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PUMA Open V1.

2
Le gal Cyc le Serv ices

January 2005
ID Number: AT1577E
Rev. 12

Users Guide

Copyright 2005 by AVL List GmbH, Graz - Austria


The contents of this document may not be reproduced in any form
or communicated to any third party without the prior written
consent of AVL. While every effort is made to ensure its correctness,
AVL assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions which may
occur in this document or for damage caused by them.
All mentioned trademarks or registered trademarks are owned by
their respective owners.
Printed in Austria at AVL

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
1

What you should know ................................................................................................ 3


1.1
1.2
1.3

Safety Instructions .........................................................3


Intended Use ...................................................................3
Statutory Test Cycles in Puma Open............................4
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.3.5

1.4

About This Manual .........................................................6


1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4

Light Duty Test Cycles ................................................. 4


Heavy Duty Test Cycles............................................... 5
Legal Specifications ..................................................... 5
Available Heavy Duty Test Cycles ............................... 5
Available Light Duty Test Cycles ................................. 6
Abbreviations and Glossary Terms.............................. 7
Typographic Conventions ............................................ 8
Online Help .................................................................. 9
We want to Hear From You ......................................... 9

Light Duty Cycles....................................................................................................... 11


2.1
2.2

Overview........................................................................11
Requirements................................................................ 11
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4

2.3

Additional Normnames............................................... 12
Import Driving Profiles................................................ 13
Import Monitoring Function ........................................ 14
Create Own Tests ...................................................... 18

Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver ...21


2.3.1
2.3.2

Parameters for VTOL and LAD.................................. 22


Generate Tolerance Band.......................................... 25
Generate ECE ...................................................... 27
Generate FTP ....................................................... 29
Create New Definitions ......................................... 30

2.3.3

Activate Tolerance Band....................................... 31


Activate Look-Ahead Driver (LAD)............................. 32
Additional Points Function .................................... 33
Speed Curve Filtering Function ............................ 35
Raise Shift Plateau Function ................................ 38
Useful Information................................................. 41
Look-Ahead Driver Activation Object.................... 42

2.4

Tolerance Band Monitoring .........................................43


2.4.1

Principle of Tolerance Band Monitoring ..................... 43


Monitoring V_Tolerance_Monitoring ................... 44
Helper scripts and activation objects .................... 45

2.4.2

Formula V_Tolerance_Check ............................. 46


ECE Monitoring.......................................................... 47

PUMA Open
Statuory Test Cycles - Light Duty

Table of Contents

2.4.3
2.4.4

EPA Monitoring .......................................................... 47


Online Window........................................................... 48

Heavy Duty Cycles ETC and HDTC .......................................................................... 51


3.1
3.2

Overview........................................................................51
Requirements................................................................ 53
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4

3.3

Additional Normnames............................................... 53
Modification of Test Facility Parameters (TFP).......... 57
Modification of Unit Under Test Parameters (UUT) ... 58
Test Import (BSQ, SSQ) ............................................ 59

Parameterization of Full Load Curve Recording .......60


3.3.1
3.3.2

Parameterization of Full Load Curve in EMP............. 60


Parameterization ETC (ECE)..................................... 63
Parameterization in ECT....................................... 63

3.3.3

Parameterization in EMP ...................................... 63


Parameterization HDTC (EPA) .................................. 64
Parameterization in ECT....................................... 64

3.4

Test Description ...........................................................65


3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5

3.5

Test Execution .............................................................. 73


3.5.1
3.5.2

3.6

Full Load Curve Recording ........................................ 73


Test Run .................................................................... 75

Regression Analysis ....................................................76


3.6.1
3.6.2

3.7

Overview .................................................................... 65
Recorder Parameterization (REC) ............................. 67
Measurement Request (MRQ)................................... 69
Profile Parameterization (SSQ).................................. 71
Parameterization for Regression Analysis Activation 72

Function ..................................................................... 76
Results ....................................................................... 78

ESC Test Cycle .............................................................79


3.7.1
3.7.2

Generation of ESC Test Cycle................................... 81


Parameters of ESC Test Cycle .................................. 84

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Safety Instructions

What you should know


This documentation describes the functions of "statutory test cycles"
for passenger cars (light duty) and for trucks (heavy duty) in the PUMA
Open test bed system.
This section contains information on the following topics:

Searching for
topics:

1.1

Safety Instructions

Intended Use

Statutory Test Cycles in Puma Open

About This Manual

Detailled information to the functionalities of light duty and heavy duty


you will find at:

What you should know on page 3

Heavy Duty Cycles ETC and HDTC on page 51

Safety Instructions
This documentation contains important Warnings and Safety
Instructions that users must observe. Only by careful observance of
these requirements and safety instructions can a smooth operation be
guaranteed.

1.2

Intended Use
Statutory test cycles (light duty) serve for testing passenger car
engines on PUMA Open test beds, especially with regard to measuring
exhaust emissions. The permissible emission values are specified by
(the respective country's) legislative bodies. Light duty test cycles must
not be used for testing truck engines.
Statutory test cycles (heavy duty) serve for testing truck engines on
PUMA Open test beds, especially with regard to measuring exhaust
emissions. The permissible emission values are specified by (the
respective country's) legislative bodies. Heavy duty test cycles must
not be used for testing passenger car engines.
For any use outside the application purpose mentioned or in the case
of non-observance of the necessary requirements and safety instructions no guarantee and/or liability shall be assumed.

PUMA Open
Statutory Test Cycles - Light Duty

Statutory Test Cycles in Puma Open

1.3

Statutory Test Cycles in Puma Open


Statutory test cycles are "standardized" test runs that are used for the
certification of combustion engines on engine test beds or chassis
dynos by means of defined driving profiles.
Typical examples

Typical examples for light duty statutory test cycles are FTP75, J1015,
etc.. Typical examples for heavy duty statutory test cycles are FTP75,
ECE R83, etc..

Kinds of statutory
test cycles

The PUMA Open system is comprised of two distinct kinds of statutory


test cycles:

Statutory test cycles for passenger cars (light duty)

Statutory test cycles for trucks (heavy duty)

Important: The component "statutory test cycles for passenger cars"


and "statutory test cycles for trucks" contains the software functions to
define the respective parameters and run statutory test cycles for
passenger cars.
The test cycles are available in the form of the legally required
demand values as BSQ tests.
Complete statutory test cycles including emission measurements and
evaluations are available as application packages (AVL GEM301H).

1.3.1

Light Duty Test Cycles


Light Duty Tests are statutory test cyles which mainly serve to test
passenger car engines.
The requirement is a time-based vehicle speed profile that is run on a
chassis dyno or on an engine test bed.
In PUMA Open, these tests are carried out by dynamic steps (SSQ).
Important: Configuration ISAC is needed to perform light duty tests!

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Statutory Test Cycles in Puma Open

1.3.2

Heavy Duty Test Cycles


The functions included enable the recording of full load curves and the
automatic running of transient profiles which are available in a
normalized (percentage or calculated) form.
Demand value
output

The demand value output (PUMA steady-state steps or SSQ


sequences) is effected by means of steady-state engine control modes
(speed/torque/alpha), which are adjusted to the respective engine by
using the characteristic quantities of the specific engine (denormalized
values).

Full load
characteristic

The recording of the specific full load characteristic for the respective
heavy duty transient test is performed automatically and in compliance
with the relevant regulations. The standard test cycles are available as
driving profiles (SSQ), but can be adapted slightly to meet the user's
needs.

Regression
analysis

The concluding regression analysis according to ECE and EPA


provides information about the quality of the control.
Important: Configuration EMCON400 or ISAC400 is needed to carry
out heavy duty tests!

1.3.3

Legal Specifications
The contents of the statutory test cycles are specified by the legislative
bodies of the relevant regions (EPA, ECE, etc.), taking into account the
following criteria:

1.3.4

Test run execution (vehicle speed, gear shift points, etc.) in


compliance with the allowed deviations of the actual speed
Definition of measurements to be taken during the test run
(emission measurements, etc.)
Monitoring of exhaust emission limits during a whole test cycle

Available Heavy Duty Test Cycles


The scope of delivery includes wo ready test cycles:
TST_ETC

TST_ETC contains the ECE specifications for the European Transient


Cycle.

TST_HDT

TST_HDT contains the EPA specifications for the Heavy Duty


Transient Cycle.
The two transient test cycles HDTC and ETC are available in a
normalized form, i.e., relative demand value tracks. The necessary
adaptations can be made by means of the graphical editor SSQ.
In addition, there are two templates for the ESC test cycle (with or
without additional points (modes)).

PUMA Open
Statutory Test Cycles - Light Duty

About This Manual

1.3.5

Available Light Duty Test Cycles


The PUMA Open test bed system supports the parameterization and
performance of the following statutory test cycles, which are available
as dynamic step sequences (SSQ):
ECE1504_05M

EU/ECE test cycles (ECE regulations 15/04 and 15/05).

FTP75

EPA test cycle

J1015

Japan 10.15 mode cycle

JAPAN11

Japan 11 mode cycle

SC03

EPA additional cycle aggressive behavior

US06

EPA additional cycle with air-conditioning unit


Important: The Puma Open system contains the complete driving
profiles with the possibilities of tolerance band monitoring and
optimization by means of the look-ahead driver. Complete statutory
test cycles including emission measurements and evaluations are
available as application packages (AVL GEM 301L).

1.4

About This Manual


Target group

The documentation is intended for test bed engineers who set the filter
functions for PUMA Open channels (normnames) and use them in
PUMA Open.
This documentation cannot and is not meant to replace adequate
training!

Requirements

Secondary
literature

In order to be able to work with statutory test cycles, you must meet the
following requirements:

Basic knowledge of PUMA Open

Basic knowledge of setting test run parameters (BSQ, SSQ)

Basic knowledge of emission measuring technologies

For further information on this topic, please refer to the following AVL
documentation:
AT1806E10 "ISAC400"
AT1748E10 "Parameterization Tools"

http://www.avl.com

About This Manual

1.4.1

Abbreviations and Glossary Terms


BSQ

Block Sequence Editor

CITT

Curb Idle Transmission Torque

DYS

Dynamic Step

ECE

Economic Commission for Europe (UN Organization)

ECE R 15

Emission regulation (contains test cycle "part 1" from ECE R 83)

ECE R 83

ECC (European Urban Cycle) and EUDC Cycle (MVEG and NEFZ)

EPA

Environment Protection Agency (US)

ESC

European Stationary Cycle

ETC

European Transient Cycle


New test run for truck and bus engines. This test cycle will be used for
emission certification together with ESC test run.

EUC

Elementary Urban Cycle (part of ECE R 83)

EUDC

Extra Urban Driving Cycle (part of ECE R 83)

FTP

Federal Test Procedure (transient test cycle for passenger cars))

FTP75

Transient test cycle for passenger cars and light trucks, derived from
the statutory test cycle FTP-72. Is used for emission certification
testing of passenger car and light truck engines in the U.S.

HDTC

Heavy-Duty FTP Transient Cycle

J1015

Japan 10-15 mode test cycle - is used in Japan for the emission certification testing of passenger cars.

LAD

Look-Ahead Driver

LAFY

Los Angeles Freeway (part of FTP cycle)

LANF

Los Angeles Non Freeway (part of FTP cycle)

MVEG

ECE+EUDC test cycle

NYNF

New York Non Freeway (part of FTP cycle)

OICA/ACEA

Also called ESC test run

SC03

Addition to FTP test cycle. Is used for emission simulation in


connection with air-conditioning systems.

SFTP

US06 & SC03 - addition to FTP test cycle

SSQ

Step Sequence Editor

UDC

Urban Driving Cycle (part of ECE R 83)

US06

Addition to FTP test cycle - simulation of aggressive highway driving.

VTOL

Velocity tolerance

PUMA Open
Statutory Test Cycles - Light Duty

About This Manual

1.4.2

Typographic Conventions
This documentation uses the following icons and standard text styles:
ATTENTION:
Icon and text indicate a warning of situations or actions that could
potentially lead to personal injury, hardware damage and/or significant
data loss.

Important: Icon and text indicate very important information or


instructions. If these instructions are ignored, you will not be able to
finish, or will have (significant) difficulties finishing the actions
described in this documentation.

Note: Icon and text refer to further information (tip, literature, etc.).

Example: The gray example box describes an example.

Standard text styles and their use:


Bold

Parameters; control elements in windows and


dialog boxes; important text

Italics

Foreign or new terms; book titles; wherever you


are required to type user-dependent information
such as characters or text. If you read, for
example, macro name, then you are required to
type the name of a macro.

UPPERCASE
LETTERS

Keys; shortcut keys; operating states; file name


extensions

Courier

Programming examples; source code

Times New Roman

Formulas

Menu | Option

Describes how to select a menu item (here called


Option) found in the menu (here called Menu).

Bullets, lists and their use:


1.

Step-by-step procedures; sequential lists

2.
Unordered series of concepts, items or options

Unordered series of concepts, items or options in


the form of subordinate clauses

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About This Manual

1.4.3

Online Help
This printed manual is also available as online Help.
Open the online Help:

1.4.4

via the PUMA Open menu Help

or by pressing the control key F1 for context-sensitive Help.

We want to Hear From You


AVL continually strives to improve its documentation and, with this
thought in mind, we would like to hear what you have to say about it.
Whether you want to suggest an improvement to a particular manual,
complain that a concept is not explained well enough or point out an
error, we want to know.
To this end, we have created the following e-mail address for all
documentation-related correspondence:
docu@avl.com
We look forward to hearing from you!

PUMA Open
Statutory Test Cycles - Light Duty

10

About This Manual

http://www.avl.com

Overview

Light Duty Cycles


This section contains detailed information on the following topics:

2.1

Overview

Requirements

Overview
The functions of the system enable the automatic running of dynamic
light duty test cycles on an engine test bed by use of ISAC 400 driver
and vehicle simulation.
The test cycles are available to users as driving profiles, which can be
adapted slightly and run on the engine test bed.

2.2

Velocity tolerance
band

A velocity tolerance band can be generated automatically for the


respective cycle. The current vehicle velocity is monitored during the
run time.

Look-ahead
driver

The function look-ahead driver is used to simulate the behavior of an


experienced driver who achieves minimum throttle movement by
making the best possible use of speed profile tolerances. Reasonable
gear shift handling can especially help to reduce the drop in actual
speed during the gear shifting procedure.

Requirements
Certain requirements must be met in order to be able to work with light
duty test cycles. This section contains detailed information on the
following requirements:

Additional Normnames

Import Driving Profiles

Import Monitoring Function

Create Own Tests

PUMA Open
Statutory Test Cycles - Light Duty

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Requirements

2.2.1

Additional Normnames
In order to be able to use the functions tolerance band monitoring
and look-ahead driver, you will need additional normnames.
Important: These normnames are taken into account automatically
with standard installations.
For a customer specific normname directory, the following normnames must be added by means of the NED (in the group Calculated
Quantities).

Channel
Name

System Name

Description

LAH_TB_H

lkahead_tolb_hi

Velocity tolerance band, upper limit

LAH_TB_L

lkahead_tolb_low

Velocity tolerance band, lower limit

LAD_V

lkahead_calc_vel

Look-ahead driver: speed

Note: For online monitoring by means of scripts and formulas the


following normnames (in the group Calculated Quantities) are
required:

Channel
Name

System Name

Description

QcNOK

QcNOK

Quality Check failed for whole cycle

QcCnt

QcCnt

Quality Check counter / timer for actual violation

QcCnt15

QcCnt15

Quality Check counter for violations less 15 sec

QcCntAct

QcCntAct

Quality Check flag for checking only once

QcEnable

QcEnable

Quality Check flag for enabled formula

QcVioHi

QcVioHi

Quality Check indicator for upper violation

QcVioHLo

QcVioHLo

Quality Check indicator for lower violation

QcVioCnt

QcVioCnt

Quality Check counter for overall violations

QcVioTim

QcVioTim

Quality Check violation time

QcVioTyp

QcVioTyp

Quality Check type (0..ECE 1..FTP)

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Requirements

2.2.2

Import Driving Profiles


Carry out the following steps in order to import a driving profile:

Fig. 1

1.

Start the Application Manager.

2.

Start the PUMA Open Explorer.

3.

Select target directory (e.g. \ComputerName, \Projects, \AVL,


\Project Data).

4.

Activate the function Import in the right-hand area of the Explorer


(click with right mouse button in the right-hand window).

5.

Select the desired XML file from the directory dat\xml (cycletemplates.xml)

Import driving profile


Important: In the test shown in the figure above, no test cycle (BSQ)
has been defined; the profile templates are contained as dynamic step
sequences (SSQ) in the Library subdirectory.

PUMA Open
Statutory Test Cycles - Light Duty

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Requirements

2.2.3

Import Monitoring Function


Note: The limit definitions and formulas are contained as examples in
the test supplied (VTOLTest).

Fig. 2

1.

Start the Application Manager.

2.

Start the PUMA Open Explorer.

3.

Select target directory (e.g. \ComputerName, \Projects, \AVL,


\Project Data).

4.

Activate the function Import in the right-hand area of the Explorer


(click with right mouse button in the right-hand window).

5.

Select the desired XML file from the directory dat\xml (cycletemplates.xml)

Import monitoring function


VTOLTest

In the test shown in the figure below, the Library subdirectory contains
the components for the tolerance band monitoring:

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Requirements

Fig. 3

Components for tolerance band monitoring

PUMA Open
Statutory Test Cycles - Light Duty

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16

Requirements

Fig. 4

Profile
ECE1505EU3

Example of an ECE driving profile.

Profile
P1_und_P2

Example of an EPA driving profile.

Recorder

This recorder definition contains all relevant quantities of the tolerance


band monitoring. However, this recorder is not necessary for the function.

Formula
V_Tolerance
_Check

These cyclic formulas are calculated depending on the respective


limits and contain the legal exceptions for upper/lower deviations from
statutory limits.

Formula Editor

http://www.avl.com

Requirements

Monitoring
V_Tolerance_
Monitoring

Fig. 5

These limits contain the parameters of the individual upper or lower


deviations of the current speed and the overall result of the monitoring.

Step specific limits

PUMA Open
Statutory Test Cycles - Light Duty

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Requirements

2.2.4

Create Own Tests


You may combine the following components with the respective driving
profile (with generated tolerance band) to create your own tests:

Formula V_Tolerance_Check

Monitoring V_Tolerance_Monitoring

In order to create the test, you have to copy these components from
the example's library (by means of the PUMA Open Explorer) into the
library of the new test. In addition, the desired profile with generated
tolerance bands is required.
Important:
You must insert the respective activation object at the beginning of the
profile by Legal Cycles:

Start ECE

Start FTP

The following Cycle must be inserted at the end of the profile:

Stop

Fig. 6

Driving profile in the PUMA Open Explorer (SSQ)

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Requirements

Activation object
Legal Cycle
Services

Start (ECE)

Start (FTP)

Stop

Fig. 7

Activation object Legal Cycle Services

PUMA Open
Statutory Test Cycles - Light Duty

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Requirements

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

2.3

Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver


Using the function Tools | Velocity Tolerance and Look-Ahead
Driver, you can create additional demand value tracks for a specific
profile for

upper tolerance band

lower tolerance band and/or

optimized demand speed (look-ahead driver)

in the form of a newly generated profile:


1.

Start the PUMA Open Explorer.

2.

Select the desired profile (in the library of the test or a common
directory).

3.

Invoke by use of the function Tools | Velocity Tolerance and


Look-Ahead Driver (to load the profile that has been selected).

Fig. 8

Velocity Tolerance and Look-Ahead Driver

Note: For velocity tolerance we use the abbreviation VTOL, and


look-ahead driver is abbreviated as LAD.

Below you will find detailed information on the following topics:

Parameters for VTOL and LAD

Generate Tolerance Band

Activate Look-Ahead Driver (LAD)

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Statutory Test Cycles - Light Duty

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

2.3.1

Parameters for VTOL and LAD


Define the parameters in the window Velocity Tolerance and
Look-Ahead Driver:

Fig. 9

Velocity Tolerance and Look-Ahead Driver

Sequence Properties

The following parameters are set in the Sequence Properties area:

New sequence
name

Under New sequence name, the name of the new sequence to be


generated can be defined. The name of the original profile plus extension _gen is used as a default (if nothing is entered).

Activation area

If you want to use the functions Velocity Tolerance Band and


Look-Ahead Driver only over a certain area, you can select an area at
Activation Area (by default, this is the whole SSQ area).

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Note: If a profile with the same name already exists in the library, you
can overwrite it. You are asked whether you want to overwrite a profile
in the dialog box: Overwrite sequence with the given name if it
exists.
Create speed
tolerance tracks
(VTOL)

If you select this parameter (tick), velocity tolerance tracks for the
upper and lower tolerance bands will be generated.

Tolerance time

This parameter is used to define the tolerance time for the calculation.
Value range:

Upper speed limit

This parameter is used to define the upper speed limit.


Value range:

Lower speed limit

0.5 to 5 seconds

0.1 to 10 km/h

This parameter is used to define the lower speed limit.


Value range:

0.1 to 10 km/h

Note: For further information, please refer to 2.3.2 "Generate Tolerance Band" on page 25!

Create
look-ahead driver
(LAD)

If you select this parameter (tick), a track for the look-ahead driver will
be generated.

LAD time

This parameter defines the time distance of the new points generated
by LAD.
Value range:

Additional points

0,5 to 5,0 seconds

This parameter is used to define the number of additional points for an


existing point.
Available values:

0, 2, 4, 6

Note: For further information, please refer to 2.3.3 "Activate


Look-Ahead Driver (LAD)" on page 32!

Filter speed curve

This parameter is used to disable/enable (tick) the function Filter


speed curve.

Filter time

This parameter is used to define the time frame for the calculation of
the filtered velocity track.
Value range:

Utilization

1 to 20 seconds

This parameter is used to define the degree of utilization of the filtered


value in relation to the tolerance band:
0%, no deviation from original curve
100%, full utilization of tolerance range

PUMA Open
Statutory Test Cycles - Light Duty

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24

Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Raise shift
plateau

This parameter is used to disable/enable (tick) the function Raise shift


plateau.

Time before
gearshift

With this parameter you set the time from which the demand vehicle
speed is to be increased.

Time after gearshift

With this parameter you set the time until which the demand vehicle
speed is to be increased.

Raise at
100 km/h

With this parameter you determine for how many km/h the demand
vehicle speed is to be increased at 100 km/h. The current value is
interpolated linearily.
Note: For detailed information, please refer to "Raise Shift Plateau
Function" on page 38.

Set FTP Defaults

You use this button to set the default setting for the FTP cycle.
Note: For detailed information, please refer to "Generate FTP" on
page 29.

Set ECE Defaults

You use this button to set the default setting for the ECE cycle.
Note: For detailed information, please refer to "Generate ECE" on
page 27.

Input/Selection field for


names

You can define an existing or a new cycle name for the default settings
in this field.

OK

You start the generation by choosing the OK button. Afterwards the


application will be closed.

Cancel

By use of Cancel, you close the application without generating a


driving profile.

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

2.3.2

Generate Tolerance Band


In addition to the mandatory speed profile, driving cycles for statutory
emission tests must also have a tolerance band, within which the
actual vehicle speed must remain so that the test passes as valid.
You can generate the upper and lower velocity tolerances depending
on the original track and the necessary related parameters.
1.

Start the Application Manager.

2.

Start the PUMA Open Explorer.

3.

Select the profile template (from a library).

4.

Activate Tools | Velocity Tolerance and Look-Ahead

Driver.
5.

Set the parameters.

6.

Click OK.

Note: The profile that has been generated only becomes visible after
the F5 key has been pressed.

The following figure shows a detail of a driving profile before and after
the generation of the tolerance bands:

Fig. 10 Driving profile before and after VTOL

PUMA Open
Statutory Test Cycles - Light Duty

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

The two tolerance tracks are defined by means of system channels


which are standard normnames:
LAH_TB_H

for upper tolerance band

LAH_TB_L

for lower tolerance band

Note: The parameters contained in the starting profile, such as e.g.


engine commands, measurements, activation objects, etc., are kept
during the generation.

ATTENTION!
Changes in the profile are overwritten if the generation is repeated!

Important: Any changes that you want to remain during the generation may only be made in the original profile!

Below you will find detailed information on the following topics:

Generate ECE

Generate FTP

Create New Definitions

Activate Tolerance Band

http://www.avl.com

Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Generate ECE
The default settings for the ECE test cycles (ECE1504, ECE1505, etc.)
can be set by means of the Set ECE Defaults button.
This setting also includes the defaults for the values for the look-ahead
driver (LAD).
Statutory values
for ECE

The statutory values for the tolerance time and the velocity tolerances
comply with the requirements of directive 70/220/EEC or regulation
ECE R-83.
Parameters

ECE Parameters

Create speed tolerance tracks

ON

Tolerance time

1 sec

Upper speed limit

2 km/h

Lower speed limit

2 km/h

Create look-ahead driver

ON

LAD time

1 sec

Additional points

Filter speed curve

ON

Filter time

2 sec

Utilization

50%

Raise shift plateau

ON

Time before gearshift

10 sec

Time after gearshift

2 sec

Raise at 100 km/h

2 km/h

The following figures show a profile detail before and after the generation of tolerance bands (and look-ahead driver).

Fig. 11 Profile detail before the generation

PUMA Open
Statutory Test Cycles - Light Duty

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Fig. 12 Profile detail after the generation

Important: To ensure the Bend of the tolerance bands, at least two


points are always inserted!

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Generate FTP
The default settings for the FTP test cycles (FTP75, SC03, US06, etc.)
can be set by means of the Set FTP Defaults button.
This setting also includes the default setting for the values for the
look-ahead driver (LAD).
The statutory values for the tolerance time and the velocity tolerances
comply with the requirements of EPA 40CFR86 86.115-78.
Parameters

FTP

Create speed tolerance tracks

ON

Tolerance time

1 sec

Upper speed limit

3.2 km/h

Lower speed limit

3.2 km/h

LAD time

1 sec

Create look-ahead driver

ON

Additional points

Filter speed curve

ON

Filter time

6 sec

Utilization

80%

Raise shift plateau

OFF

Time before gearshift


Time after gearshift
Raise at 100 km/h
The following figures show a profile detail before and after the generation of tolerance bands (and look-ahead driver).

Fig. 13 Profile detail before the generation

Fig. 14 Profile detail after the generation

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Create New Definitions


The default settings for ECE and FTP can be varied and stored under
a new name as a reusable setting.
1.

Activate Tools | Velocity Tolerance and Look-Ahead

Driver.
2.

Change the desired parameters.

3.

Activate drop-down menu at the bottom of the window.

4.

Select Add new and enter the name.

Fig. 15 Assign name for default setting


5.

Choose the OK button.

6.

If you want to activate this default setting, you must select it from
the drop-down menu (as shown in the figure below).

Fig. 16 Select name


Note: The default settings for ECE and FTP can also be changed by
modifying the values for ECE or FTP.

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Activate Tolerance Band


In order to activate the formulas defined under 2.2.3 "Import Monitoring
Function" on page 14, you must insert the start of the respective monitoring at the beginning of the profile by means of the activation objects
Start (ECE) or Start (FTP).

Fig. 17 Activate tolerance band

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

2.3.3

Activate Look-Ahead Driver (LAD)


Tolerance band

In addition to the specified speed profile, driving cycles for statutory


emission tests must also have a tolerance band, within which the
actual vehicle speed must remain so that the test passes as valid. A
test bed driver on a chassis dyno can use this tolerance band in the
sense of a minimum throttle movement. Before gear shift procedures,
the test bed driver can accelerate the vehicle beyond the demand
vehicle speed to compensate for the drop in speed during the gear
shifting.

Look-Ahead
Driver function

On the dynamic engine test bed, the test bed driver is simulated by a
speed regulator. The demand speed at the regulator input and the
momentary vehicle speed determine the throttle movement. The
look-ahead driver now enables the output of a separate demand speed
profile, and this profile simulates the behavior of a test bed driver.
Compliance with the tolerance band is checked on the basis of the
legally stipulated speed profile.

Driving profile

With this tool the modified driving profile can be created. The user may
still edit the newly created profile afterwards. The aim of this procedure
is to make changes smoother at those points of the speed profile
where the demand acceleration changes, in order to obtain a lesser
throttle movement (alpha) and facilitate the compliance of the actual
driving speed with the tolerance band.
The tool forms the linear mean value of the demand speed over a
parameterized time and enables the automatic insertion of gear shift
plateaus. A gear shift plateau is an increase in the demand speed
before gear shifting, in order to compensate for the drop in speed of the
vehicle during the gear shift procedure.
For driving profiles with a relatively big step duration (e.g.: ECE cycle)
additional steps can be inserted at the relevant spots for a finer graduation.

Activation from
test cycle

From the test cycle, the look-ahead driver can be activated or deactivated by means of activation objects from the BSQ/SSQ.
Below you will find detailed information on the following topics:

Additional Points Function

Speed Curve Filtering Function

Raise Shift Plateau Function

Useful Information

Look-Ahead Driver Activation Object

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Additional Points Function


This function is used to generate further demand value points around
existing demand value points in a dynamic profile. The demand values
that have been defined are interpolated linearily at the newly inserted
points.
This function is needed in order to:

generate the key points for the tolerance band to be generated for
synthetic driving profiles (e.g. ECE cycles),
guarantee a better possibility of filtering for synthetic and real
driving profiles.

Fig. 18 Additional points with LAD


LAD time

The parameter LAD time defines the time distance of the points to be
inserted (by means same number as Tolerance time.

Additional points

The parameter Additional points indicates how many points should


be generated symmetrically around an existing demand value point.
The number of additionally generated points is predefined at 2,4 or 6.
The time distance in which the additional points are inserted is defined
indirectely by the parameterized tolerance time.

2 additional
points

If 2 points are inserted, the time distance before and after the existing
demand value point exactly matches the parameterized tolerance time.

Fig. 19 2 additional points


4 additional
points

If 4 points are inserted, these are inserted in addition to the points


described above also at half the tolerance time before and after the
demand value.

6 additional

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

points

If 6 points are inserted, new points are inserted also at one and a half
of the tolerance time in addition to the points described above.

Fig. 20 Insertion of additional points with LAD


Note: If with the tolerance band generation function no points before
and after the original point at the time distance of the tolerance time
are defined, these are generated automatically even if the option
Additional points is turned off or if the value is 0.

Note: If any points to be inserted lie before or after an existing point in


terms of time, they will not be inserted!

Important: The use of this option leads to a multiplication of data


quantities and should preferably be used only for synthetic profile definitions (e.g. ECE cycles)!

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Speed Curve Filtering Function


The Filter speed curve function helps to smooth the driving profile
within the legally specified tolerance band. In this context, the newly
inserted demand value track of the look-ahead driver is modified while
the original track of the speed specification remains unchanged.
The algorithm forms the linear mean value over the specified time
while compliance with the tolerance band is ensured at the same time.
Requirements

The driving profile is filtered under the following criteria:

Control mode RG/v (must also be met in the previous and subsequent steps)
Gear greater than 0

Fig. 21 Parameter for speed curve filtering


Filter time

Time observed in seconds for the mean value formation.

Utilization

Maximum degree of utilitzation of the filtered point relative to the tolerance band.

Fig. 22 Filter speed curve (1)

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

If the possible time for filtering is smaller than the time that has been
specified (at the margins of the area), then the mean is taken over the
maximum time still possible.

Fig. 23 Filter speed curve (2)


Note: This also holds true for the beginning of RG/v sequences or for
starts from standstill.

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Example: Below an example for the filter:

Fig. 24 Original profile

Fig. 25 Filter time 6 seconds, utilization 80%

Fig. 26 Filter time 10 seconds, utilization 100%

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Raise Shift Plateau Function


The Raise shift plateau function serves to raise the demand speed
during gear shifting in order to compensate for the drop in vehicle
speed that occurs during the gear shift procedure due to air resistance
and friction.
With this function the demand speed before and after the gear shift
procedure can be increased relative to the absolute speed.
Note: This function is activated only in the case of shifting to a higher
gear.

Important: This function only makes sense for a theoretical shift


plateau (synthetic driving profile, e.g.: ECE cycle). In the case of real
recorded driving profiles, this behavior already exists in the profile
recorded.
Parameters for
Raise shift
plateau

The following parameters are available for the Raise shift plateau
function:

Fig. 27 Parameter for "Raise shift plateau"


Time before
gearshift

This parameter indicates the time of the linear increase before the
moment of gear shifting [s].

Time after gearshift

This parameter indicates the time of the linear increase after the
moment of gear shifting [s].

Raise at
100 km/h

Raising of speed at 100 km/h. The respective current value is interpolated linearily [km/h]
Note: The respective increase in speed depends on the current
demand speed, the parameter Raise at 100 km/h and the time
distance to the moment of gear shifting.
At the moment of gear shifting, the increase only depends on the
parameter Raise at 100 km/h and the demand speed:

Example: Parameter Raise at 100 km/h = 4 km/h


Demand speed at shift point = 50 km/h
New increased demand speed at moment of gear shifting = 2 km/h

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

For all other demand value points within the time range time before
gear shifting to time after gear shifting, the increase is interpolated
linearily depending on the moment of gear shifting.
Example:
Current demand value point is at a distance of 60% of the time before
gear shifting and the relative increase in speed is 2 km/h.
Increase of this demand value is 60% of 2 km/h = 1.2 km/h

Fig. 28 "Raise shift plateau" function


1

Moment of gear shifting

Points in this area are modified

Time before gear shifting

Time after gear shifting

Increase in speed by 2 km/h

This point is increased by 60% of 2 km/h (= 100%)

Tabelle 1:
Important: The time definitions for time before gear shifting and
time after gear shifting must not overlap with the previous and
subsequent increases!

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Requirements

The criteria for a raise in the gear shift plateau are as follows:

Control mode RG/v must be defined in the previous and subsequent steps

Gear shift criterion must have been set to Gear

Current gear must be greater than 0 (not when starting)

Subsequent gear must be greater (upshift)

Important: If a further gear shift procedure is defined within the time


range to be modified, then changes are executed only up to this
procedure.

Fig. 29 Raise shift plateau - time overlap

Fig. 30 Modified demand value curve with gear shift procedure


ATTENTION!
When gear shift plateaus are inserted, it is not monitored whether
tolerance bands are observed!

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Useful Information
Synthetically Defined Driving Profiles (examples ECE and Japan
cycles)
The demand speed value of the driving profile is based on a theoretical
ramp with gear shift plateaus in between. The gear shift plateau is
defined with a constant speed during the gear shift procedure.
However, this is not the case in real conditions. The vehicle speed will
drop slightly during this phase depending on the existing air resistance
and friction. In order to avoid this deviation between demand value and
actual value after the gear shift procedure (when the regulator tries to
compensate and thus causes higher exhaust emissions), one can use
the function Raise shift plateau. This function helps to keep the deviation as small as possible after the gear shift procedure.
This function can be used together with the Filter function and the
insertion of additional points.
Real Recorded Driving Profiles (example FTP75)
The speed profile was recorded with a vehicle under real conditions
(and with the gear shift procedures carried out). The driving profile
therefore also represents the related drop in speed during the gear
shift procedure.
Therefore it does not make sense to use the Raise shift plateau function for these cycles!
You can use the Filtering function in order to optimize the path of the
throttle actuator (and the related exhaust emissions) making the best
possible use of the statutory tolerances.

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Generate Tolerance Band and Look-Ahead Driver

Look-Ahead Driver Activation Object


The look-ahead driver function can be turned on and off by means of
the step sequence activation object in the BSQ.
This activation object contains the following functions:

Enable look-ahead driver

Disable look-ahead driver

Fig. 31 "Step Sequence" activation object


Activation object
in test cycle

In the test cycle, you use this activation object as follows:

Fig. 32 Activation object in test cycle


Important: The look-ahead driver must be activated before the start
of the test cycle (which has been generated with look-ahead driver).

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Tolerance Band Monitoring

2.4

Tolerance Band Monitoring


The tolerance band monitoring is performed online during the test
cycle. This section contains detailed information on the following
topics:

2.4.1

Principle of Tolerance Band Monitoring

ECE Monitoring

EPA Monitoring

Online Window

Principle of Tolerance Band Monitoring


The statutory cycles are performed using the driver and vehicle simulation (ISAC). Whether the actual speed value is within the tolerance
band is monitored during the run time by limit monitoring, scripts and
formulas.
Requirements

A driving profile with a generated tolerance band must be available (look-ahead driver is optional).
Limit monitoring is active during the whole test cycle.
In the event of a limit violation a script is executed, which issues a
message and turns on the cyclic calculation over the duration of
the violation. At the same time, a monitoring function to check
whether the tolerance limit is reached again is turned on.
The statutory conditions are monitored over the duration of the
violation.
When the tolerance limit is reached again, a script is executed,
which issues information on the violation.

Fig. 33 Tolerance band monitoring


Further detailed information in this section:

Monitoring V_Tolerance_Monitoring

Formula V_Tolerance_Check

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Tolerance Band Monitoring

Monitoring V_Tolerance_Monitoring
These limits apply to the parameters of the individual upper or lower
deviations of the current speed and the overall result of the monitoring.
Note: For detailed information, please refer to our manual "AT1761
Limit Monitoring"!

V_ACT > LAH_TB_H


Violation of upper tolerance band occurred
V_ACT < LAH_TB_H
Violation of upper tolerance band within range again
V_ACT > LAH_TB_L
Violation of lower tolerance band occurred
V_ACT < LAH_TB_L
Violation of lower tolerance band within range again
Note: The reactions to violations are assigned to the below scripts!

Example: Parameterization of limit monitoring (monitoring of the


upper limit):

Fig. 34 Limit monitoring - "Reaction" tab


Furthermore, this group contains the monitoring of the overall result
which is represented as value of the normname QcNOK (validity of the
tolerance band monitoring).
The script LcsVTOLUpper is executed.

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Tolerance Band Monitoring

Helper scripts and activation objects


In PUMA Open there are following helper scripts available for reaction
on limit violations:
Helper scripts
VTOLUpper

Violation of upper tolerance band


occurred

VTOLUpperOK

Violation of upper tolerance band


within range again

VTOLLower

Violation of lower tolerance band


occurred

VTOLLowerOK

Violation of lower tolerance band


within range again

The individual scripts contain the control of the below calculation and
the message output with the relevant system information, such as point
in time, SSQ step number and duration of the violation.
Important: You must insert the respective activation object Legal
Cycle Services (according to ECE or FTP) by action track
Commands.

Start (FTP)

Start of monitoring according to EPA


/ FTP regulations

Start (ECE)

Start of monitoring according to ECE


regulations

Important: You must insert the activation object Stop at the end of
the driving profile.

Stop
Behavior in the
case of limit
violations

Stop of monitoring

If the statutory limits are violated or exceptions occur, the helper script
LcsVTOLNotOK which provides information on the cause of the negative evaluation is executed:
LcsVTOLNotOK

Tolerance check failed

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Tolerance Band Monitoring

Formula V_Tolerance_Check
The cyclic formula is calculated depending on the respective limits and
contains the legal exceptions for upper or lower deviations from the
statutory limits.
Note: For detailed information on the subject "Formulas in PUMA
Open", please refer to our manual "AT1756 Formula Handling"!

This formula is processed cyclically at a frequency of 10 Hz:


public QcCnt, QcCntAct, QcCnt15, QcNOK
if QcEnable then
QcCnt = QcCnt + 1

// is tolerance check enabled


// count time

if QcVioTyp = 1 then
if QcCnt > 20 then
if QcCntAct = 0 then
QcCnt15 = QcCnt15 + 1
if QcCnt15 > 3 then
QcNOK = 1
endif
QcCntAct = 1
endif
endif
if QcCnt > 150 then
QcNOK = 1
endif
endif

//
//
//
//
//
//

check according to EPA regulation


check for violation > 2 sec
check only once
increment counter for violations > 2 sec
2 sec violation more than 3 times
cycle failed

if QcVioTyp = 0 then
if QcCnt > 5 then
QcNOK = 1
endif
endif

// check according to ECE regulation


// check for violation > 0,5 sec
// cycle failed

// mark as checked

// violation longer than 15 sec


// cycle failed

else
QcCnt = 0
QcCntAct = 0
endif

Important: If the normnames are changed, these must be considered


in the calculation!

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Tolerance Band Monitoring

2.4.2

ECE Monitoring
Deviations by +/- 2 km/h between the speed indicated and the theoretical speed during acceleration, constant speed and deceleration when
the vehicle is braked are permissible. In a transition from one test
section to the next section, higher-than-specified velocity tolerances
are permissible as long as such deviation does not last longer than 0.5
seconds.

2.4.3

EPA Monitoring
The following velocity tolerances apply:
Upper limit

Lower limit

Permissible
upper deviations

3.2 km/h over the highest point of the curve during one second of
the specified time span.
3.2 km/h under the lowest point of the curve during one second of
the specified time span.
Fluctuations in speed which exceed these limits (as might be the
case during gear shifting) are permissible if they do not last for
more than 2 seconds at a time.
Up to three additional violations of the velocity tolerance are permissible, as long as they are less than 15 seconds and clearly
documented.

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Tolerance Band Monitoring

2.4.4

Online Window
At the beginning of the test cycle, the online window of the monitoring
is displayed:

Fig. 35

QualCheck
indicator upper
viol.

These fields show colors (red/green) for the status of the current tolerance violation.

QualCheck
indicator lower viol.

These fields show colors (red/green) for the status of the current tolerance violation.

QualCheck
counter actual
violat.

This field indicates the current duration of a violation in seconds.

Quality Check
failed whole cycle

This field gives a visual indication (red/green) of the current total status
of violations according to the applicable legislation.

Normnames

The normnames that are available can be used for further decisions
during the test cycle (e.g. cancel current test cycle if it is no longer
valid).

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Tolerance Band Monitoring

Messages
window

The messages window indicates the violations that occurred and their
elimination, togther with the respective number, time, step number and
duration:

Fig. 36 Messages window

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Tolerance Band Monitoring

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Overview

Heavy Duty Cycles ETC and HDTC


This section contains detailed information on the following topics:

3.1

Overview

Requirements

Parameterization of Full Load Curve Recording

Test Description

Test Execution

Regression Analysis

Overview
Requirement for
tests

Before the execution of a test, it is necessary to record the full load


characteristic for denormalization.
These data can be stored in the Unit Under Test Parameters (UUT) for
later tests.

Content of test
cycle

The automatic test cycle contains the following steps:

Start recorder

All data that are relevant for evaluation (regression analysis) are stored
as recorder data in the test result.

Run test cycle

When the profile is loaded (normalized values), the data that have
been determined by means of recording the full load characteristic
(reference speed for 0% and 100% or torque values of the full load
characteristic) are denormalized.
During the run, these data (demand and actual values) are stored in
the ASAM-ODS database.
For the evaluation it is also necessary to store the relevant characteristic quantities. Those are for example:

Store relevant
characteristic
quantities

Max. torque of full load characteristic

Speed with maximum torque

Maximum power

Speed with maximum power

Start evaluation

The evaluation (PUC/CONCERTO) is automatically started by means


of the activation object Regression Analysis, function Start Application.

Trigger evaluation

The evaluation is triggered by means of the activation object Regression Analysis, function Analyze.

Calculate regression results

The regression analysis is made on the basis of the results stored in


the database (recorder data and the characteristic quantities stored)
using scripts and macros in PUC/CONCERTO.

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52

Overview

Transfer of results

The results obtained must be transferred from PUC/CONCERTO to


PUMA. This means, the statutory limits and the characteristic quantities of the regression analysis that were determined online are sent
from PUC/CONCERTO to PUMA.

Storing results

PUMA stores the results in the form of a measurement.

Displaying the
values of a regression analysis

The current values (and limits) are displayed in a separate PUMA


window.
The color markings (red/green) provide information on compliance with
the respective statutory limits.
All results and limits are available as normnames in the PUMA Open
system.

Fig. 37 Function of heavy duty test cycles in PUMA Open

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Requirements

3.2

Requirements
Certain requirements must be met in order to be able to work with
heavy duty test cycles. This section contains detailed information on
the following requirements:

3.2.1

Additional Normnames

Modification of Test Facility Parameters (TFP)

Modification of Unit Under Test Parameters (UUT)

Test Import (BSQ, SSQ)

Parameterization of Full Load Curve in EMP

Parameterization ETC (ECE)

Parameterization HDTC (EPA)

Overview

Recorder Parameterization (REC)

Profile Parameterization (SSQ)

Parameterization for Regression Analysis Activation

Full Load Curve Recording

Test Run

Function

Results

Additional Normnames
Additional normnames are needed in order to be able to carry out the
regression analysis.
Important: These normnames are taken into account automatically
with standard installations.
If you use a customer specific normname directory, you will have to
add the following normnames with NED:

Normname
(English)

Normname
(German)

Description

DNORMTY DNORMTY Transient


P
P
denorm.
0=US,1=EU,
2=no
N_REF0

N_REF0

Unit D

DT

M# BK B#

S#

VG
#

OF
F

System
Name

Real

30

DNORMTYP

Real

30

N_REF0

Speed 0% for rpm


Transient
denorm.

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Requirements

Normname
(English)

Normname
(German)

Description

Unit D

DT

M# BK B#

S#

VG
#

OF
F

System
Name

N_REF100 N_REF100 Speed 100%


for Transient
denorm.

rpm

Real

30

N_REF100

T_MAX_FL M_MAX_V
L

max.torque
from full load
curve

Nm

Real

21

T_MAX_FL

N_TMAXF
L

N_TMAXV
L

Speed at
max.torq.fullload curve

rpm

Real

21

N_TMAXFL

P_MAX_F
L

P_MAX_F
L

Max.Power
from full load
curve

kW

Real

21

P_MAX_FL

N_PMAXF
L

N_PMAXF
L

Speed
max.Power
full load
curve

rpm

Real

21

N_PMAXFL

CITT

CITT

Curb idle
transmittion
torque

Nm

Real

24

72

ECT_CITT

N_MRS

N_MRS

Measured
rated speed
acc. to EPA

rpm

Real

30

EPA_N_Meas
Rated

NREF_EC
E

NREF_EC
E

Param. rated
speed acc. to
ECE

rpm

Real

30

EMP_N_Ref

N_FL_MA
X

N_VL_MA
X

Max. speed
for full load
curve

rpm

Integ 8
er

30

EMP_FL_Nm
ax

N_FL_MIN

N_VL_MIN Min. speed


for full load
curve

rpm

Integ 8
er

30

EMP_FL_Nmi
n

REG_PHA
S

REG_PHA
S

Regression
phase

Real

24

REG_PHAS

TRANSTYP

TRANSTYP

Type of
transmission
0=Man 1=Aut

Integ 8
er

26

TRANSTYP

actgd_n

actgd_n

Regression:
slope speed

Real

23

14

actgd_n

actgd_md

actgd_md

Regression:
slope torque

Real

23

18

actgd_md

actgd_p

actgd_p

Regression:
slope power

Real

23

22

actgd_p

acto_n

acto_n

Regression:
offset speed

rpm

Real

23

26

acto_n

acto_md

acto_md

Regression:
offset torque

Nm

Real

23

30

acto_md

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Requirements

Normname
(English)

Normname
(German)

Description

Unit D

DT

M# BK B#

S#

VG
#

OF
F

System
Name

acto_p

acto_p

Regression:
offset power

kW

Real

23

34

acto_p

actc_n

actc_n

Regression:
coefficient
speed

Real

23

38

actc_n

actc_md

actc_md

Regression:
coefficient
torque

Real

23

42

actc_md

actc_p

actc_p

Regression:
coefficient
power

Real

23

46

actc_p

actse_n

actse_n

Regr.: standard deviation speed

rpm

Real

23

50

actse_n

actse_md

actse_md

Regr.: standard deviation torque

Real

23

54

actse_md

actse_p

actse_p

Regr.: standard deviation power

Real

23

58

actse_p

act_sht

act_sht

Regression:
shift of
values

Real

23

62

act_sht

actd_p

actd_p

Regr.:
number of
deleted
points

Real

23

66

actd_p

act_pi

act_pi

Regression:
integrated
power

Real

23

70

act_pi

act_pd

act_pd

Regression:
integr. dem.
power

Real

23

74

act_pd

RA_Start

RA_Start

Start of evaluation

Real

10

50

RA_Start

RA_Nmax
d

RA_Nmax
d

Maximum
std. deviation speed

rpm

Real

10

50

RA_Nmaxd

RA_Nming

RA_Nming

Minimum
gradient of
speed

Real

10

50

RA_Nming

RA_Nmax
g

RA_Nmax
g

Maximum
gradient of
speed

Real

10

50

RA_Nmaxg

RA_Nmax
o

RA_Nmax
o

Maximum
offset of
speed

Rp
m

Real

10

50

RA_Nmaxo

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Requirements

Normname
(English)

Normname
(German)

Description

Unit D

DT

M# BK B#

S#

VG
#

OF
F

System
Name

RA_Nminc

RA_Nminc

Minimum
correlation of
speed

Real

10

50

RA_Nminc

RA_Tmaxd RA_Tmaxd Maximum


std. deviation torque

Nm

Real

10

50

RA_Tmaxd

RA_Tming

Minimum
gradient of
torque

Real

10

50

RA_Tming

RA_Tmaxg RA_Tmaxg Maximum


gradient of
torque

Real

10

50

RA_Tmaxg

RA_Tmaxo RA_Tmaxo Maximum


offset of
torque

Nm

Real

10

50

10

RA_Tmaxo

RA_Tminc

Real

10

50

11

RA_Tminc

RA_Pmaxd RA_Pmaxd Maximum


std. deviation power

KW

Real

10

50

12

RA_Pmaxd

RA_Pming

Minimum
gradient of
power

Real

10

50

13

RA_Pming

RA_Pmaxg RA_Pmaxg Maximum


gradient of
power

Real

10

50

14

RA_Pmaxg

RA_Pmaxo RA_Pmaxo Maximum


offset of
power

KW

Real

10

50

15

RA_Pmaxo

RA_Pminc

RA_Pminc

Minimum
correlation of
power

Real

10

50

16

RA_Pminc

RA_Pmini

RA_Pmini

Minimum
integrated
power

Real

10

50

17

RA_Pmini

RA_Pmaxi

RA_Pmaxi

Maximum
integrated
power

Real

10

50

18

RA_Pmaxi

DYS_CON
T

DYS_CON
T

Control mode of DYS

Integ 2
er

36

DYS_CONT

PUCSYNC

PUCSYNC Syncronisation with PUC

Integ 8
er

24

PUCSYNC

RA_Tming

RA_Tminc

RA_Pming

Minimum
correlation of
torque

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Requirements

3.2.2

Modification of Test Facility Parameters (TFP)


The standard installation already includes the below modifications. If
you use customized parameters, the following additions are required.
Further data
storage tables

Create the following new data storage tables (DST) in the parameter
block TFP using PAM:
1.

DSTHDTD
Contains the characteristic quantities for the regression analysis.

Fig. 38 Storage table DSTHDTD


2.

Name DSTHDTR
Contains the results of the regression analysis.

Fig. 39 Storage table DSTHDTR

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Requirements

Additions in KEY

3.

Add the following entries (storage keys) to the parameter block


KEY:

RA and

RR

Fig. 40 Parameter block KEY

3.2.3

Modification of Unit Under Test Parameters (UUT)


The standard installation already includes the below modifications. If
you use customized parameters, the following additions are required.
Modifications in
ECT

1.

You must expand subgroup REAL by adding normname


REG_PHAS in the parameter block ECT.

Fig. 41 Parameter block ECT (subgroup REAL)


2.

In the parameter block ECT you must expand subgroup


INTEGER by adding the normnames SELECT and PUCSYNC:

Fig. 42 Parameter block ECT (subgroup INTEGER)

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Requirements

3.2.4

Test Import (BSQ, SSQ)


Carry out the following steps in order to import a test:
1.

Start the Application Manager

2.

Start the AVL Explorer

3.

Select target directory (e.g. NameOfComputer/Projects/AVL/


Project Data)

4.

Choose the function Import in the right-hand area of the BSQ


(click with left mouse button in the right-hand window).

5.

Import the desired XML files from the dat\xml directory


(TST_ETC.XML or TST_HDT.XML).

6.

Generate test cycle.

Fig. 43 Import test cylce in BSQ

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Parameterization of Full Load Curve Recording

3.3

Parameterization of Full Load Curve Recording


The full load characteristic is recorded automatically (with a constant
gradient of 8 rpm) to form the basis for the denormalization of the
demand value tracks, which is absolutely necessary for running transient test cycles. According to the test cycle (HDTC or ETC) the
respective full load curve is selected and parameters for the engine
specific speeds are defined when the unit under test is parameterized
(block EMP and block ECT).

3.3.1

Parameterization of Full Load Curve in EMP


You must define the following parameters in parameter block EMP:

Fig. 44 Parameter block EMP


Minimum [rpm]

This parameter is used to define the lower limit of the engine map
(should be less than or equal to the value of the curb idle speed
parameter from ECT).
Important: If the speed limits (minimum, maximum) are changed, you
must expand the data range using the menu item Expand from the
PAM main menu bar. All torque values are set to 0 and a new
recording of the full load characteristic is necessary.

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Parameterization of Full Load Curve Recording

Maximum [rpm]

This parameter is used to define the upper limit of the engine map.
Important: If the speed limits (minimum, maximum) are changed,
you must expand the data range using the menu item Expand. All
torque values are set to 0 and a new recording of the full load characteristic is necessary.

Ramp [rpm/s]

This value (8 rpm/s) is specified by the relevant legislative body and


cannot be altered.

Alternative
normname of
speed

Depending on the case, you may either parameterize a normname or


leave this field blank:

Standard case

If this field remains blank, the value of the normname from parameter
block EMC that is allocated to system channel SV_dyno_speed is
used (mostly N or SPEED)

Exceptional case

If you wish to use a different speed signal (e.g. filtered more strongly),
you must parameterize this normname.
Important: The new normname must be defined also in the recorder
and in the PUC INI-file (..\instpath\puc\data\req4puc.ini)!

Alternative
normname of
torque

Depending on the case, you may either parameterize a normname or


leave this field blank:

Standard case

If this field remains blank, the value of the normname from parameter
block EMC that is allocated to system channel actual_ torque is used.
It is subject to the respective configuration:

Dyno type APA100 ELB or HLB:


The normname of SV_dyno_Te_loadcell is used.

Dyno type AMK or AFA:


The normname of SV_torque_shaft is used (mostly TORQUE).

Exceptional case

If you wish to use a different torque signal (e.g. filtered more strongly),
you must parameterize this normname.
Important: The new normname must be defined also in the recorder
and in the PUC INI-file (..\instpath\puc\data\req4puc.ini)!

Full load curve


according to

Here you select the relevant legislation:

ETC(EU)

The parameterized reference speed according to ECE specified by


the relevant legislative body is used for denormalization.

HDTC(US)

The higher value of rated speed (from ECT) or measured rated


speed according to EPA is used for denormalization.

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Parameterization of Full Load Curve Recording

Measured rated
speed according
to EPA

This value is determined during the run time from the full load characteristic curve according to the regulations and can be displayed only
after storing the Unit Under Test Parameters (once the full load curve
has been parameterized according to HDTC). This value cannot be
parameterized.

Parameterized
reference speed
according to ECE

When parameterizing the full load curve according to ETC, you must
enter the reference speed (nref) for denormalization. The reference
speed is determined from the steady-state measurement of the full
load curve of the engine under net conditions.

Speed [rpm]

This parameter indicates those speed values (x-axis for full load curve)
at which the full load points are recorded.

Throttle [%]

This value is constantly preset to 100% for the recording of a full load
curve (and cannot be parameterized).

Torque [Nm]

During the recording of a full load curve, these values are measured
online; however, they can be edited later.
Important: When parameterizing a full load curve, you must take into
consideration the following situations:

New parameters, or no full load curves have been recorded and


stored:
In this case, the torque values are still 0. To run a statutory test
cycle, you must record a full load curve!

Speed limits (minimum, maximum) have been changed and


newly generated by means of Expand:
As all torque values are set to 0, a new recording of the full load
characteristic is necessary.

Full load curve has been recorded and stored; however, a new
curve should be recorded:
Use the menu item Expand from the PAM main menu bar to
delete the data range. All torque values are set to 0 and a new
recording of the full load characteristic is necessary.

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Parameterization of Full Load Curve Recording

3.3.2

Parameterization ETC (ECE)


For ETC you must perform the following parameterization:

Parameterization in ECT
Curb idle speed
[rpm]

Set the parameters for the curb idle speed (rpm).

Fig. 45 Parameter block ECT for ETC (ECE)

Parameterization in EMP

Minimum [rpm]

Maximum [rpm]

Full load curve according to ETC (EU):

Parameterized reference speed according to ECE

Fig. 46 Parameter block EMP for ETC (ECE)

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Parameterization of Full Load Curve Recording

3.3.3

Parameterization HDTC (EPA)


For the HDTC (EPA) you must perform the following parameterization:

Parameterization in ECT

Rated speed [RPM] for determining the upper reference value


(max from ..)

Curb idle speed [rpm]

Curb idle transmission torque CITT [Nm] (ECT block)

Fig. 47 Parameter block ECT for HDTC (EPA) (1/2)

Fig. 48 Parameter block ECT for HDTC (EPA) (2/2)

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Test Description

3.4

Test Description
This section contains detailed information on the following topics:

3.4.1

Overview

Recorder Parameterization (REC)

Profile Parameterization (SSQ)

Parameterization for Regression Analysis Activation

Full Load Curve Recording

Test Run

Function

Results

Overview
A BSQ test consists of various BSQ components (activation objects,
BSQ objects, commands, etc.).
This imported test includes the BSQ objects Dynamic Steps and
Recorder and Regression Analyses.

Fig. 49 Test run TST_ETC (BSQ)

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Test Description

Dynamic Steps
and Recorder

BSQ object Dynamic Steps and Recorder defines the activation of


recorder and profile.

Fig. 50 BSQ object Dynamic Steps and Recorder


Regression
Analyses

BSQ object Regression Analyses defines the activation of evaluation.

Fig. 51 BSQ object Regression Analyses

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Test Description

3.4.2

Recorder Parameterization (REC)


The recorder (RECORDER_EURO3_ETC or RECORDER_HDT)
contains all quantities necessary for the evaluation. They may not be
altered or removed.
General tab

The General tab of REC contains the following parameters:

Fig. 52 REC - General tab


Storage tab

The storage tab of REC contains the following parameters:


Important: Pay attention to the result name (REG)!

Fig. 53 REC - Storage tab

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Test Description

Channels tab

The Channels tab of REC contains the following parameters:

Fig. 54 REC - Channels tab

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Test Description

3.4.3

Measurement Request (MRQ)


Two measurement requests are required for the evaluation:
Parameterzization of measurement requests (MRQ)

MRQD and

MRQR

MRQD

This MRQ must be parameterized as follows:

Name:

MRQD (in the General tab)

Result key:

RA (in the General tab)

Storage table:

DSTHDTD (in the Storage tab)

Fig. 55 MRQD - General tab

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Test Description

MRQR

This MRQ must be parameterized as follows:

Name:

MRQR (in the General tab)

Result key:

RA (in the General tab)

Storage table:

DSTHDTR (in the Storage tab)

Fig. 56 MRQR - General tab

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Test Description

3.4.4

Profile Parameterization (SSQ)


The test cycle includes the profiles ETCDYS or HDTDYS1 and
HDTDYS2, respectively:

Fig. 57 Step sequences in BSQ/SSQ

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Test Description

3.4.5

Parameterization for Regression Analysis Activation


The regression analysis is activated in the test cycle by means of an
activation object. This activation object Regression Analysis contains
the following functions:

Start Application

Analyze

Fig. 58 Activation object for regression analysis


Before the activation object is used, the normname PUCSYNC is set to
0, and after execution of the analysis (during which this normname is
set to 1), the system waits until the value is greater than 1.

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Test Execution

3.5

Test Execution
Test execution includes the following work steps:

3.5.1

Full Load Curve Recording

Test Run

Function

Results

Full Load Curve Recording


In the PUMA Open operating state MANUAL, you can open the Full
Load Curve window by use of the menu item Functions | Engine |
EMP Full Load Curve.

Fig. 59 Full load curve


Start

Starts recording of full load curve (only possible if the engine has been
started).

Stop

Stops recording of full load curve.

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Test Execution

Save

The Save function is used to store the Unit Under Test Parameters
(UUT) including the full load curve.
In addition to the parameters of the full load curve, the following reference speeds used for the denormalization are represented:

N_REF0 Reference speed for 0 %

N_REF100 Reference speed for 100 %

Note: If the measured rated speed nMRS cannot be calculated during


the recording according to EPA, the following message will appear:
Cannot calculate measured rated speed out of full load curve!
This is the case, for instance, if the 98% value of the maximum power
curve could not be determined.
Remedy: Increase speed of full load curve.

Important: When recording a full load curve, you must take into
consideration the three following situations:

The speed limits (minimum, maximum) have been changed:


As all torque values are set to 0, a new recording of the full load
characteristic will be necessary.

No full load curve has been recorded yet:


In this case, the torque values are still 0. To run a statutory test
cycle, you must record a full load curve!

A full load curve has already been recorded and stored:


It is not necessary, but you may record the full load curve again.

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Test Execution

3.5.2

Test Run
After the test run has been started, the Recorder window is activated,
which shows the test progression.

Fig. 60 Recorder during test run

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Regression Analysis

3.6

Regression Analysis
The regression analysis is performed by means of the data postprocessing tool (PUC or CONCERTO), which enables the calculation of
quality criteria such as gradient, offset, correlation coefficient and
standard deviation.

3.6.1

Function
The below calculations are carried out for speed, torque und power.
They are given in the formulas using speed as one example:
Regression

Fig. 61 Regression

n_regress = ( n_offset + n_gradient n_demand )

Offset and gradient are calculated so that


n

(n_errori)

attains a minimum value.


By contrast,
n_error i = n _regress i n_actual i

and n ist the number of stored values.

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Regression Analysis

Standard
deviation

rd =

1 - n
---------- (n_offset + n_gradient n_demand i n_
n2
1

Tab. 2
Correlation coefficient
n

(n_actuali n_actual_aver) (n_demand i n_demand_aver)

1
n_corr = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------n

(n_actual i n_actual_aver)

(n_demandi n_demand_ave r)
1

The averaged actual speed is calculated as follows:


1
n_actual_aver = ---
n

n_actuali
1

The averaged demand speed is:


1
n_demand_aver = ---
n

n_demandi
1

Integrated power
The integrated power is calculated for both the demand values and
actual values.
Integrated actual power (only positive power is taken into account):
n

p_actual_integr =

p_actuali
1

Integrated demand power (only positive power is taken into account):


n

p_demand_integr =

p_demandi
1

Difference between integrated actual power and demand power in


percent:
p_actual_integr
----------------------------------------- 1 100
p_demand_integr

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Regression Analysis

3.6.2

Results
After the regression analysis has been calulated, the results are
displayed automatically in the PUMA Open window shown below.
For speed, torque and power, the respective gradient, offset, correlation coefficient and standard deviation are calculated and displayed
together with the statutory limits.
The integrated power, integrated demand power and power deviation
are calculated.
In addition, the number of deleted points (normname acd_p) is available and the time shift in [s] is displayed.
If all criteria are met, this can be seen easily from the color of the title
bar (Quality Check Regression) (green = ok, red = error).

Fig. 62 POI window Regression Analysis

Important: The statutory limits are coded in the PUC formulas and
cannot be changed.

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ESC Test Cycle

3.7

ESC Test Cycle


The ESC test cycle (European Stationary Cycle) is a 13-mode
steady-state cycle, which is used to test the engine on the test bed in a
number of steady-state modes. During the specified time the engine
must be operated in every mode and carry out the engine speed
changes and load changes in the first 20 seconds. Emissions are
measured in every mode and calculated on the basis of the respective
weighting factor.
The respective inspector in charge may require additional arbitrarily
chosen modes during the certification.
The below table lists the respective modes (speed and torque) and the
duration.
ESC Test Modes
Mode

Engine Speed

Load in
%

Weighting %

Duration

Idle

15

4 minutes

100

2 minutes

50

10

2 minutes

75

10

2 minutes

50

2 minutes

75

2 minutes

25

2 minutes

100

2 minutes

25

10

2 minutes

10

100

2 minutes

11

25

2 minutes

12

75

2 minutes

13

50

2 minutes

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ESC Test Cycle

Graphical representation of modes

Fig. 63 Modes
The engine specific speeds A, B and C are determined as follows:
High speed

The high speed n hi is the speed at which 70% of the maximum net
power are attained.

Low speed

The low speed n lo is the speed at which 50% of the maximum net
power are attained.

Formulas for
engine speeds

The engine speeds A, B and C must be calculated according to the


following formulas:
A = nlo + 0.25(nhi - nlo)
B = nlo + 0.50(nhi - nlo)
C = nlo + 0.75(nhi - nlo)

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ESC Test Cycle

Fig. 64 Modes A, B, C
The torque is determined from full load at a percentage rate relative to
the respective speed point.
Important: The speeds A, B and C must be determined manually.

3.7.1

Generation of ESC Test Cycle


The step sequences CycleTemplates included in the delivery (see
chapter Test Import (BSQ, SSQ) on page 59) contain two templates
for the ESC test cycle:

ECSTemplate - template of ESC test cycle


ESCTemplateAdditional - template of ESC test cycle including
additional points (modes)

These contain the statutory step sequences, which can be adjusted to


the respective predefinitions of speeds A,B and C and the maximum
torques thus rendered.

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ESC Test Cycle

A new step sequence is generated.


Invoke the ESC tool from the PUMA Open Explorer:
Procedure for generation:
1.

Start the Application Manager.

2.

Start the PUMA Open Explorer.

3.

Select the step sequence template (default: ESCTemplate).

4.

Start generation by choosing Tools | European Stationary

Cycle (ESC).

Fig. 65 Generate new step sequence


5.

Set the parameters.

Note: For detailed information, please refer to ESC Sequence on


page 83.

6.

Press the OK button.

Note: The profile that has been generated only becomes visible after
the F5 key has been pressed.

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ESC Test Cycle

When you start the generation of the new ESC sequence, the ESC
window is displayed:

Fig. 66 ESC properties


The parameters in this window have the following meaning:
ESC Sequence

Input field for the name of the sequence to be generated (default


setting is automatically proposed with extension _esc).
The following input fields refer to the 3 characteristic speed levels A,B
and C:

Engine speed
[rpm]

Input field for the speed.

Load [Nm]

Input field for the maximum torque.

Correction

Input field for the torque correction value (which is an absolute value
added to the calculated load)
The parameters contained in the step sequence template such as,
e.g.: engine commands, measurements, activation objects, etc. remain
the same during the generation.
ATTENTION:
Modifications in the profile are overwritten if the generation is
repeated!

Important: Modifications that are intended to remain during the


generation may only be made in the original profile!

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ESC Test Cycle

3.7.2

Parameters of ESC Test Cycle


The result of the generation is a step sequence with the values calculated for the 13 modes:

Fig. 67 New step sequence for ESC

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Index

Index
A

Activation area 22
Activation objects 18, 31, 32, 42
Additional points 23, 27
Application packages 6

Limit 46, 47
Lower 47
Upper 47
Limit violations 43
Look-ahead driver 42
Disable 42
Enable 42

Utilization 23, 27, 29

B
BSQ 59

C
Calculated quantities 12
Control mode RG/v 35, 40

D
Demand speed 32
Demand value points 33
Demand value tracks 21, 35
Deviations 47
Driving profiles 13, 35
Import 13
Real 33
Real recorded 38, 41
Synthetic 33, 38
Synthetically defined 41

Mean value 35
Mean value formation 35
Messages window 49
Monitoring 45
Start acc. to ECE 45
Start acc. to EPA 45
MRQD 69
MRQR 70

N
Normname directory 12
Customer specific 12
Normnames 12, 46, 48
Additional 12

PAPACSI 59
Permissible upper deviations 47
Points 29
Additional 29, 33
Filtered 35
Inserted 33

ECE defaults 24
ECT 58
EMCON400 5
EMP 60
ETC 63

Filter time 23, 27, 29


Filtering 33
Formulas 46
cylic 46
FTP defaults 24

Raise at 100 km/h 27, 29, 38


Raise speed 38
REC 67

Sequence name 22
Shift plateau 32, 41
Raise 27, 29
Smoothing 35
Speed limit 23
Lower 23, 27, 29
Upper 23, 27, 29
System channels 26

Gear 35, 40
Gear shift 24
Time after 24, 27, 29, 38
Time before 24, 27, 29, 38
Gear shift procedures 32, 38
Gear shifting 32, 38

H
HDTC 64

I
ISAC400 5

K
KEY 58

T
Tolerance band 32, 35, 44
Reactions to violations 44
Violation lower 44
Violation upper 44
Tolerance time 23, 27, 29, 33
Tolerance tracks 26
TST_ETC.XML 59
TST_HDT.XML 59

PUMA Open
S t a t Gesetzliche
u t o r y T e s Prflufe
t C y c l e sLight
- L iDuty
ght Dut

V
Violations

Total status 48

85

86

Index

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AVL List GmbH


Hans-List-Platz 1, A-8020 Graz, Austria
Tel.: +43 316 787-0, Fax: +43 316 787-400
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