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1959 (Joseph Needham)

[ Honil Kangni Yoktae Kukto Chi Do]

1
[ Kangnido]

1.

(b ~ m
) Tambralinga ~ Tamralinga
(Nakhon Si Thammarat < Nagara Sri Dharmarja
)2

Joseph Needham, Science and civilization in China. Cambridge: University Press, 1959.
Paul Wheatley, The Golden Khersonese - studies in the historical geography of the Malay Peninsula before A.D. 1500
(Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, 1961), pp. 65-67. (
1981) 79-86

(
2005) 65-102
1
2

2.
(Keppel Habour)
(Sentosa)
3
3.
Indragiri ~
Vindhyagiri4 ( Palembang )
(Sri Vijaya) (Jampi)10
5 Indragiri Indragiri
Indragiri

11
6
Indragiri
4.
(Kedah)7 8
9

5.

(Thaton) (Kyaikto)

Paul Wheatley, The Golden Khersonese, pp. 81-87.


213-218
giri

141-145187-190

6
Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp.
174-175(2003) 143
7

(1986) 966-967

(1985) 221-222 (Bujang


valley)
8

(1988) 133-141152
9

(2000) 68

168-172
2
4

10

90

() ()
()
()
() () ()

10

1150 (Cambodia) (Sri Vijaya) Paul Wheatley, The Golden


Khersonese (Kuala Lumpur: Universtity of Malaya Press, 1961), pp. 299, 302, 310.
3

1. ()
[-] /ngan/
[-] [an] (Andaman Islands)

11
2. ()

(Orissa)
Udda12
3.
Kanchipuram
( Kcpura)
13
14
4. ()
(Soli-patam) (Soli)
(patam ~ pattinam) (Tamil)
(Chola) (sh ~ ch)15
5.

11

125-127

339-342
1067
13

(2000) 851-855

14
/nam/ Kanchipuram
15

272-274 74-80
(
1999) 92-94
4
12

16
6.
Kayal Cail

17
18
7.
Kollam ~ Quilon
19
8.

20 21

16

344-346
(1976) 4669-4671

(1986) 986
17

922
18
/-t/ /-t/ /-l/
Kayal
19

90-92

321-324

4669-4671

1024-1025
20
(MIYA Noriko)(2007) 179-180
21
( 1152) ()

22

9.

23
Nishapur (Naysbr ) Tous (Ts ) Merv (Marv ) Balkh ( )
Badakh shn ( ) (Delhi )

22

(MIYA Noriko)

182
( 1567-1574)

6
23

(Baroqi ~ Bharuch) 24
(*da-mu-na) Daybul (Debal ~
Deval)25 Makrn 26 14 ( DYWL Dayl)27 28 Daybul

1.

(Yemen) ( Hadan Aden )


29 30

24

(SUGIYAMA Masaaki)

(
2007) 59-60Bharuch Barj
Bahrch Bahrg /b/ /p/ /f/ (*fa-la-ki)
Henry Yule, Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms,
etymological, historical, geographical and discursive (London: J. Murray, 1903), pp. 116-117The University
of Chicago, Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/hobsonjobson/ Broach
25
(*da-mu-na < Dabul ~ Daybul) m ~ b /mu/ /bu/
/na/ /-l/ /n/ ~ /l/

\ ( hatt al-isti) (Equator) /na/


/-l/ (TAKAHASHI Tadashi)

374 (1963 9 ) 76-95 [ 87-90]


26
Guy le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (Cambridge: University Press, 1930), pp. 329-333
( Makrn)
27
Rashd al-Dn (1247-1318), in M. Rauan and M. Msav ed., Jmic al-Tawrkh (Tehran, 1994), p. 547 []

(1983) 328J. A. Boyle, The History of the World


Conqueror (Manchester University Press, 1958), pp. 416-417 (note)
(
1981) 493499
28
( 1153-1154)
(Makrn) (Sindu Indus)
/yut/ Dayl /tiei-yut/ /-t/ /-l/
/-r/ Diul-Sind Henry Yule, Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial
Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive (London: J.
Murray, 1903), pp. 320-321The University of Chicago, Digital Dictionaries of South Asia,
http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/hobsonjobson/ Diul-Sind
29

(1998) 60
30
(2000) 112-115

31
2.

( Zufar ~ Dhofar)
(Oman)
32 33
34

(2005) 80-85
31
(TAKAHASHI Tadashi)

(
)56-57 (1966 12 ) 204-215
32
89-98163-164
33

/fat/
/f//-t/ /-r/
/-l/

[n-] [nz] /z/ ~ /j/

Mahrja
(
128-130) /ja/
34
103-106 76-80
8

()
1.

(Maqadsh )
(Somali) (
Mogadishu Maqadsh ) 10

()
35

2.

()

()

( Mogadishu)
() (1298 )
36
37

35

(SUGIYAMA Masaaki)

(
2007) 5863
36
(1972) 103
37

(1986) 987
9

38

38

216-218
10

39

()

( Kedah) ()

40

41

(Zufar)

39

(1995) 219
(Sri Lanka
)
41

( 84-86)

( 55-62)

(
51-55)
11
40

()

(Mogadishu )

42
(Daybul)

(Zufar)
( Hadan)
( Makkah Mecca)
(Mogadishu )

42

(2007) 279-304
12

(Sri Lanka )

43

90

()

44

(Cape of Good Hope) 45

(SUGIYAMA Masaaki)
[Tzai no sekaizu ga kataru jinrui
saisho no daichihei][Daichi no shz] (2007)
44

45
(MIYA Noriko)

8-9
13
43

14

The confusion of the geographic position of Southeast Asia, India, Arab Peninsula and
East Africa within the map Hunyi Jiangli Lidai Guodu zhi Tu (Kangnido)
Ho, Kai-lung

Lecturer

School of Humanities and General Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Tung Wah
Groups of Hospitals Community College
Abstract
It is widely believed that the "Map of Integrated Lands and Regions of Historical Countries and
Capitals" [Korean: Honil kangni ryktae gukto jido; Chinese: ] was
combined by the Chinese maps and the Arabic maps during the Mongol-Yuan dynasty. This article
researchs the name of places in Southeast Asia, India and Arabic Perninsula, and proves that the map
preserved a low geographic knowledge of those region. Vietnam, Thailand, both east and west coast
of Malay Peninsula, and even a port of Sumatra were all lined up along a straight coast. Both the
Gulf of Thailand and the Malay Peninsula disappeared. The India was cut into north and south part.
The North India correctly placed in the Asia continent. But the South India was drawn as a big island
within the Indian Ocean. All the coastal cities known by the Southern Sung dynasty were placed into
this South India Island. The port Zufar (in Oman) was not at the south coast of Arabic Peninsula
but was placed into another non-existent island, south of the South India Island. The famous port
Mogadishu (in Somali) was not at the east coast of Africa but was placed into non-existent island
where located at south of the South India Island and South Arabia Island. Those mistakes were
due to the low technique of voyage. Due to the difficulty in calculating wind speed, Chinese sailors
only remembered some islands and hills along the route for reminding the position of the ship.
Therefore, they did not care about the actual size and shape of those places. On the other hand, the
Arabic maps even did not record the India coast and Southeast Asia. This map reflects the low-level
geographic knowledge around the Indian Ocean by both the Chinese and Arabic source. Joseph
Needham claimed that this map was the first one with the Africa continent point south. But I think
that we should investigate this map much more before we prove Josepth Needhams claim.

15

(Joseph Needham)

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