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Problem Sheet 3

[See worked example on Fresnel coefficients in the style of Q1 and Q2 on Moodle page.]

1. A plane wave in air is incident normally on an infinite lossless dielectric material having r = 3

and r = 1. If the incident wave is E j 10cos t x j Vm-1, find

(a) the wavelength i and the value of of the incident wave; (6.28 m, 3x108 rad s-1)

(b) the wavelength t of the transmitted wave;

(3.63 m)

(c) the amplitude of the incident magnetic field

(0.026 Am-1)

(d) the amplitude of the transmitted electric field

(7.32 Vm-1)

(e) the time-averaged transmitted power

(0.123 Wm-2)

2. A plane wave propagates through a dielectric medium in the region z 0 with r = 9 and r = 1

with H j 0.2cos 109 t Kx K 8z j A m-1. The wave is incident on a boundary with air,

which forms the xy plane, at z = 0. [Note that K = k sin i and that 8 K = k cos i in the usual

notation, where k is the wavevector in the dielectric material] Find:

(a) i and t;

(19.47; 90 - incident wave at critical angle)

(b) the values of K and k;

(3.33 m-1; 10 m-1)

(c) the wavelengths in the dielectric and in the air; (0.628m, 1.88 m)

109 t Kx K 8z Vm-1

(d) the incident electric field

(e) the transmitted and reflected electric fields

109 t Kx K 8z Vm-1

(f) the Brewster angle

(18.43 )

3. Consider the case of a plane wave polarised with its E-field perpendicular to the plane of

incidence. The wave propagates in vacuum and reflects from a non-magnetic material with a

relative permittivity > 1. Show that the reflected wave is radians out of phase with the incident

wave for any angle of incidence. [Hint: You may wish to use Snells Law]

4.[HARDER] This question is about refraction and reflection of light at the surface of a good

conductor. You may assume that the refractive index is >>1 for a good conductor (More on this

in electromagnetism 2).

(a) Summarise how light transmitted into a good conductor is refracted.

(b) Using the expressions for the impedance of free space and the impedance of a good

conductor, or otherwise, find a good approximation for the reflectivity (R) of a metal surface.

You can assume normal incidence to the surface to simplify the calculation.

5. (a) What does the acronym LASER stand for?

(b) Summarise the conditions required for lasing to occur in a system.

(c) Briefly explain the interaction that occurs between a photon and an electron in the following

optical transitions: absorption, spontaneous emission and stimulated emission

(d) Hence, explain how the rate of electron excitation and de-excitation in a system can be

written as:

dN1

B12 N1

dt

dN2

A21 B21 N 2 .

dt

6. Laser light can be described as monochromatic, coherent and bright. Explain these terms with

reference to the physics of lasers.

These problems will be discussed in weeks 10 and 11

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