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# Power Transmission and Distribution

## Principles of system protection technology

Transformer Differential Protection

## Basic principles : Kirchhoffs knot rule

Basis for Differential-Protection:

I1
I2
I4
I3
I1 + I2 + I3 + I4 = 0 ? ? I = 0
Definition:
Currents, which flow into the knot (protected object), are counted positive.
Currents, which flow out of the knot (protected object), are counted negative.
Protection objects:
Line, Transformer, Generator/Motor, Bus bar

IP1
IS1

I1F

Protected
object
IS1
?I

I2F

IP1

IP2
IS2

IS1

IP2
Protected
object

IF

IS2

IS2
?I

IDiff = I1 + I2

internal fault

## Assumption: CT- ratio: 1/1

IP1 = I1F
IP2 = I2F
IDiff = IP1 + IP2 = I1F + I2F
? Trip

IDiff = I1 + I2

## Assumption: CT- ratio: 1/1

IP1 = IF
IP2 = -IF
IDiff = IP1 + IP2 = IF - IF = 0
? no Trip

## Requirements for Differential Protection:

1) Internal faults ( faults between CT-sets ) ? Trip
2) External faults ? no Trip
Principles Transf. Diff 3

(1/2)

IP1

Ct 1:
e1= - 5%

IS1=
0.95IP1

Protected
object

Ct 2:
e2 = +5%

IDiff = 0.1IP1
?I

IP2 = -IP1

IF

IS2=
1.05IP2

## assumption: CT- ratio: 1/1

IDiff = IS1 + IS2 = (1+e1 ) IP1 + (1+e2)IP2 = 0.95 IP1 1.05 IP1 = 0.1IP1
-normal operation: IP1 = IN
IDiff = 0.1IP1 = 0.1I N
-external fault: assumption: IP1 = 10IN
IDiff = 0.1IP1 = 1IN

## As the setting I Diff> for usual applications

lays below nominal current,
it would cause a wrong trip in case of
external faults with heavy current!

(2/2)

## Example: external fault with linear CT- errors

CT 1:
e1= - 5%

I P1

CT 2:
e2 = + 5%

Protected
object
IRest

I P2 = -I P1

IF

I Rest = I S1 + I S2
I Rest = 2I P1
I S2=
1.05I P2

I S1=
0.95I P1

IDiff

Setting due to
magnetising or
charging currents
I Diff=
I S1+I S2

I Diff= I S1+ I S2
I Diff = 0.1I P1

## Linear error due to

different
CT transformation
Resulting
characteristic

IN

Trip

Block
I Diff>
2

10

I Rest = I S1 + I S2

## Under the following

assumption
e1 = e2 and I1 = I2
the result for a conventional
Differential Prot. characteristic
should be:
IDiff = IDiff> + e1I1 + e2I2
= IDiff> + 2e1 I1
with IDiff> = setting

## Basic principles: measuring circuit for a 3-phase system

Basic circuit for a 3- phase system:
Generator / Motor / Reactor
L1
L2
L3

Diff.

Rest. current

Conventional
Differential Protection

## Transformer Differential Protection special qualities

Angle shifting N30 due to vector group (0 = N = 11)
for 3-phase transformers.
Different current values of the CT- sets on the high voltage side (HV)
and on the low voltage side (LV)
Zero sequence current in case of external faults will cause
differential current
Transformer-tap changer, magnetising current
Transient currents
Inrush
CT-saturation

## 3-phase Transformer: primary values

side 2: 20kV, 2887A
side 1: 110kV, 525A

3000/1A
2L1
2L2
2L3

I2L1?
I2L2?
I2L3?

750/1A

I2*L1

?I1L1

I2*L2

?I1L2

I2*L3

?I1L3

1L1
1L2
1L3

## kU = U1N /U2N = 110kV/20kV = 5.5

kWinding = w1/w2 = kU/v3
I2*L1 = -I1L1ku /v3 + I1L2ku /v3
I2*L3
I1L1k u/v3

I1L1

530
I2*L2
I1L2k u /v3

I1L3

I1L2

-I1L1k u /v3

I2*L1
Principles Transf. Diff 8

## 3-phase Transformer : secondary values

I L1sec ?

SN
I
? NCT1sec
3 ?U N I NCTlprim

I1L1sec ?

100MVA 1A
?
? 0.7A
3 ?110kV 750A

I2 L1sec ?

I1L1sec= 0.7A , 0

100MVA 1A
?
? 0.96A
3 ?20kV 3000A
IDiff L1 = I1L1sec+ I2L1sec
= 0.5A

## Vector group and current value adaptation in case of

conventional Transformer Differential Protection
3000/1A

## Load: 100MVA ,vector group: YNd5

side 2: 20kV
side1: 110kV

(1/2)

525A

750/1A

L1

2887A
L2
L3

0.7A

0.96A

Diff.

IR

29
Wdg.

23
Wdg.

Rest. current

Conventional
Differential Prot.

Matching transformer
-Zero seq. current handling

## nominal Load (no fault): 0.70A 23Wdg = 0.555A 29Wdg,

IR = 0.555v3 = 0.96A
Principles Transf. Diff 10

## Vector group and current value adaptation in case of

conventional Transformer Differential Protection
3000/1A

~
~

## Load: 100MVA ,vector group: YNd5

side 2: 20kV
side1: 110kV

(2/2)

750/1A
L1

13655A
L2

L3

3I0
4.55A

5.73A

Diff.

IR

29
Wdg.

IP=
4300A

23
Wdg.

Rest. current

Conventional
Differential Prot.

## single pole fault HV -side:

Matching transformer
-Zero seq. current handling

## 5.73A 23Wdg = 4.550A 29Wdg , IR = 4.55A

Principles Transf. Diff 11

## Vector group and current value adaptation in case of

numerical Transformer Differential Protection
CT 2
3000/1A
2L1
2L2

side 2: 20kV
side 1: 110kV
I2 L1P ?

?I1 L1P

I2 L2P ?

?I1 L2P

I2 L3P ?

2L3

I2 L1S
I2 L2S
I2 L3S

(1/2)

CT 1
750/1A
1L1
1L2

?I1 L3P

I2 A
Current
Vector
Io
value
group
handling
I2 B
CT 2
I2 C

I1 A

comparison

?I

I1 B

Io
handling

I1 C

Current
value
CT 1

1L3

I1 L1S
I1 L2S
I1 L3S

## Vector group and current value adaptation in case of

numerical Transformer Differential Protection

(2/2)

## Parameterisation of transformer and CT- data

in a 7UT6 Differential Protection Device

## Tripping characteristic of Transformer Differential Protection

CT-errors , Tap changer , Magnetising current
I Diff
InO
3.0
2.5
Trip

slope 2
Total error

2.0
Block

45
1.5

CT- error
1.0
slope 1

0.5
IDiff>
0

## Transf. magnetising current

0

1.0

Characteristic:

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

IDiff = f (IRest)
IRest = |I1| + |I2|

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

I Rest InO

## Transient currents (with Harmonics)

- Inrush of Transformers
even
2. Harm.

Inrush

(1 of 2)
iDiff = i1

i1

Y Y
t=0
i1

i2 = 0
t

even
2. Harm.

Inrush

iDiff = i1

i1

t=0
i1

I2 = 0
t

## Connecting -T2 in parallel with -T1

(Sympathetic Inrush T1)
-T1

i1

t=0
Inrush -T2

-T2

i1

-T1: iDiff = i1

I2 = 0

t=0

t
Principles Transf. Diff 15

(2 of 2)

filter window
1 cycle
iRUSH
= iDiff

Inrush current
in one phase

1P

I2har
IDiff

2P

L2-block

L3-block

3P t

block
Setting
value

15 %

L1-block

L1-block
L2-block

OR
=1

## IDiff > trip blocking

L3-block

no block
0

recognise inrush condition by evaluating the ratio 2nd harmonic I2har to basic wave IDiff.
Time limit for cross-block. Reliable reaction to the inrush condition with cross-block.
Trip of a short circuit after the set time delay.
recognise over excitation [V/Hz] by evaluating the ratio 3rd or 5th harmonic to basic wave
Principles Transf. Diff 16

Internal
fault

IDiff>>

Inrush

IDiff>

3 cycles
Cross Blocking

## Transient currents (with harmonics)

- Over excitation and CT- saturation

(1/2)
iDiff = i1 + i2

UTr > UN

uneven
5. Harm.
i2

i1

## External fault with

CT-saturation at the
Low voltage side
HV

even
and
uneven

LV

i1

i2

## Internal fault with

CT-saturation at the
High voltage side
HV

i1

iDiff = i1 + i2

iDiff = i1

even
and
uneven

LV

I2 0

## Transient currents (with harmonics)

- Over excitation and CT- saturation

(2/2)

## Tripping characteristic 7UT6

I Diff
InO
IDiff>>

7
6

Trip

45

Block

D
C

4
3

Stabilisation

2
1

Begin of saturation

IDiff>

0 0
A

10

12

14

16

I Rest
InO

Block

45
Trip

three winding
transformer
1 or 3 phases

two winding
transformer
1 or 3 phases

1 CB method
on
one side

7UT613
7UT633
7UT612
7UM62

7UT613
7UT633

Unit Protection

1 CB method
on two sides

Y
7UT635

7UT635

G
3~