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Energy Automation

7UT6: Low impedance


Restricted Earth Fault
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Power Transmission and Distribution

Internal single pole faults close to transformer star point


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

400kV

230kV

Example: Autotransformer 500MVA , 400/230kV, uk12 = 15.8%


Inductivity L ? winding2 ; RF = fault resistance

X ? ? ?L ; I F LV ?
w1

f ?U LV / 3

?f

?X ? R 2F

; I F HV ? I FLV

f ?w2
w1 ? w2 ?(1 ? f)

IF
[p.u.]
IF HV [p.u. HV side]
1

IF LV [p.u. LV side]
IF tot [p.u. LV side]

w2 f

Short circuited winding part f


L2 L3

PF ? I 2Ftot ?R F ; Energy : WF ? I 2Ftot ?R F ?t Trip

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 2

Power Transmission and Distribution

Limits of the differential protection


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

(1 of 2)

Earth fault current limited by RE to IEmax = 2000A ; R E >> XTr


20 MVA ; YNd5
~

1L1

Side 1: 132kV

100/1A

/1A

~ 1L2
~

Side 2: 13.8kV
2L1
2L2
0

1L3

InO1 = 87.5A

2L3

InO2 = 837A

RE
/1A

IF ? f

?U

/ 3
f ? U 2N / 3
U / 3
? f ?I Emax and I K ? I F
? f 2 ?I Emax 2N
RE
U1N
U1N

2N

Will the differential protection detect the fault (setting IDiff> = 0.25I/InO , slope 1 = 0.25) ?
(fault location 20% from the star point)

I F ? 0.2 ?2000A ? 400A ;

I K ? 0.2 2 ?2000A

132kV
I ? I F /I nO2 ? 400A/837A ? 0.478 ; I ? I K /I nO1 ? 4.82A/87.5A ? 0.055
1
Io - Elimination : I D Elim ?
0 ? I*K ? I*K ? 1.154 ?I*K ? 0.063I/InO
3
1
1
0.478
Io ? Correction : I D Corr ?
0 ? I *K ? I*K ? I*F ? 0.063I/InO ?
I/InO ? 0.222 I/I nO
3
3
3
*
F

?
?

?13.8kV/ 3 ? ? 4.82A ;

*
K

?
?

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 3

Power Transmission and Distribution

Limits of the differential protection


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

(2 of 2)

With the above setting the differential protection (with Io-correction)


would only just fail to pick up!
IF,ID,IK
[p.u.]

IF [p.u. 13.8kV side]


ID Cor Io-correction
ID Elim Io-elimination
IK [p.u. 132kV side]

Diff. pickup at nom. load


Diff. pickup at no load
REF
Example

Short circuited winding part f

In the example at hand, it is therefore advisable to connect a CT with earth


current relay (pick up threshold 200A) in the earth connection of the star-point,
to increase the range of protection coverage to 90%.
This protection however requires a large time delay setting as the earth current
relay in the system must trip faster to maintain selectivity.

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 4

Power Transmission and Distribution

7UT6: Restricted Earth Fault Protection (General)


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

The REF measures the Neutral current of the object ( ISP = 3I0 ) and, depending on the
angle (? f ) between 3I0 and the also measured sum of the phase currents
( 3I0 = IL1 + IL2 + IL3 ), decides for internal or external fault.
The sensitivity of the REF is almost independent from the load of the object.
(The sensitivity of the Differential Function especially for high ohm faults will be reduced
by the load due to the slope of its Tripping Characteristic ).
The REF can be stetted to 0.1 I/INO and is therefore more sensitive as the
Differential Protection (even without load).

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 5

Power Transmission and Distribution

7UT6: Tripping Characteristic of REF


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

(1 of 3)

IREF> = Setting value (Trip Threshold)


IRest = Restraint current
IREF = 3I0
1) for basic Trip-Area (0 = ? f = 90):
Characteristic_1):

IREF = 3I0

and must be = IREF>

IREF / I REF> = 1 (no restraining current IRest effective)

2) for extended Trip-Area (90 = ? f = 180):


IREF = IREF> + kIRest

where IRest = ( 3I0-3I0 - 3I0+3I0 )

IRest includes the direction

I REF ? I REF ? ? k ??3Io'? 3Io' ' ? 3Io'? 3Io' ' ?? 3Io' ' ? reference, ? (3Io' ' ) ? 0

I REF ? I REF ? ? k ? 3Io'?e j? ? ? 3Io' ' ? 3Io'?e j? ? ? 3Io' '


1?

?
I REF ?
3Io' '
3Io' ' ?
?? ? I REF ? 3Io' ? 3Io'
? k ??? 1?e j? ? ?
? 1 ?e j? ? ?
3Io'
3Io'
3Io'
?
?

I REF ?
?
3Io' '
3Io' ' ?
??
? 1 ? k ??? 1?e j? ? ?
? 1?e j? ? ?
I REF
3Io'
3Io'
?
?

Characteri stic_2) :

I REF
?
I REF ?

?
1 ? k ?? 1?e j? ?
?

1
3Io' '
3Io' ' ?
?
? 1?e j? ? ?
?
3Io'
3Io' ?

for 7UT612 : k 2
for 7UT613/63 k 4

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 6

Power Transmission and Distribution

7UT6: Tripping Characteristic of REF


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

(2 of 3)

Figure 2: 7UT6 REF tripping characteristic


I REF

Char. for
? f = 180

I REF ?
4

Tripping
3

Blocking
-0.3

-0.2

-0.1
180 = ? f > 90
Characteristic_2)

0.0

+0.1

+0.2

90 = ? f = 0
Characteristic _1)

3I '0'
3I '0

+0.3

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 7

Power Transmission and Distribution

7UT6: Tripping Characteristic of REF


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Figure 3
?f > 90
3I0-3I0

(3 of 3)
Figure 5
?f < 90

Figure 4
?f =90

-3I0

+3I0
-3I0

IRest

+3I0
-3I0

3I0

+3I0

3I0+3I0

3I0
IRest

3I0

3I0-3I0

3I0+3I0
3I0-3I0

3I0+3I0

? f = 45
3I0

? f = 135

3I0

3I0

IRest = ( 3I0-3I0 - 3I0+3I0 ) = 0

IRest = ( 3I0-3I0 - 3I0+3I0 ) > 0

IRest = ( 3I0-3I0 - 3I0+3I0 ) < 0


(neg. values will be set to 0)

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 8

Power Transmission and Distribution

7UT6: REF CT saturation at star point CT


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

(1 of 2)

The star point CT can or even should be weaker designed than the phase Cts !
In case of an external fault and saturation on this CT there will be no false trip.

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 9

Power Transmission and Distribution

7UT6: REF CT saturation at star point CT

(2 of 2)

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 10

Power Transmission and Distribution

Comparison of sensitivity between


Differential Protection and REF
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

38.1 MVA ; Vector group: YNd5


Side 2: 11kV
Side 1: 110kV
2000/1A

200/1A

2L1

1L1

2L2

1L2

2L3

1L3
200/1A

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 11

Power Transmission and Distribution

Settings
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Io-Correction

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 12

Power Transmission and Distribution

Fault 1: Internal high ohm Fault L1-E Side 1, without Load (1 of 3)


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 13

Power Transmission and Distribution

Fault 1: Internal high ohm Fault L1-E Side 1, without Load (2 of 3)


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

With Io-Correction

With Io-Elimination

Idiff ?
0.11 I/InO

Only Ires, no Idiff


for L2,L3

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 14

Power Transmission and Distribution

Fault 1: Internal high ohm Fault L1-E Side 1, without Load (3 of 3)


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Trip Area

Block Area

Iref = actual current, IREF = Setting I REF>, K s=1, IoL = I0, IoSt = I0

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 15

Power Transmission and Distribution

Fault 2: Internal high ohm Fault L1-E Side 1, with Load (1 of 3)


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 16

Power Transmission and Distribution

Fault 2: Internal high ohm Fault L1-E Side 1, with Load (2 of 3)


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Iref = actual current, IREF = Setting I REF>,


Ks = 1, IoL = I0, IoSt = I0

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 17

Power Transmission and Distribution

Fault 2: Internal high ohm Fault L1-E Side 1, with Load (3 of 3)


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

3I0 = 36.49mA = 19.47mA, ? 3I0/ 3I0 = 19.47/140 = 0.139


InO = 200A ? 1000mA, IRef = 140mA, IRef> = 0.1 ? IRef/IRef> = 1.4
PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 18

Power Transmission and Distribution

7UT6: REF settings


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

proposed value

InS = nominal side current


Increasing the pickup value

I Ref
InO
0.3

1313A
slope = 0.1

0.2
IRef>
0.1

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

? I = IL1 + IL2 + IL3 + ISP

2.5

3.0

3.5 ? I InO

nominal
load

(to be handled with care) !!!

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 19

Power Transmission and Distribution

Setting the direction of the Star point CT


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Transformerwinding
L1 Setting for CT-Strpnt in Direct. Of Object

must be correct !

L2
L3

Q7
Q8
7UT612

0230 Earthing Electrode versus

Terminal Q7

Q7
Q8
7UT612

0230 Earthing Electrode versus

Terminal Q7

Q7

0230 Earthing Electrode versus

Terminal Q8

0230 Earthing Electrode versus

Terminal Q8

Q8

7UT612
Q7

Q8

7UT612

Secondary earthing of Star point CT has no influence on the direction

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 20

Power Transmission and Distribution

7UT6: versions
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

7UT612
Version 4.0

7UT613/63. 7UT613/63.
Version 4.0 Version 4.6
(Jan. 2006)

Number of
1
Low impedance REF

REF for
Autotransformer

No

Yes

No

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Application
Device Configuration

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

0105
0112
0113

M1
S1
Main
protect.
object

7UT613

Y
S2

M2
Starpointbilder
X2

Sides:
S1
High voltage side (HV)
S2
Low voltage side (LV)
Measuring locations 3-phase , assigned
M1 assigned to the main protected object (side 1)
M2 assigned to the main protected object (side 2)
Auxiliary measuring locations 1-phase
X1
assigned to the main protected object (side 1)
X2
assigned to the main protected object (side 2)
X3
not assigned to the main protected object

3 phase Transformer
Enabled
Enabled

Power System Data 1

X1

Protected Object
Differential Protection
REF Protection

CT-Numbers
0211 No. of connected Meas. Loc.
0212 No. of assigned Meas. Loc.
0213 No. of sides
CT-Assign
0222 Assignment at 2 assig.
Meas.Loc./2 sides
0251 Auxiliary CT IX1 is used as
0252 Auxiliary CT IX2 is used as
Transf.
.
0313 Starpoint of Side 1 is
0314 Transf. Winding Connection Side 1
.
0323 Starpoint of Side 2 is
0324 Transf. Winding Connection Side 2
0325 Vector Group Numeral of Side 2
Funct.
0413 REF assigned to
0420 DMT/IDMT Phase assigned to

2
2
2

S1:M1, S2:M2
Side 1 earth
Side 2 earth
Solid Earthed
Y (Wye)
Solid Earthed (!!)
D (Delta)
11
Side 2
Side 1

Setting Group A
Differential Protection-Settings Group A
1211A Diff-Prot. with meas. Earth Curr. S1
1212A Diff-Prot. with meas. Earth Curr. S2

Yes (Io- correct. Side 1)


No

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 22

Power Transmission and Distribution

7UT6: REF Interturn fault / terminal earth fault


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

38.1 MVA ; Vector group: YNd5


Side 2: 11kV
Side 1: 110kV
2000/1A
2L1

200/1A

1L1

2L2

1L2

2L3

1L3

1L1

2L2

1L2

2L3

1L3

200/1A

(-)

(+)

? ? = 180 ? no Trip by REF

38.1 MVA ; Vector group: YNd5


Side 2: 11kV
Side 1: 110kV
2000/1A
2L1

200/1A

200/1A

ISP

ISP = 0 ? no Trip by REF

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 23

Power Transmission and Distribution

7UT6: REF, testing the characteristic


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

(1 of 3)

Configuration:
Winding 1:
80MVA,110kV

500/1A

500/1A

In ?

S NTr ?I NCTSec
3 ?U NTr ?I NCT Pr im

80000kVA ?1A
? 0.839 A
3 ?110kV ?500 A

(In this case for Io and Io, because all cts are primary 500A)

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 24

Power Transmission and Distribution

7UT6: REF testing the characteristic


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

(2 of 3)

Test point 1:
Io = 2 IREF> = 2?0.1?0.839A = 0.168A = constant. Io: at the begin approximate 0.4?0.168A
ej180=0.067A, than reducing step by step until trip? Result: -21mA/168mA = -0.125
Test point 2:
Io = 4 IREF> = 4?0.1?0.839A = 0.336A = constant. Io: at the begin approximate 0.4?0.336A
ej180=0.134A, than reducing step by step until trip? Result: -60mA/336mA ? 0.18

-0.18
TP 2

-0.125
TP 1

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

Page 25

Power Transmission and Distribution

7UT6: REF testing the characteristic


No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Test point 1:

Test point 2:

?-21mA

168mA

(3 of 3)

?-60mA

336mA

PTD EA13 N.M. 7UT6: REF 07/2005

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