
chapter textGet Analytical!, Get Creative!, and Get Practical!develop each

skill in the context of the chapter material


and your personal needs.
Synthesis exercise: In the Building WorldClass Skills feature at the end of each
chapter, the Successful Intelligence: Think,
Create, Apply exercise gives you an opportunity to combine all three skills and apply
them toward a meaningful task.

Chapter-opening Q&A highlights questions


posed by actual students. Each question is
answered by another person who offers
ideas and advice.
Descriptions of real students experiences,
often accompanied by quotes from the students, have been woven into the text in areas
where they enhance the topic being discussed.
A focus on cultural competence, in Chapter
10, shows the value of going beyond tolerance
to actively adapt to and learn from people different from you. References to cultural
competence and diversity are also woven
throughout every chapter, showing how diversity is part of many aspects of school, the
workplace, and personal life. In this edition
there is renewed effort to emphasize the
importance of being culturally aware and sensitive in nursing. Part of cultural competency
is increasing the diversity of nursingand that
includes recruiting more men.
Personal Triumph stories, real-life accounts
of how people have overcome difficult
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circumstances in the pursuit of education


and fulfillment, appear near the end of
every third chapter. These inspiring stories
motivate you to step up your personal
efforts to succeed.
Chapter summaries introduce a word or
phrase from a language other than English
and suggest how you might apply the concept to your own life.
A continuing focus on multiple intelligences
highlights individual diversity and confirms
that each individual has a unique way of
learning, no one way being better than another. Chapter 4 introduces and explains this
concept, and subsequent chapters include
strategies for applying various learning styles
to the chapter content.

Personality Spectrum), choose strategies that


make them work for you, and begin to
think about your major.

Developing your learning skills: Chapter 5


puts your learning into action by exploring
the concept of successful intelligence in
depth, helping you build analytical, creative,
and practical thinking skills and put them
together to solve problems, make decisions,
and achieve goals. The next few chapters
build crucial skills for the classroom and
beyondReading and Studying (Chapter 6),
Listening, Note Taking, and Memory
(Chapter 7), Test Taking (Chapter 8), and
Researching and Writing (Chapter 9).

Creating success: Recognizing that success


includes more than academic achievement,
Chapter 10 focuses on developing the interpersonal and communication skills you need
in a diverse society. Chapter 11 helps you
manage the stress and wellness issues that
so many college students face, and Chapter
12 covers the money-management and
career-planning skills you need in college
and beyond. Finally, Chapter 13 helps you
think expansively: What is in the future of
nursing? What are ethical questions in
health care and nursing? What path have
you traveled during the semester? What
plans do you have for your future?

This book provides strategies and resources that


help you do your work
With successful intelligence as the foundation of
this edition and cultural competence as an
underlying theme, Keys to Nursing Success presents these learning tools and materials that will
help you succeed in college and beyond:
A college primer: Because theres so much to know
right off the bat, a section on college basics
appears in Chapter 1. This two-column collection
of information helps you get a feel for the structure of your college, the people who can help you
with academic and life issues, the resources available to you, and expectations from instructors,
administrators, and fellow students.
Skills that prepare you for college, nursing, and
life: The ideas and strategies that help you succeed in college also take you where you want to
go in your career and personal life. Three parts
of this text help you develop a firm foundation
for lifelong learning.

xiv

Defining yourself and your goals: Chapter


1 provides an overview of nursing by giving
the facts. Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 get you
on track with a focus on opportunities in
nursing and ways to manage yourself effectively, focusing on values, goal-setting
strategies, time-management skills, and handling stress. Chapter 4 helps you identify
complementary aspects of your learning
style (your Multiple Intelligences and your

Skill-building exercises: Todays graduates need to


be effective thinkers, team players, writers, and
strategic planners. The set of exercises at the end
of each chapterBuilding World Class Skills for
College, Career, and Life Successencourages
you to develop these valuable skills and to apply
thinking processes to any topic or situation.

Successful Intelligence: Think, Create,


Apply. These exercises encourage you to
combine your successful intelligence thinking skills and apply them to chapter
material.

Team Building: Collaborative Solutions.


This exercise gives you a chance to interact,
problem-solve, and learn in a group setting,
building your teamwork and leadership
skills in the process.

Writing: Discovery Through Journaling.


This journal exercise provides an opportuni-

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ty to express your thoughts and develop


your writing skills.
Career Portfolio: Plan for Success. This
exercise helps you gather evidence of your
talents, skills, interests, qualifications, and
experience. The Career Portfolio exercises
build on one another to form, at the end of
the semester, a portfolio of information and
insights that will help you in your quest for
the right career and job.

Particular help with test taking: At three places in


the text, a segment called Get Focused appears.
Each segment features a test-taking topic and
helps you develop your test-taking skills
throughout the semester in addition to your
work on the test-taking chapter.

As we revise, we are in constant touch with students and instructors who tell us how we can
improve. From our work with students, student
editors, instructors, and experts all over the
country, we have made important changes to
better focus this new edition on what you need
to succeed now. Heres whats new:

This book changes with your needs

The textwide theme of successful


intelligence is presentedthe way to
achieve goals and success through analytical, creative, and practical thinking.
A new focus in Chapter 1 on the nursing
shortage in the way it is currently being discussed in the nursing literature and among
nursing professional organizations. Based
on research by nurses such as Linda Aiken
and colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania, the discussion has turned to making
the workplace better. It has also turned to
the faculty shortage. It is understood now
that many qualified candidates are being
turned away from schools because there are
not enough faculty to teach them.
Chapter 2 has new information about roles
that are changing in nursing, especially in
advanced practice. The doctorate of nursing
practice and the clinical nurse leader are
examples of this change. In addition, areas
of practice within nursing, such as emphasis
on bioterrorism and aspects of disaster
nursing, are growing.

There are three new in-chapter exercises


in each chapterone building analytical
thinking skills, one building creative thinking skills, and one building practical
thinking skills.
A new first exercise at the end of each
chapterSuccessful Intelligence: Think,
Create, Applyencourages the synthesis of
successful intelligence thinking skills.
Revision of learning styles material in
Chapter 4 delineates more clearly the two
learning styles assessments and enhances
their usefulness.
Extensive revision of Chapter 5the thinking chapterfocuses on successful
intelligence and how it makes problemsolving and decision-making happen.
Chapter 10the diversity chapterwas
revised to focus on cultural competence,
along with added cultural references
throughout the text.
New student stories included within the text
heighten relevance of the material and the
readers ability to connect to it.
Newly revised end-of-chapter exercises
increase relevance and usefulness and help
students build on what they learn throughout the semester.

This book is just a startonly you can create the


life of your dreams
As you work through this course and move forward toward achieving your goals, keep this in
mind: Studies have shown that when students
believe they have a fixed level of intelligence,
they improve less, put less effort into their work,
and have a harder time in the face of academic
challenges. However, students who feel they can
become more intelligent over time are more likely to improve, tend to work harder, and handle
academic challenges with more success.2 Believe
that your intelligence can growand use this
book to develop it this semester, throughout
your college experience, and afterward as you
build the future of your dreams.
Students and instructors: Many of our best suggestions have come from you. Send your questions,
comments, and ideas about Keys to Nursing
Success to Janet Katz, jkatz@wsu.edu. We look
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forward to hearing from you, and we are grateful


for the opportunity to work with you.

Notes
1. Successful intelligence concepts from

Robert J. Sternberg, Successful Intelligence


(New York: Plume, 1997).
2. David Glenn, Students Performance on
Tests Is Tied to Their Views of Their Innate
Intelligence, Researchers Say, The Chronicle of Higher Education (June 1, 2004).
Available: http://chronicle.com/daily/2004/
06/2004060103n.htm.

xvi

Nurse Katzs Top Three Rules


for Success
The top three rules for success are based on
consistent behaviors that lead to gaining a
healthy dose of knowledge and skill acquisition
while you are in college. These are the top three
rules you will need to follow to succeed as a
nursing major:
1. Go to class.
2. Learn to study.
3. Take school seriously (study).

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Acknowledgments

his significant revision has been produced through the efforts of an extraordinary team. Many thanks to:

Our reviewers, whose input is invaluable.


Third edition reviewers: Renee Hoeksel, Washington State University, Vancouver; Linda B.
Hureston, Chicago State University; Linda S. Johanson, Lenoir-Rhyne College; Laura McQueen,
North Carolina A&T State University; Deb
Stanford, The University of North Carolina,
Greensboro.
Second edition reviewers: Peg Adams, Northern
Kentucky University; Veronica Allen, Texas
Southern University; Angela A. Anderson, Texas
Southern University; Robert Anderson, The College of New Jersey; Pier Broadnax, Howard
University; Dorcas Williams Davidson, Chicago
State University; Joyce Annette Deaton, Jackson
State Community College; Ray Emett, Salt Lake
Community College; Jacqueline Fleming, Texas
Southern University; Ralph Gallo, Texas Southern University; Jennifer Guyer-Wood, Minnesota
State University; Sandra M. Hicks, North Carolina A&T State University; Laura Kauffman,
Indian River Community College; Janette Keen,
University of Texas at Arlington; Quentin Kidd,
Christopher Newport University; Patsy Krech,
University of Memphis; Curtis Peters, Indiana
University Southeast; Margaret Quinn, University of Memphis; Corliss A. Rabb, Texas Southern University; Rebecca Samberg, Housatonic
Community College; Karyn L. Schulz, Community College of Baltimore CountyDundalk;
Susan Seager, Tennessee State University; Rosalee J. Seymour, East Tennessee State University;
Jill R. Strand, University of MinnesotaDuluth;
Toni M. Stroud, Texas Southern University;
Cheri Tillman, Valdosta State University.

Reviewers from previous editions: Fred Amador,


Phoenix College; Manual Aroz, Arizona State
University; Glenda Belote, Florida International
University; Todd Benatovich, University of Texas
at Arlington; John Bennett Jr., University of Connecticut; Ann Bingham-Newman, California State
UniversityLA; Mary Bixby, University of
MissouriColumbia; Barbara Blandford, Education Enhancement Center at Lawrenceville, NJ;
Jerry Bouchie, St. Cloud State University; Mona
Casady, SW Missouri State University; Kara
Craig, University of Southern Mississippi; Leslie
Chilton, Arizona State University; Jim Coleman,
Baltimore City Community College; Sara Connolly, Florida State University; Janet Cutshall,
Sussex County Community College; Valerie
DeAngelis, Miami-Dade Community College;
Rita Delude, NH Community Technical College;
Marianne Edwards, Georgia College and State
University; Judy Elsley, Weber State University in
Utah; Skye Gentile, California State University,
Hayward; Bob Gibson, University of Nebraska
Omaha; Sue Halter, Delgado Community College; Suzy Hampton, University of Montana;
Karen Hardin, Mesa Community College; Patricia Hart, California State University, Fresno;
Maureen Hurley, University of MissouriKansas
City; Karen Iversen, Heald Colleges; Laura
Kauffman, Indian River Community College;
Kathryn K. Kelly, St. Cloud State University;
Nancy Kosmicke, Mesa State College; Frank T.
Lyman Jr., University of Maryland; Marvin Marshak, University of Minnesota; Kathy Masters,
Arkansas State University; Barnette Miller
Moore, Indian River Community College; Rebecca Munro, Gonzaga University; Sue Palmer,
Brevard Community College; Bobbie Parker, Alabama State University; Virginia Phares, DeVry
of Atlanta; Brenda Prinzavalli, Beloit College;

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Jacqueline Simon, Education Enhancement Center at Lawrenceville, NJ; Carolyn Smith, University of Southern Indiana; Joan Stottlemyer,
Carroll College; Thomas Tyson, SUNY Stony
Brook; Eve Walden, Valencia Community College; Marsha Walden, Valdosta State University;
Rose Wassman, DeAnza College; Angela
Williams, The Citadel; Don Williams, Grand Valley State University; William Wilson, St. Cloud
State University; Michelle G. Wolf, Florida Southern College.
Robert J. Sternberg, IBM Professor of Psychology and Education at Yale University, for
his ground-breaking work on successful intelligence and for his gracious permission to use and
adapt that work as a theme for this new edition.
Those who generously contributed personal
stories, exhibiting courage in being open and
honest about their life experiences:
Barbara Andre, Westlake Community Hospital; Beverly Andre, Triton College; Dr. Lina
Badr, University of CaliforniaLA; Dawn E.
Bedell, Truman College; Laurel Brink, Gonzaga
University; Wendy Casciato, University of Iowa;
Peter Changsak, Sheldon Jackson College; Carol
Comlish, University of Alabama; M. Kay Cresci,
The Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing; Susanna Cunningham, University of
WashingtonSeattle; Patricia Curtis, Georgetown University; Robert Dary, University of
Kansas; Crystal Johnson, Emory University;
Lilian A. Kanda, Lewis University; Eido
Kawaide, Elmira Nursing College; Kathryn H.
Krauss, Central United Methodist Church of
Spokane, Washington; Dr. Courtney H. Lyder,
Yale School of Nursing; Joe A. Martin Jr., University of West Florida; Mark McIntyre, Jacksonville State University; Gustavo Minaya,
Essex Community College; Raymond Montalvo
Jr., University of Southern CaliforniaLA;
Liduvina Perez, Arizona State University; Elda
G. Ramirez, University of Texas Health Science
Center; Toni M. Riehm, Indiana University

xviii

South Bend; Ray Salva Jr., Gottleib Memorial


Hospital; Erika Sellekaerts, University of Pennsylvania; Dr. Roy Ann Sherrod, The University
of Alabama; Margretta Madden Styles, International Council of Nurses; Tonjua Williams,
St. Petersburg College.
Michael Jackson for his writing samples and
advice.

Special thanks to Deb Stanford and Erin


Farrior, both of University of North Carolina at
Greensboro, for their collaboration and contributions to the test bank, test question rationale,
and the instructors manual.

Our terrific editor Sande Johnson, who


through her leadership was able to put together
a team of people whose combined efforts took
this edition to a new level. Special thanks to developmental editor, Bryce Bell, for his comprehensive vision, hard work, and insightful ideas,
and to editorial assistant Lynda Cramer for all
her efforts and attention to detail.

Our production team for their patience,


flexibility, and attention to detail, especially
Pam Bennett, Kerry Rubadue, Angela Urquhart
at Thistle Hill, and typesetters at S4Carlisle Publishing Services.

Our marketing gurus, especially Amy Judd, our


marketing manager; Quinn Perkson, director of
marketing; Brian Mounts, Marketing Coordinator
of Student Success Sales; and Student Success Sales
Directors Connie James, Patty Ford, Deb Wilson,
Matt Christopherson, and Lynda Sax.

Publisher Jeff Johnston, President of Education Nancy Forsyth, and President Tim Bozik,
for their leadership and their interest in and
commitment to the Student Success list.

The Prentice Hall representatives and management team, who help us bring our mission to
instructors all over the country.

Our families and friends, who have encouraged us and put up with our commitments.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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We extend a very special thanks to Judy


Block, whose research, writing, and editing
work was essential and invaluable.

Finally, for their ideas, opinions, and stories,


we would like to thank all of the students and
professors with whom we work. Joyce, in particular, would like to thank the thousands of students

who have allowed her, as their professor, the privilege of sharing part of their journey through college. We appreciate that, through reading this
book, you give us the opportunity to learn and
discover with youin your classroom, in your
home, on the bus, and wherever else learning
takes place.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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About the Authors


has practiced nursing in cardiac rehabilitation as well as
acute and critical cardiac care. She earned her PhD in educational leadership and now teaches community health as assistant professor for
Washington State Universitys Intercollegiate College of Nursing. Janet is
the author of several articles on nursing. Her research focuses on the area
of recruiting and retaining Native American students into nursing and on
community-based participatory research that is culturally competent, such
as on health promotion for Native American teenagers. She is active in
advancing the profession of nursing and its mission of disease prevention,
health promotion, and health care advocacy for individuals, families, and
communities, both locally and globally. She lives in Spokane, Washington.

Janet R. Katz

is founder of LifeBound, a career coaching company that


offers individual coaching sessions and seminars for high school students,
college students, and career seekers. She has written Majoring in the Rest
of Your Life: Career Secrets for College Students and Majoring in High
School. She has also coauthored Keys to Preparing for College, Keys to
College Studying, The Career Tool Kit, Keys to Career Success, Keys to
Study Skills, Keys to Thinking and Learning, and Keys to Success. She has
taught welfare-to-work classes, team-taught in the La Familia Scholars
Program at the Community College of Denver, and conducted numerous
workshops for students and faculty around the country. Carol is a national college and career expert and is interviewed regularly in print, on the
radio, and for television news programs. In addition to working with students of all ages, Carol thrives on foreign travel and culture; she is
fortunate enough to have been a guest in more than 40 foreign countries.
Please visit her website and write her at www.lifebound.com.

Carol Carter

holds a PhD in psychology and has taught for more than


20 years, receiving a number of honors, including Teacher of the Year for
1995 and 2000. For five years she has been voted favorite teacher by
the student body and Honor Society at Golden West College, Huntington
Beach, California, where she has taught since 1987 and is a tenured professor. She worked with a federal grant to establish Learning Communities
and Workplace Learning in her district, and she has developed workshops
and trained faculty in cooperative learning, active learning, multiple intelligences, workplace relevancy, learning styles, authentic assessment, team
building, and the development of learning communities. Joyce is currently
teaching online and multimedia classes, and she trains other faculty to
teach online in her district and region of 21 colleges. She coauthored Keys
to College Studying, Keys to Success, Keys to Thinking and Learning, and
Keys to Study Skills. Joyce is the lead academic of the Keys to Lifelong
Learning Telecourse, distributed by Dallas Telelearning.

Joyce Bishop

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Sarah Lyman Kravits comes from a family of educators and has long
cultivated an interest in educational development. She coauthored Keys to
College Studying, The Career Tool Kit, Keys to Success, Keys to Thinking
and Learning, and Keys to Study Skills and has served as program director for LifeSkills Inc., a nonprofit organization that aims to further the
career and personal development of high school students. In that capacity
she helped formulate both curricular and organizational elements of the
program, working closely with instructors as well as members of the business community. She has also given faculty workshops in critical thinking.
Sarah holds a BA in English and drama from the University of Virginia,
where she was a Jefferson Scholar, and an MFA from Catholic University.

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Keys to
Nursing Success
T H I R D

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