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Overcurrent and

Impedance Protection
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Generator Protection
Overcurrent and Impedance
Protection
Presenter: Dr. Hans-Joachim Herrmann
PTD PA13
Phone +49 911 433 8266
E-Mail: Hans-Joachim.Herrmann@siemens.com

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Summary
The short circuit is a heavy fault for a generator. In that case the short-circuit protection is a standard protection for a
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generator. The electromotive force (e.m.f.) supplies at the moment of a short circuit the following current :
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I K(3) ?

1,1?VN
3 ?X d "

with: VN - nominal voltage


Xd - subtransient reactance

This subtransient short-circuit current is reduced with the typical time constants of a generator. The type of the excitation has
an important influence on the magnitude of the short circuit current. In the case of a short circuit near the terminals the
voltage is low and the voltage regulator starts to increase the excitation. A higher current is the result.
Dimensioning the co-ordination of the voltage regulator and excitation system (including excitation winding) based on a short
circuit current for a time of 8-10s is appr. 1,8 of the nominal generator current.
The settings of an overcurrent time relay is appr. 1,3 - 1,4 x I N . If the short- circuit current can be lower after a time an
undervoltage seal-in must be activated.
The short-circuit current depends on the fault type.
The ratio is I SC(1) : I SC(2) : I SC(3) = 5:3:2. In the case of a no load field voltage and a full load field voltage the range of the
short-circuit current is appr. 1:2,5.
For a turbo generator the following steady state short-circuit currents are
typically:
three-phase fault:
I SC ??(0,8 ... 2)I N
phase-to-phase fault:
I SC ??(1,2 ... 3)I N
single-phase fault:
I SC ??(2 ... 5)I N
(grounding of the generator star point)
If the generator is grounded with a low ohmic resistor the short-circuit
current is limited to the nominal current.
Part 1:
Part2:

- Overcurrent Protection
- Impedance Protection
- Differential Protection
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Short Circuit Faults


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A) Internal Faults
1) Isolated star point
(or high ohmic)

2) Low ohmic star point


(or solid)
L1
L2

3phase short circuit

L3

Interturn fault
Phase to phase short circuit

B) External Faults

Single phase short


circuit
(Resistor limits the
fault current)

Faults from 1) are also additional


possible to ground

Transformer
Grid

Generator is the e.m.f. for the short circuit


currents and becomes to stress
? Back-up protection

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Typical Short Circuit Curves


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I??SC= Subtransient short-circuit current


I?SC = Transient short-circuit current
ISC = Steady state short-circuit current

- t
2 ? ?' ' - ?' ?e T' 'd

- t
2 ? ?' - ? ?e T' d

2 ?? ' '
k

2 ??

- t
2 ??' 'k ?e Tg

Combinations:
Driving Voltages

V??p

<

V?p

<

Vp

Actual reactances

X??d

<

X?d

<

Xd

Time Constants

T??d

<

T?d

<

Td

Short circuit current:


Subtransient part

ik ?

transient part

Steady state
short circuit current

DC - current

t
?
?
t
t
?
?
2 ? I ' ' ? I' ?e T' ' d sin?? t - ? ?? I ' - I ?e T' d sin?? t - ? ?? I sin?? t - ? ?? I' ' ?e T g sin? ?
k
k
k k
k
k
?
?
?
?

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Example of a Short-Circuit Curve


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Data:

SN = 200 MVA (Synchronous generator)


xd = 1,78
TG = 0,097s

xd = 0,24
Td = 1,125s

xd = 0,16
Td = 0,05s

Rotor (e.m.f) voltages

Short circuit currents

Vp

Vp

Vp

Turbo generator

2,25

1,11

1,07

Salient pole generator

1,8

1,2

1,13

Fully asymmetrical DC component (? = 90)

.V
N
.V
N

IK ?

2,25
?I N ? 1,26 I N
Xd

I K ?

I K ?

1,11
? I N ? 4,6 I N
X?d

1,07
? I N ? 6,7 I N
X?d?
Without Dc offset (? = 0)

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Short-Circuit Current within the Generator


(Three-phase fault)
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Ik
R, Xd

? Driving voltage (e.m.f.) increases linear


? Synchronous direct-axis reactance increases
?

square with the number of windings ( ? 2 Xd)

?
0,5

Short-circuit current on the terminals is lower than within

Short circuit near the star point has small short-circuit currents
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Overcurrent Time Protection


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I >, t

G
I >, t

I >, t

I >>, t

I > - Generator
?t

? t:grading time
(approx. 0,3 s)

I > - Network

I >>

l
? Protection is connected on the star-point-CT (proof against internal faults - at open

circuit breaker too)


? Pick-up value I>; Ipick-up ? (1,2.....1,4) IN, G
? Co-ordination of grading time with the network protection
? I>>-stage: responsible for faults near or within the generator with a short tripping

time (0,1 s)
? Busbar connection: reverse interlocking is recommended for radial network
? Unit transformer connection: Ipick-up > 1,5 I ??SC(3, G) t ? 0,1 s
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Overcurrent Time Protection with Undervoltage Seal-in


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Logic:

I>, t
U<

I>
G

>1
&

V<
?1

S
R

Pick-up

T-Seal-in

The excitation cannot maintain the short-circuit current, because


the excitation voltage is to low.
? At long fault durations the short-circuit current can be close or lower than
the nominal current ISC< IN
Settings: V< ? (0,75....0,8) VN
V: positive sequence
T- seal-in > T-I>
?

Attention:

If the generator breaker is open blocking of the undervoltage


seal-in at units with generator and network circuit breakers.

Advantage of Seal-in: No Overfunction at VT Failures


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Inverse Time Overcurrent Protection (51)


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In ANSI or English speaking regions are very often used the inverse time
overcurrent protection. The trip time depends on the amount of current. In
the applications different types of characteristics are available.
t
The same
characteristic
is used
Grading time

G
Example: Very Inverse (ANSI)
IP - Pick-up current
(General pickup is fix at 1,1 I P)
D - Time multiplier (0,5s to 15 s)

?
?
?
?
3.922
t??
? 0.0982 ? ? D
2
??
?
? -1
I
?? I ?
?
?
?? P ?
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Inverse Time Overcurrent protection influenced by


voltage (51 V)
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The voltage dependency of the short circuit current is considered


Voltage controlled:
If there is an undervoltage pick-up, the inverse time characteristic will
be released with a low pick-up value (IPICK-UP < ING)
(Used at generator-busbar schemes)
Voltage restraint:
The pick-up threshold of inverse time
overcurrent protection depends on
voltage level. Low voltage reduces the
pick-up threshold by a factor (see figure).
There is a linear dependency of the
generator voltage.
(Used at generator-transformer schemes)

Factor
1,0

0,25

0,25

1,0

V/VNG

Note:
To avoid an overfunction in the case of an fuse failure (voltage circuit
interruption), there is recommended a blocking via an external m.c.b. or
the internal fuse - failure -monitor function.
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Impedance Protection
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I>

tNetz +? t

Z1 ? 0,7XT

Z<

0,1s

Z1

G
XG

XT

Z<

?
?

Correct measuring of the transformer reactance


Measuring of a fictitious generator reactance
(short circuit at the generator terminals: V ? 0, I =ISC,G ?

Z ? 0)

? Settings value of the protection is the unit transformer reactance


(Requirement: Z1 ? 0,7 XT)
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Impedance Measuring over the Unit Transformer (Part 1)


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Three-phase fault

Additional Infeed

RatioTr

Z<

ZT

Z Meas ? Z T ?

1
?Z L
2
Ratio Tr

ZL

Z<

Z Meas ? Z T ?

Correct measurement of the


impedance

Setting problems at short lines


because:
ZT ? ?

IK2

IK1
ZT

1
Ratio 2 Tr

IK

? I K2
??1 ?
? I K1

?
?? ?Z L
?

Through the additional infeed the


impedance is measured always to
large
? Underreach of the protection
(Trip in a longer time)
?

1
ZL
Ratio 2 Tr
RatioTr : Transformer Ratio
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Impedance Measuring over the Unit Transformer (Part 2)


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Single-phase fault

Phase-to-phase fault

Pick-up of the protection


in three phases

L1

L1

L2

L2

L3

L3

Pick-up of the protection


in two phases

Accurate measurement:
ZMeas

V
V L2
? ph.-E ?
I ph,max
I L2

In the other impedance loops


the impedance is measured
too large (lower current).

Z Meas ?

V ph.-ph.
I ph.-ph.

? ZT ? ZL ?

1
?Z 0T ? Z 0L ?
2

Impedance is measured too large


for the zero sequence impedance
(There is no zero in short circuit
current on the generator side.)
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Characteristics of the Impedance Protection


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X
X2

t(I>)

X1B

t(Z2)

X1

t(Z1)

R1 R1B R2

Z 1 ? 0,7X T
No direction element is
necessary because the
star point CT is used.

t(Z1B)
Z1

Z2

Z1B

At open generator circuit breaker the stage


Z1B can be actived

Co-ordination of zone Z2 with the network


protection (Measuring errors cause an
underreach)

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Scheme with an Impedance or Distance Protection


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ZG

ZT
ZL

G
I > (ZG)
t

ZT (backward)

ZG
2. Stage (ZT)

ZG: Generator
Transformer
Line

ZL
Z

ZT

ZT: Transformer
Line

ZL: Line

? Fast back-up protection for the whole system.


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