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EXPERIMENT NO.

4(a)

STUDY OF PITOT TUBE AIR


1.
Aim
To determine the velocity profile for the flow of air through a circular pipe using Pitot Tube.
2.
Objective
To measure the point velocity at different locations across the flow direction.
3.
Theory
A pitot tube is a device to measure the point velocities in the flow field of a fluid. It generally
consists of two concentric tubes arranged parallel to the flow .The outer tube is perforated at
one end with small holes in its wall, which are perpendicular to the flow direction and lead to
the annular space. The annular space is otherwise sealed except for a manometer lead on the
other end .The inner tube has a small opening at one end (the same end in which holes are
there in the outer tube) parallel to the flow and pointed in the direction opposite to the flow
direction. The other end of the tube has a manometer lead. The two tubes are connected to
two limbs of a inclined manometer( inclination ratio: 1:5) through the manometer leads. At
equilibrium there is no fluid within the pitot tube. The annular space serves to transmit the
static pressure. The flowing fluid is brought to rest at the entrance of the inner tube, and this
tube transmits the impact pressure (or stagnation pressure) equivalent to the kinetic energy of
the flowing fluid at that position. Ps and P0 are the stagnation pressure measured by the inner
and outer tubes respectively. The point velocity, at a given position can be obtained from the
Bernoulli equation, by neglecting the frictional losses, as
u0 = {2(Ps-P0)/f} = {2gH(m-f)/f}
Where f and m are the densities of the process fluid ( air) and the manometric fluid
( coloured water) respectively, H is the difference in the level of the manometric fluid in the
two limbs of the inclined manometer, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Thus by
changing the position of the pitot tube the local velocities in the flow field can be obtained.
The velocity profile at a given cross section of the pipe is obtained by moving the pitot along
the diameter of the pipe. By knowing the point velocities at a given cross section, the
volumetric flow rate, Q, can be determined
Q = 0D/2 2ru0dr
Where D is the pipe diameter, and r is the radius at which u0 is measured.
4.
Requirements
Pipe line with provision for supply of air (blower), pitot tube, inclined manometer.
5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Procedure
Start the flow of air by switching on the blower.
Divide the pipe diameter in 8 equal parts to fix the radial position at which the point
velocities are to be determined.
Keep the pitot tube at the radial position.
Once the flow steadies (indicated by unchanging or slightly fluctuating level
difference in the manometer), record the level difference in the manometer.
Record the ambient temperature (taken same as the air temperature).
Repeat step 4 by moving the pitot tube at the radial determined in step 2.

6.
Observations
Ambient temperature (T) =
Air density at T =
Density of manometric liquid at T =
S.No.

kg/m
kg/ m
r,mm

H,mm

7. Formula
1) Point velocity, u0 in m/s
u0 = {2gH(m-f)/f}
2)Volumetric flow rate ,Q in m3/s
Q = 0D/2 2ru0dr
8.

9.

Results and discussion


1. Calculate the point velocities at different radial positions.
2. Plot the point velocity versus the radial position.
3. Calculate the volumetric flow rate from the point velocities.
Conclusions

Reference:
1. Unit operations of Chemical Engineering by M.C. Smith, 5th edition Pg. No. 150

STUDY OF PITOT TUBE - WATER


1.

Aim
To determine the velocity profile across the cross section of pipe for the flow of water
using Pitot tube and thereby determine the co-efficient of Pitot tube for different flow rates.
2.
Objective
To measure the velocity at different points across the flow in a pipe for different flow rates.
3.
Theory
It is a device used for measuring the velocity of flow at any point in a pipe. It is based on the
principle that if the velocity of flow at a point becomes zero, there is increase in pressure due
to the conversion of the kinetic energy into pressure energy.
The Pitot tube consists of a capillary tube, bent at right angle. The lower end, which is bent
through 90o, is directed in the upstream direction. The liquid rises up in the tube due to
conversion of kinetic energy into pressure energy. The velocity is determined by measuring
the rise of liquid in the tube.

When a Pitot tube is used for measuring the velocity of flow in a pipe or other closed conduit,
the Pitot tube may be inserted in the pipe as shown in figure. Since a Pitot tube measures the
stagnation pressure head (or the total head) at its dipped end, the pressure head may be
determined directly by using piezometeric readings between the Pitot tube and pressure
taping at the pipe surface. Consider two points (1) and (2) at the same level in such a way that
point (2) is just at the inlet of the Pitot -tube and point (1) is far away from the tube. At point
(1) the pressure is p1 and the velocity of the stream is v 1. However at point (2), called as the
stagnation point, the fluid is brought to rest and the energy has been converted to pressure
energy. Therefore the pressure at (2) is p 2, the velocity v2 is zero. As (1) and (2) are in the
same horizontal plane, so z1 = z2.
Applying Bernoullis equation at points (1) and (2)
2
p1 v1
p2 v 2 2

w 2g
w 2g
v2 = 0
2
v 1 p2 p1

2g
w w

p2 p1

w w

v1 2 g
v1

2 gH

This is theoretical velocity.


Actual velocity v1 act Cv 2 gH
4.
Pitot tube

Requirements
:

Material SS/copper of compatible size fitted


with scale.
Test Section
:
Material Clear Acrylic, compatible to 1 dia
Pipe.
Water Circulation
:
FHP Pump.
Flow Measurement :
Using Measuring Tank,
Capacity 40 Ltrs.
Sump Tank
:
Capacity 70 Ltrs.
Stop Watch
:
Electronic.
Control Panel Comprises of: Standard make On/Off Switch, Mains Indicator, etc.
5.
Experimental set-up
The apparatus consists of a Pitot tube made of SS and fixed below a pointer gauge. The
pointer gauge is capable to measure the position of Pitot tube in transparent test section. The
pipe has a flow control valve to regulate the flow. Piezometric tubes are provided to
determine the velocity head. A pump is provided to circulate the water. Discharge is measured
with the help of measuring tank and stopwatch
6.Experimental procedure
Starting Procedure:
1. Clean the apparatus and make Tank free from Dust.
2. Close the drain valves provided.
3. Fill Sump tank with Clean Water and ensure that no foreign particles are there.
4. Close all Flow Control Valves given on the water line and open By-Pass Valve.
5. Ensure that On/Off Switch given on the Panel is at OFF position.
6. Now switch on the Main Power Supply (220 Volts AC, 50 Hz).
7. Switch on the Pump.
8. Operate the Flow Control Valve to regulate the flow of water through orifice.
9. Adjust water flow rate to desired rate with the help of flow Control Valve.
10. Set the Pitot tube at the center of test section
11. Record the piezometric reading and measure the discharge with the help of measuring
tank and stop watch.
12. Now move the Pitot tube up and down at the same flow rate and note the piezometric
readings to find out the velocity at different points in pipe.
13. Calculate the co efficient of Pitot tube from actual and theoretical velocities and plot
the velocities at different points inside the pipe.
14. Repeat the same procedure for different flow rates of water, operating Control Valve,
and By-Pass valve.
Closing Procedure:

1. When experiment is over Switch off Pump.


2. Switch off Power Supply to Panel.
3. Drain water from all tanks with the help of given drain valves.
FORMULAE
1. Discharge,
Q

A* R
t

----------------------- (1)

Q
a

----------------------- (2)

2 gH

------------------------ (3)

2. Actual Velocity,
v act

3.

Theoretical velocity
v th

4.

5.

Co efficient of Pitot tube,


v
C v act
v th

------------------------- (4)

Velocity at any point,


v Cv

2 gH

7.
Observation table
S.No. Pressure
head
at
different points on up
side
8 mm 6 mm 4 mm
1.

Pressure
head at
center
0

Pressure
head
at R(cm)
different points on down
side
4 mm 6 mm
8 mm

t(sec)

2.
3.
CALCULATION TABLE
S.
Cv
v8
No.
1.
2.
3.
DATA
A
=
a
=

0.1 m2
0.0006157 m2

v6

v4

v0

v4

v6

v8

9.81 m/ s2

NOMENCLATURE
A
=
Area of measuring tank.
a
=
Cross section area of test section
R
=
Rise of water level in measuring tank.
H
=
Piezometric difference
CV
=
Co- efficient of Pitot tube
g
=
Acceleration due to gravity
va
=
actual velocity of fluid.
Q
=
discharge at outlet.
t
=
time for R.
8.

Result & discussions


Calculate the point velocities at different radial positions.
Calculate the co-efficient of Pitot tube for different flow rates.
Plot the point velocity versus the radial position.

9.

Conclusion

10.

Precautions
Do not run the pump at low voltage i.e. less than 180 Volts.
Never fully close the Delivery line and By-Pass line Valves simultaneously.
Always keep apparatus free from dust.
To prevent clogging of moving parts, Run Pump at least once in a fortnight.
Frequently Grease/Oil the rotating parts, once in three months.
Always use clean water.
If apparatus will not in use for more than one month, drain the apparatus completely,
and fill pump with cutting oil.

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2.
3.
4.
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6.
7.

EXPERIMENT NO. 4(b)

STUDY OF REYNOLDS APPRATUS


1.
Aim
To study the flow regime for liquid flow in a pipe, and to find the critical Reynold's number.
2.
Objective
To find the volumetric flow rate corresponding to various flow regimes.
3.
Theory
Osborne Reynolds (1883) demonstrated different flow regimes when a fluid flows through a
pipe. These regimes are: laminar, turbulent and transition or intermediate regimes. For a
given pipe and fluid, laminar flow exists at low velocity characterized by ordered sliding past
of liquid layer over one another without lateral mixing; while turbulent flow is found at high
velocity in which the flow pattern is random and there is intense lateral mixing in the fluid. In
between these two extremes, a transition flow regime is observed in which the flow alters
between laminar and turbulent flows. Reynoldss found that the nature of flow depends on the
diameter of the pipe, and viscosity, density and average velocity of the fluid; and these factors
can be combined into one dimensionless group, called the Reynoldss number, the magnitude
of which would indicate the flow regime. The Reynolds number, Re is defined as
Re = Du/ = Du/v
Where D = pipe diameter, u= fluid velocity, = fluid density, = fluid viscosity, and v =
kinematic viscosity.
Physically, Reynolds number is interpreted as the ratio of the inertial force to viscous force
acting on the fluid. In general, D and v represent some characteristic dimension of the flow
domain and characteristic velocity of the fluid. Thus laminar flow exists at small Reynolds
number, and turbulent flow at large Reynolds number.
The minimum Reynolds number at which laminar flow disappears is called the critical
Reynolds number. The value of critical Reynolds number depends on the geometry of the
flow domain (circular or rectangular pipe, open or closed channel, flat plate etc.) and flow
configuration (flow around a bluff body, in packed bed etc.)
4.
Requirements
Reynolds apparatus, water source, dye, measuring cylinder, stop watch.
5.

PROCEDURE
1. Fill in the tank with water, and the dye- chamber with dye.
2. Note the water temperature.
3. Start the water flow and maintain a small flow rate, enough to fill the whole pipe
cross section.
4. Once the flow stabilizes, start the dye injection. The injection rate should be just
enough to give a clear visible streak of the dye.
5. Observe the pattern of the dye streak. The dye should flow in a straight line.
6. Increase the water in small and equal increments, and observe the dye streak.
7. Repeat step 6 until some undulations commence in the streak. Note the corresponding
volumetric flow rate of water, which is the critical Reynolds number. Appearance of
the undulations signifies the initiation of the intermediate or transition flow.
Note At this point the undulations will be unstable so that there will be some portion
of the dye streak which will be undulating and some portion which will not.

8. Keep increasing the flow rate of the liquid further until at one point there is found a
complete dispersion of the dye (indicated by the liquid getting colour through the
cross section) just as it comes out of the injection needle. This point shows the
conversion to a fully turbulent regime.
9. Note the corresponding the volumetric flow rate.
6.

Observations
Temperature of the liquid
Pipe diameter

S.No
1
2
3

Flow Regime
Laminar
Transition
Fully Turbulent

=
=
Volume of water collected

Volumetric flow rate corresponding to start of the laminar flow


Volumetric flow rate corresponding to start of the transition flow
Volumetric flow rate corresponding to fully turbulent flow
Liquid density at observed temperature
Liquid viscosity at the observed temperature

Time taken

=
=
=
=
=

m/s
m/s
m/s
kg/m
kg/ m s.

7. Results and discussion


1. Calculate the Reynolds number corresponding to the transition flow and turbulent
flow.
The liquid velocity is calculated as u = 4Q/ D, where Q is the volumetric flow rate.
2. Compare the critical Reynolds number and the Reynolds number for transition to fully
turbulent flow observed with those reported in the literature. Discuss the possible
sources of discrepancy, if any.
8.

Conclusion