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MASTER'S THESIS

The Vocal Flute
Creative Uses of the Flutist's Voice in a Collaborative Context

Marina Pereira Cyrino
2013

Master of Fine Arts
Music Performance

Luleå University of Technology
Department of Arts, Communication and Education

 

 

 
 
 

The  Vocal  Flute:  
Creative  Uses  of  the  Flutist's  Voice  in  a  Collaborative  Context  
 
 
 
 
Marina  Pereira  Cyrino  
 
 
 
May  2013  
 
 
 
 
Supervisors:  Professor  Sverker  Jullander  and  Professor  Sven-­‐Erik  Sandlund  
 
 
 
 
 
A  thesis  submitted  in  partial  fulfillment  of  the  
 Master  Program  in  Music  Performance  
 
 
 
Department  of  Arts,  Communication  and  Education  
Luleå  University  of  Technology  
 
 

 

 

Abstract
 
 
 
The  Vocal  Flute:  Creative  Uses  of  the  Flutist's  Voice  in  a  Collaborative  Context is a
piece of artistic research that discusses the use of the flutist’s voice combined with
flute playing, through performer-composer collaboration and through composition.
This thesis focuses on a specific extended technique, consolidated in the 20th century.
The use of the flutist’s voice is characterized by a richness of possibilities and appears
in the classical repertoire, but also in improvised music: the classical avant-garde,
traditional and new jazz, popular styles.
The aims of the research are to explore the use of the flutist voice combined with flute
playing through collaboration performer-composer and through composition, to
clarify in which way collaboration can help us to understand the use of the flutist’s
voice and to develop practices that facilitate the learning process of this technique.
My own practice and my collaboration with two different composers are in the center
of the discussion.
As result of the collaborative process, three new pieces were written, performed and
recorded: Floating Embers (for flute and soprano) by Olle Sundström, Keep the Night
from Coming In (for solo flute) by Lisa Stenberg and Old Game (for solo flute),
written by me. My own practice, rehearsals and experimentations with composers
inspired me to compose Old Game, an etude for flute and flutist’s voice.
The findings of the research indicate that great benefits can result from the practice of
new techniques such as using the voice while playing, especially when combined with
creative processes, such as collaboration or composition. The topics that emerged
during the process are: analyses of the uses of the flutist’s voice while playing
through literature and in each new piece based on the performer’s practice; patterns in
each collaboration; impact of each collaboration on the development of flute
techniques and flute practices.
The artistic outcomes of this research are three new compositions for flute and
recordings of the same.
 
Keywords:    
 
flute,  flutist’s  voice,  extended  flute  techniques,  singing  and  playing,  speaking  and  
playing,  collaborative  performance  practice,  artistic  research.  
 

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Josephine Gellwar Madsen. without their talent and time this project wouldn’t have such a creative strength.       Acknowledgements I would like to express my gratitude towards: Olle Sundström and Lisa Stenberg. Tiina Kaikkonen and Ana Val. I specially thank my father for making this winter journey possible. for their love and support despite the distance. Finally. for the friendship. without the special help and support of Bernardo Brandão. for her talent and for taking part of this project. for the great and intense musical partnership. Sverker Jullander and my flute teachers Sven-Erik Sandlund and Sara Hammarström. The sound engineers that worked with me during this project: Joel Löf. Vilma Maurer. finishing this thesis on time wouldn’t have been possible. my family and friends from across the ocean. My thesis supervisor. Mattias Wessel and Bernardo Brandão. My dear friends Natalya Ivanova. Mikael Mannberg. I would like to thank my mother.   ii   . the support and for sharing joys and challenges during these two years in Sweden.

..... ... . ......... . . ... .. .... . ... Collaboration in the context of this research 4 3... . The projects .... .... 1...... . ... ... .. .............. .... . .. ..1... The restless flute 1 ..... .. ... .. .... .. Creative artistic collaboration .. ... . . .3. . . ...... . . .... .... . .... . .... ... .... .... .......... 2 2. ........ Audio recording 4......... .. .. . . . ...... Central issues of the project ... .. . .. Action research 6 ..... .. ...... ... ..2....... . .... 2 2...... ....... .4. ... .... ... .... .. .. Written thesis   .. .. 3 2........ .. . . ... ....1. 5 3. .... 2 2......... Flutists in collaboration ..... ............ ... . .. ...3...2........ 1 2. ... .. ... .. Methodological approaches . .. .......     Contents Abstract i Acknowledgements ii Contents iii 1 Introduction ... . .. .5... .... .3. . ...... 4....... ... .... Research strategies ....... . 9 4.. .. 9 . ... ... . Collaboration in contemporary composition and performance . ... . . ..2... ........ 3 2.... . 9 iii   ...... . ... ... .... ..... . .... .. Aspects of collaboration .... Collaboration between composer and performer ......... ..... . 5 3...... .... ..... . . .... .. ...1.. ... ...... . 3. .. 6 9 4. ..... .... . ...... Overview of different parts of the research ... .. ........ ... ......... . . . .....

.. .... .... . . .... ... ...1. A general overview ........ ... .... . ... .... . . .. ... . . 14 2. ....6... ........... ... .. .... Singing into the instrument . . .. Glissando with voice 4...... ... . . ... .... ........... .. 13 ...... ..... Speaking and playing 4...2.. .... .3.. Voice pedal with flute playing: The voice sustains one note while fingers moves 2... . .. .. ... ..... Some random funny examples .... 19 ...2. . ...... .     2 The flutist’s voice 1... .. ... .... ...... ... 16 4. 13 Illustrating singing and playing.... ....... ..... . Voice singing and flute playing: independent lines 3.... .... .... 13 2.. ...4. 15 ............ 17 4. Second Section: MYSTERIOSO 25 iv   . 12 .. ...... . ....... .2... ........... Speaking or whispering into the instrument .... ... .. . . . ..... .. Voice singing and flute playing....... .3. . . ..... . . Singing different vowels . Speaking without instrument on lips ...... . . .. ..... ... ... . .2...... in parallel movement .. 12 . Flute pedal with voice moving: The flute sustains one note while the voice moves 2.. ...1. Introduction 18 . Throat Tuning 6....... .. speaking and playing.. ... ......... 21 2.... 21 ..........7. .. 18 .... ......... . ...5.... .2..2... .. ... ...... ...... .. . First Section: EDGY.. ...... ....8......... ..... ... and in between ....... ... ......... . ..... .. ..... Introduction .... . .. ..9.... .... ....2. .. .... .... . Singing and playing: Pierre-Yves Artaud’s four categories 10 10 11 11 .... .. . ... . . .... .... . . . ....... .4... . .... . ..... .....2.... . ........ .... ............ .. 17 4..... .... ....... ... Musical examples: 4. ...... . .. .... Singing in unison or octave .... 22 2.. .. Singing and playing .. ....... . . . Reflections ..... .... ........ .... . ... 2.... Speaking or whispering with instrument on lips 4. .. ..... Floating Embers: a walk around extended flute techniques   15 .. ......... .. Singing and playing alternately 4.. ..... 2..... 20 3 Floating Embers 1.... .. ..... .... .. ... 13 . . .. ......... . ..... . 5.. .... 4.. ........ .... 2.. .. ... ..... . .1........ ....... . . . 18 4. .. 22 2. ... .... .... . ....... . .. ....1.... . 19 .

. 45 . Passage from bar 67 from 72: Flute pedal with moving voice . . . .. Section B . . .... . ....... .. ... Passage from bar 89 to 96 5. .2. 40 . . .. . . . . Extended flute techniques 2..... . .. . .. .. 42 .... . ...... . . .. . .... ... . . Examples of negotiation: focus on the flutist’s voice 6. .... Reflections 1.... 41 2....... . . ... .. . 48 v   .. .. Section E   . . . .. . Bar 37 .. . ...... .. 3. ...... . . .... . .. . ...... . . .. . . ..... . ...4.... ... . ... . .... .. ... ... .7. ..... ...... . . ... ...4...... ... . .. .......... . 45 2...... Passage from bar 19 to 26: Voice glissando with flute pedal 4... 4.. . ....3.. Third Section: INTENSE .. . Introduction . . . half open... .. . ... Passage from bar 67 to 89: The complexity of singing and playing distinct lines 4... . . .. . . ... ..... . .... . ... ... .. . . . ... . ...... . ... .. .. . . ... .... .. ... ... . . . . ... .2. . . 33 .. . .... vowels.. . Open. .2. . ..... ..... ....3.. . . The melting points .. ...... ... . . . .... . 26 3.. ..... ... .... ...... . .. . . . . 36 5.. ..... ..3. 48 .. Section C and Section F 3.. 31 4...... . ..... ... 4.. . . . .. ........... ..... ... . ... Keep the Night from Coming In: an overview 2.. . . .. 36 4. ... 4 Keep the Night from Coming In 36 ... ... Consonants.... . . .... 47 . ...... . . .2.. .. . .. .. . . . .. ...... The use of the flutist’s voice 2. . . .. 35 ... . ..4. . . ... 37 . . . .... .. . ... .. . 33 4. .     2... Passage from bar 55 to 66: Sing “Ta ke te” in octaves with the flute line ..... . ....... .. 5.... . . .. . . .. .. . . 42 . 40 2.. . ..... ..... ..... .. . . ...... .... ... ... .... 27 29 31 .. ....6.. ... Section D and Section G 3....5. Passage from bar 47 to 52: Singing “ta ke te” in different tones . ... . . . . . .. .. .... . Floating Embers and the use of the flutist’s voice ..... ... . ..... . ... 41 .... . ... . . ..3. .. . .. ..2.1.. . ....... . . ... . ..1... .. .. . . . . . ...... ........ .. ..... Collaboration 5.... .. ..1. . .. ... . .. . ..... ....... Section A .. ... 47 3.. .. syllables ... . .. . . ...... .. ...4.... . .... . .. ..... ... . . .. . . ..... .. . .. ..3. .. .... . . Keep the Night from Coming In: the seven sections . 34 . .1.. .. .. . . .. Collaborative patterns .. .. . .. ........ .5. . . ... 45 46 3. .. .1.. ... . .... 31 4. . ... . Practicing Floating Embers: Challenges and solutions .. . ..... ... . . 46 3. . . . .... .. .. .. Introduction 38 .. . An open score ... ... .4. .. and closed embouchure 2. .. .

... ............... 4.. ..2....3.. 67 67 vi   .. .. ... 55 ......... .. .............. Singing in parallel movement with the flute line .. 57 ... . ....... . Patters of collaborations ...... . Discovering new effects: a tone appears! .... Introduction .. .. . 49 4........ ... ..3. Singing and playing: the last passage ‘it’s finished?’ 7..... ....... .. 58 .. ...... 59 5.... .... ..2... ... ..... Whisper and playing with air attack ... ..6. .... ...1... ............ Speaking without instrument on the lips 6.... 64 . ......... 63 ............... Old Game – The text ..... Practicing Old Game: Challenges and solutions through practice 6..... ...... ...2............... . 61 .. The use of the flutist’s voice: Singing and playing 5... . .. . ........... Whispering and playing in rhythmical passages .. Introduction 49 49 .......... ........ . ... ..... . ..... ... .... ........ venture into strange sounds ... . Other extended flute techniques 54 .... don’t sing..... ....5.4..... The use of the flutist’s voice: Speaking/ whispering and playing 4............. .. .. ...... ...... 66 2.. ...... ..... ..... Examples of negotiation during the collaboration 5... . ...... . .... .. ... ... .......2... . 67 ... ........ ... . . ... .... ... .... 50 . 6. .... . Reflections 6 Discussion 1.......... 60 5.. .... 66 ..... . 60 5...............7..... .. ........ ........ ..... 4..1 Introduction .... 61 . ......... .... .. .. . .3...... . . ........ Singing one tone octave ........1.... .. .... ...... .... The use of the flutist voice: the outcomes 2..... ..... 59 5.. ...... ........... .... From sh to s: don’t speak... .. 64 ...... ............ ... .. .. ........... .... Floating Embers and the singing voice 2... . .......... ...... ......... . .. Reflections 5 Old Game 1....... ............... 58 5....... 61 6...... .. 53 . 53 2. Collaboration .. 62 6. .. 63 6..     4. ..... .... Whistle tones: “Is someone calling or it is just imagination?” ... .... ....... . .... 52 .....1... ......... 3. Keep the Night from Coming In:   62 ............... ...... Timbral Trills: Disturb the sound kindly .. ..... ...... Singing different intervals: from singing to groaning 6.... Key clicks sounds: Let’s do something with the flute when it’s not on the lips 6..... ........5. .... ....4.. .

. .. .. . . vii   75 76 77 . ... . . . . . . .... .. .. . ... ....... 69 3.. . Old Game and the speaking voice .. . . . . 68 . .. .... .     transitions. . .. .. .. ......2.... . . .. .. .... ..... impermanence 2...... . .. . .. ..... . .. . . .. The special agencies in musical collaboration 3.. . . . ... . .... . . 70 3.... . .. .... ... . . .. .. ... ...... .. . ...... .... . .. .... ... .. .. . . .... .. ....... . 73 Literature .... .... . .. .... ... ... ... . . . ... .. . .. ... . . .. ..... .. .. .. . .. boundaries. .. .. . ...4.. .... 70 ...... . .. ...... . . . . ... . .. . . .. ... ..... ... . . ..... . .. . .... .... .. ..... ... ... .....3. ....... Collaboration across generation . . Final reflections Reference List . .... . .... . ........ . . .... 68 . . ...3. . . . ... .. 76 YouTube Links ...... .. .. . .. Collaboration: the outcomes . . ... .. ... ... .. ... . . .. . 71 What is in between ‘Collaborative’ and ‘Integrative’? 4. ... . .... . . 69 ... .. .. ... .... ... . . .. Appendix   . . The musical collaboration composer-performer: . .. ... .. .. .... .... ..... ......... Practicing my own voice while playing 3... .. CD Recordings . ..... .... . .. .. 2... .. ... . 73 Musical Scores .1. . .

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1994. to shatter this into pieces in order to recreate the instrument and its language completely? In this conquest. collaboration with performers was often essential. p. equal to that of   1   .141) The main focus of this research will be a specific extended technique. how could one dispense with it if one has the imperious desire to go beyond admissible limits.     1 Introduction 1. The title of the piece points to a new direction where the voice of the flutist has an important role. in 1936. The restless flute The stimulating interaction [between a flutist and a composer] is often responsible for the emergence of positive and powerful creations. are called into question.. (Macgregor. In order for composers to write effectively and idiomatically for the flute. the flute has indeed proved the driving instrument of this century [. Indeed. p. to violate comfortable territory. The first major work that confirmed the voice of the flutist as an extended technique rich in possibilities is Voice by Toro Takemitsu (1971). 141–142) Another important work that opened the flute world to different sound perspectives is Luciano Berio’s Sequenza 1 (1958). This technique is characterized by a richness of possibilities and appears in many pieces of the classical repertoire. In just three minutes three centuries of tradition in which the flute was perceived as a garrulous. avowedly its principal distinguishing features from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. popular styles. (Artaud 1994.] (Artaud.. In just three minutes a new instrument is revealed and an unprecedented trend among composers in which the flute is rapidly raised to the privileged rank of leader in musical creation is set.5 (1936). started a new period for the flute repertoire with Density 21. One interesting point concerning this research is that none of the two pieces uses the voice of the flutist. traditional and new jazz.3) Edgard Varèse. consolidated in the 20th century: the use of the voice while playing the flute. In the second half of the 20th century the flute became a major vehicle for experimental composers. p. resulting in a repertoire that made extensive use of techniques outside the instrument’s traditional performance lexicon. but also in improvised music: the classical avant-garde. These works were pioneers in Western art music in introducing extended flute techniques. 2012. pastoral instrument.

 

 

other effects and techniques. Voice followed the 1970 World Exposition in Osaka,
Japan, where Takemitsu had served as music director along with Stravinsky and
Stockhausen. During this period, Takemitsu became extremely interested in European
experimental techniques. Bruno Bartolozzi’s handbook New Sounds for Woodwinds
had an influence on Voice. By incorporating the spoken word, Takemitsu displayed
not only new aural possibilities for the flute, but attempted to capture certain gestures
and articulations of traditional Japanese flutes. (Robinson, 2011, p.52)
In Voice, the composer sought to unite the performer with the instrument. The performer
must deliver a spoken text, speak into the instrument, hum, shout, sing, growl, and click
the tongue, blending the voice and the sound of the flute. At other times, Takemitsu sought
to create a distinction between the sound of the voice and the sound of the flute, separating
spoken syllables and traditional flute sounds. This was combined with conventional
extended flute techniques such as key tapping and a wide variety of articulations, in order
to create a wide range of sounds and textures all related to the single source. (Robinson,
2011, p.52)

2. Aspects of collaboration
2.1. Flutists in collaboration
Important partnerships between flutist and composer led to the main solo pieces in the
modern flute repertoire. As examples we have the Italian flutist Severino Gazzelloni,
a major figure in the postwar experimental music scene, and his contributions to the
creation of two works: Sequenza I per flauto solo by Luciano Berio and Mei for solo
flute by Kazuo Fukushima; moreover, the flutist Robert Aitken and his contributions
to the genesis of Ryoanji for flute by John Cage, and Scrivo in Vento for solo flute by
Elliot Carter.
The instrument’s ability to produce a large and diverse arsenal of sounds not only
expanded its sonic canvas to hitherto uncharted territory but could also evoke the sound
worlds of other musical cultures. What resulted was a prolific repertoire that rejected the
notion of the flute as a vehicle for bucolic whimsy. An instrument that was virtually
ignored in the 19th century (at least in a soloist capacity) was now being embraced by key
musical figures of the 20th century. With a handful of exceptions (most notably Brian
Ferneyhough, who was a flutist in his student years) the development of this repertoire
was, and continues to be, the result of intimate collaborations between composer and
performer. (Macgregor, 2012, p.2)

Macgregor (2012, p.3) details some of the prolific partnerships between flutists and
composers: Salvatore Sciarrino has composed more than a dozen pieces for Roberto
Fabbriciani and Mario Caroli; Karlheinz Stockhausen wrote extensively for the Dutch
flutist Kathinka Pasveer; and Kaija Saariaho continues a fruitful relationship with the
American flutist Camilla Hoitenga. In fact, the author argues that many of these
composers owe much of their international reputations to an early compositional
foundation that significantly featured works for solo flute.
The strength of these pieces, from their employment of extended techniques to the graphic
layouts of the scores, was largely due to dialogue with sympathetic and talented
performers. Macgregor (2012, p.3)

 

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2.2. Collaboration in contemporary composition and performance
According to Roe (2007, p.80), research into collaboration is a recent phenomenon
with many areas yet to be explored. Detailed investigation into the process of
collaboration between composer and performer are still scarce. In spite of this lack of
investigation in the field of creative collaboration between composers and performers
mentioned by Roe, many musicians have been focusing their research on
collaboration in contemporary music in the last few years: Linda Merrik (2004), Paul
Roe (2007), Stefan Östersjö (2008), Marta Castello Branco (2012), Mark Macgregor
(2012), Charles Martin (2012), Gisli Grétarsson (2012), Sebastián Caldas Zeballos
(2012). It’s noteworthy that the three last examples named are master’s theses
published by Luleå University of Technology, in the context of the same program
where I’m taking part: Master in Music Performance.
An overview will be presented to help understand the function of the musical
collaboration in this research. Although the focus of this research is the use of the
flutist’s voice, the collaboration between performer and composers plays an important
role, as a method used to explore and understand an extended flute technique. I will
present briefly the subject based on literature review.
2.3. Creative artistic collaboration
A number of authors have addressed particular aspects of artistic collaboration. Two
categorizations of collaborative artistic practices have proved to be relevant for this
research. The first is the patterns of artistic collaboration by Vera John-Steiner (2000)
and the second is the patterns of collaboration between composer and performer by
Hayden and Windsor (2007).
John-Steiner has undertaken some of the most important theoretical work on artistic
collaboration. Building on the work of Lev Vygotsky, she challenges the
individualistic focus on human behaviour that has been predominant in Western
culture. She argues that the possibilities for stretching the individual’s potential
through collaborative works make for a strong argument to reconsider the
fundamentals of our practice (Östersjö, 2008, p.20). John-Steiner’s model of artistic
collaboration is also discussed in Roe (2007) and Martin (2012).
John-Steiner divides general artistic collaboration into four categories.
Distributed collaboration: A widespread practice that can take place in informal or
organized contexts. Artists with common interests share and explore ideas that can
lead to personal insights.
Complementary collaboration: A widely used format of artistic collaboration based
on complementary knowledge. Each artist has a clear role based on his or her
expertise.
Family collaboration: A format of artistic collaboration of groups that develop
relationship and work very close together. In this pattern “roles are flexible and may

 

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change over time. Levels of independence, dependence or interdependence shift and
develop depending on skills levels and experience.” (Roe, 2007, p.27)
Integrative collaboration: A format of artistic collaboration based on the desire to
transform knowledge and that can result in new practices and concepts. “These
relationships require prolonged periods of committed activity and thrive on risktaking, dialogue and shared vision” (Roe, 2007, p.27). “This unions transform both
artistic work and personal life” (John-Steiner, 2000, p.96).
2.4. Collaboration between composer and performer
Patterns of artistic collaboration specifically applied in a musical context are
discussed in Hayden and Windsor (2007) based on the work Theory in Practice:
Increasing Professional Effectiveness by Argyris and Schön (1974). They propose
the following distinct categories to understand relationships between composer and
performer.
Directive: The composer determines the performance through score/notation. The
collaboration is limited to issues in the realisation of the score.
Interactive: Involves negotiation between composer and performer, but the composer
is still the author of the piece.
Collaborative: “The music is developed through collective decision-making. There is
no hierarchy of roles”(Roe, 2007, p.28).“The structure and context of the composition
is decided through group decision making and live improvisation” (Martin, 2012,
p.10).
2.5. Collaboration in the context of this research
Collaborating with composers has been a part of my musician’s life for many years.
In 2004 I participated in the creation of a student experimental chamber group in the
town of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. During four years we worked with improvisation and
collaboration with composers, focusing on classical contemporary music. These years
reinforced my passion for new music and showed me the importance and benefits of
working directly with composers. Since that first student chamber group, I have been
working regularly with composers. I’ve premièred many pieces of Brazilian
composers and participated in concerts and recordings of contemporary music almost
my whole ‘flute life’. It was very natural for me to prioritize collaboration with
composers when I developed the idea of this project.
The flutist Mark Takeshi Macgregor, in Of Instrumental Value: Flutist-Composer
Collaboration in new music (2012), shares my passion for collaboration:
As a classically trained flutist I have performed music of many styles and periods, but my
experiences playing the music of our time stand out as being among my career’s most
thrilling highlights. Over the years these experiences have led to an interest in
collaborating with composers in the creation of new pieces for my instrument. For
composers this dialogue can ensure that their pieces are playable and idiomatic, while as

 

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Performer-composer collaboration is the primary reason why I find my career as a musician so vital and exciting. performed and recorded: Floating Embers by Olle Sundström and Keep the Night from Coming In by Lisa Stenberg. audio and video recordings was made. through performer-composer collaboration and through composition. I started two projects of collaboration with composers.     performers we have the unique and rewarding opportunity to become directly involved in the creation of new works. After contextualizing the use of the flutist’s voice while playing. The collaboration with Olle Sundström will be presented and discussed in Chapter 3 and the collaboration with Lisa Stenberg in Chapter 4. Central issues of the project The principal aim of the research will be to shed light on and to explore the use of the flutist’s voice combined with flute playing. who accepted the challenge of writing a new composition in a context of collaboration. They participated in this project only because of their interest in music and in exploring new sound possibilities. I’ve met both composers in the Music School of Piteå. flute methods. based on non-academic professional artistic practice. The first project (September 2012 to May 2013)   5   . A comparison and synthesis of both and a reflection around the whole process will be presented in Chapter 6. The models presented in this chapter will be discussed in the context of each specific collaboration. The main questions guiding the research are: How can the use of the flutist voice combined with flute playing be explored through collaboration? In which way can collaboration with composers help us understand the use of the flutist’s voice? How can the musician’s practice clarify the use and the learning process of this technique? Different methodologies were used to approach the research subject. In order to understand and contextualize the use of the flutist’s voice while playing. is the heart of the thesis.1) For this project I had the privilege to find two very interested and committed composers. Methodological approaches This research emerged in the context of artistic research. even if it had no payment involved. an extensive literature study using scores. dissertations. a kind of practice-based research. 3. two new pieces were written. The research questions are born in the artistic practice and the results intended to be applied in practice. It is characterized by a methodological pluralism. Collaboration between performer and composer will be used in this research as a method to explore and understand an extended flute technique. to the point where the commissioning and performance of new music has become something of a mission for me. (Macgregor. As result of the collaborative process. my practice as a musician. In this case. 3. The purpos of artistic research is to bring an equal status of practical knowledge within the academy. articles.1. developing the artistic profession and articulating tacit knowledge. p. and especially as a flutist.

each collaboration initiative took a different direction. p. This material was intended to serve as an input for the composer. with the composer Lisa Stenberg. 3. researchers have an active participation in the process. In these sessions. with no external researchers observing the project. change is an integral part of the process. or just improvised. Research strategies The method of collaboration in both projects started in a similar way. This project can be understood as action research in the way that my artistic practice is a methodological tool that is used to deal with practical problems and issues. It’s an effective form of practice-based research characterized by dealing with ‘real world’ problems and issues. Figure 1 shows the main methodological steps followed in this research project. generally speaking: first I presented the general idea of the research project and introduced to the composers some of the material that I had gathered during the literature study.3. the collaboration process and the composition process. With some ideas in mind. During the whole process I kept a reflective journal or practice journal.   6   . The process in each project was. During the process. the composers started to write sketches. Roe (2007. this research can be considered practitioner research since the project only involves a performer and composers. which in the case of Floating Embers included rehearsals with others musicians. in which the researcher takes part as researcher/subject and participators are objects. 3. According to Östersjö (2008. I have an active participation in the process.12). or scores from the flute repertoire. resulted in the piece Keep the Night from Coming In (November 2012 to May 2013). practitioner research.     with the composer Olle Sundström resulted in the piece Floating Embers. work through cyclical processes. as opposed to emancipatory action research.2. I exchanged ideas and experimented with some of the composer’s sound ideas.87) identifies the characteristics of action research according to Denscombe (2003).p. and I intend to introduce changes in the existing practice. Video or audio recording of rehearsals. Similarly to Östersjö’s project SHUT UP ‘N’ PLAY! (2008). the period of practicing the piece began. where I developed ideas about the practice of the pieces. After the pieces were finished. The second. Action research The concept of action research was introduced in the early 1940’s by the social psychologist Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) in the context of the social sciences. in which the practitioner is also the researcher. experimentation sessions. there are two fundamental kinds of action research. During this period I introduced what I called ‘Experimentation Sessions’ (that happened more systematically with Lisa Stenberg and in a more informal way with Olle Sundström). performances and studio recordings were used to discuss and reflect upon the outcomes of the collaborations.

  experimenting   and  improvising   on  the  use  of  the   Vlutist's  voice   Composing   the  Etude   Old  Game   Figure 2. I was inspired to express musically other aspects of the technique. I composed the etude Old Game (2013). Creative method: research strategies during composition   7   .   Rehearsals.     Recording   Keep  the  Night  from   Coming  In  -­‐  Practice.   Performance.   Rehearsals.  scores. More specifically. using a creative method.  audio   recordings    Flute  experimentation. Research strategies during the collaboration When comparing the literature studies with the material used by Olle Sundström and Lisa Stenberg.trying  Virst   sketches   Video/  Audio  documentation   ReVlective  Journal   Floating  Embers  -­‐   Practice.  trying  Virst   sketches     Video  /  Audio  documentation   ReVlective  Journal   Meeting  Lisa  Stendberg   Exchange  of  ideas. rehearsals and experimentations with composers led me to the desire to express ideas through music. Collaboration   with  Olle   Sundström  and   Lisa  Stenberg   Literature  Study   Practicing. I had the curiosity to try to systematise different possibilities that I discovered during these two years of research.   Performance.  audio   recordings   Flute  experimentation. for flute and flutist’s voice that will be presented and discussed in Chapter 5.     Literature  Study  -­‐  Tracing  the  use  of   the  voice  of  while  playing   Meeting  Olle  Sundtröm     Exchange  of  ideas. My own practice.  scores.     Recording   ReVlections   around  the   collaboration     Figure 1.

89). between the different approaches to the practice of the three pieces resulting from this research. between the aspects of exploring the use of the flutist’s voice while playing. the collaboration with Lisa Stenberg and my process of composing an etude. This research presents three different projects that can be considered three different case studies: the collaboration with Olle Sundström. p. analysis of the musical material).   8   . It provides detailed. and by coding and analysis according to qualitative researches procedures (focus on the modes of collaboration). in real situations and provides a rich source of data. Case study research involves the experience of real people. Data serving as a basis for this research include • • • • • • Reflective journal or practice journal Audio or video recordings from the rehearsals and experimental sessions Compositional sketches Supplementary documentation: emails. I adopted the same strategy of making the analysis directly from the recorded audio and video. informal conversations Three new compositions .13): by means of musical interpretation and analysis (focus on the flute technique. authentic accounts of the phenomena in context (Roe. p.recordings (see Appendix) The audio/video material was collected and analysed basing on the methodology adopted by Östersjö (2008. Different  patterns   of  collaborations     Lisa  Stenberg      Olle  Sundström   Different  Practice     Challenges     Floating  Embers      Keep  The  Night   from  Coming  In    Old  Game   Comparative   method   Different   approches  of   using  the  voice  of   the  Vlutist   Floating  Embers    Keep  The  Night   from  Coming  In   Old  Game   Figure 3. Collaborative method in the research The structure of this research corresponds to case study process.scores (see Appendix) Three new compositions .     A comparative method has been used for different parts of the research: between the two collaborations performer-composer. 2007.

1. Audio recordings The audio recordings. .Keep the Night from Coming In by Lisa Stenberg. 3. Overview of different parts of the research 3. Floating Embers: Recorded in LTU’s School of Music .2. composing and performing. Chapter 4. Brazil / August 2013.3.Piteå. Sweden / March 2013.Floating Embers by Olle Sundström.Belo Horizonte. Keep the Night from Coming In: Recorded in Fundação de Educação Artística . Sound engineer: Mattias Wessel. Chapter 5. Old Game: Recorded in LTU’s School of Music . Sound engineer: Mattias Wessel. Sweden / May 2013. Sound engineer: Bernardo Brandão.Old Game by Marina Pereira Cyrino. with the score of each piece (see appendix).The projects . represent the main artistic result of this research.         9   . Chapter 3.     The artistic outcomes of this research are three new compositions for flute and recordings of the same (see Appendix). 3. The function of the text is to connect the different projects and to clarify the practical knowledge of the whole process of collaborating. Written thesis The written text should not be understood as the only focus of this research but a part of the larger artistic research process.Piteå. . 3.

4)   10   . (Östersjö. In this artistic research project for the degree of Master in music performance. Even in relatively conservative compositions written today.               2 The flutist’s voice 1. especially for wind instruments.21). In spite of great efforts that have been put into the study of historic performance practice during a great part of the 20th Century this has no equivalent in the research into performance of new music. According to the flutist Robert Dick: Many composers and instrumentalists worldwide are becoming increasingly interested in the discovery and development of new instrumental sonorities. There exists handbooks in contemporary playing techniques. And although an enormous part of the flute repertoire includes different kinds of new techniques. although most of the time this technique is explained very briefly. it is a rare piece that is not influenced by new sonorities and techniques. and all indications are that this trend is growing into a major branch of composition and performance. these resources are not a priority in the flute education. (Dick. Introduction Extended techniques can be understood as the result of a research process where new sound possibilities were systematized and widespread (Castello Branco. to the performance conventions of Art Music since modernism. Many flutists go through their education without being in contact with it. p. p. but present themselves as a continuous process of exploring new possibilities of the instrument. This is especially true for music for flute. colors and articulations. 1986. and many flute methods are nowadays only dedicated to the extended technique of the flute. p. 2012. The new flute techniques are not in conflict with the traditional technique. 2008. Researches focusing on the practice of new techniques and the practice of new music are even less common. and there are also a number of books on contemporary notation practice. the use of the flutist’s voice while playing will be discussed in the context of my own practice and my collaboration with two different composers. Little research has been devoted however.7) All the major flute methods of new techniques introduce us to the use of the flutist’s voice while playing.

In the flute method The Techniques of the Flute Playing.     2. he says: This is extremely tricky and needs perfect control. Singing and playing 2. voice pedal with flute playing):   11   . almost all flutists can. 119) Here we have two musical examples of singing and playing. describe more deeply the results produced by using the voice while playing. 1989. The sound obtained can be modified using different vowels or syllables. p.1. A general overview Singing and playing simultaneously is one of the most popular uses of the flutist’s voice.20) Another flute method. Levine (2002) explains that this effect can be produced when the vocal cords rub against one another (as speaking). p. and Voice singing and flute playing. the only limitations are the natural vocal register and the tonal range of the flute. (Dick. Levine (2002. p. both found in Levine (2002. Voice pedal with flute playing.20) illustrates the technique with the following figure: Figure 4. Voice singing and flute playing in parallel movement (it is easier to control unisons or octaves).143) Pierre-Yves Artaud (1995) describes four possibilities of using the voice and playing simultaneously: Flute pedal with voice singing. p. p. Levine´s illustration for singing and playing the flute It is possible to produce any pitch while singing and playing. In Example 1. the flutist sings an Eb while playing the written notes (According to Artaud’s categories. of course on the pitch and timbre both of the note played and of the flutist’s voice. (Artaud. The Other Flute (1989). both completely independent lines. so that air flows out through the larynx into the flute. 2002. About this last category. The intervals formed and the timbre of these multiples sonorities depends. in some degree.129). (Levine. 1995. create multiple sonorities by humming while playing single pitches. According to Dick. while simultaneously exhaling. by Robert Dick.

In Example 2. Laconisme de l’Aile (1982).   12   . At the same time. 2. Singing and playing: Pierre-Yves Artaud’s four categories As I mentioned before in this chapter.2. the flutist plays a chromatic descending scale and sings in unison with the flute line. Gilbert Amy.     Example 1. flute playing and voice singing in parallel movement): Example 2. 2. Voice pedal with flute playing: The voice sustains one note while the fingers move Example 3. according to Artaud’s categories.1. Arsis et Thésis. Artaud (1995) describes four possibilities of singing and playing simultaneously: 2. 1980.2. Trois Études No. the flutist should sing glissando to the next note of the scale (the singing line is here written with squares. Michaël Lévinas. Kajsa Saariaho.

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Laconisme de l’Aile (1982). with audible voice. Even if we can assemble the use of the flutist’s voice in two main categories: speaking and playing or singing and playing. we have another example of speaking and playing. Kaija Saariaho. but to illustrate the large variety of technical possibilities. the flutist has to use the voice in very different ways. we have an example of different possibilities for speaking and playing. My intention is not to establish rigid categories. The piece starts with the flutist reciting a text with audible voice with the instrument down. Kaija Saariaho. where the flutist should whisper into the instrument: Example 8. for flute solo and optional electronics. 4. In Kaija Saariaho’s piece. and slowly moves the instrument towards the lips. but also changes from audible voice to whispering voice. the great variety that appears in the flute repertoire is underexplored by the main flute methods. In bar 19 (Example 8). with audible voice as well as unvoiced (whispering). Laconisme de l’Aile (1982).     He describes speaking and playing as a popular technique where the flutist speaks words or text sequences over the embouchure hole or directly into the flute. speaking and playing. Example 7. Laconisme de l’Aile (1982). In the first bar of the piece (Example 3) we have an example of speaking without the instrument on the lips. In the following examples from musical works. Musical examples: Illustrating singing and playing. and in between.   14   .

audible voice. In Phillipe Hurel’s Eólia. Laconisme de l’Aile (1982).     4. Speaking without instrument on lips: In the Examples 9 and 10. but the exact pitches are not specified. Voice (1971). The composer can specify the pitch or not. the flutist speaks in a normal.2. Toru Takemitsu.   15   . the flutist should speak a sequence of syllables “cha-ba-le-ge-de” in an ascendant line. Speaking or whispering with instrument on lips: This technique adds a color to the voice. produced by the air sound that comes from speaking with the lips in the traditional playing position. with the lips off the instrument Example 9.1. Example 10. for flute solo (Example 11). In this technique the voice will produce a flute air sound that will always have a pitch corresponding to the fingering position for the first octave in the flute. Kajsa Saariaho. 4.

by Saariaho. Even if the flutist uses the vocal cords as when singing. Philippe Hurel. Example 12 is an excellent example of blurred boundaries between speaking and singing. Terrestre (2002).3. Laconisme de l’Aile (1982). distant sound. In Terrestre (2002). Example 13. Kajsa Saariaho. Speaking or whispering into the instrument: In the two following examples.     Example 11. 4. we have a muffled. Kajsa Saariaho. the flutist should speak with audible voice or whispering voice with the mouth covering completely the embouchure hole. Eólia (1984). Example 12. As result.   16   . the flutist should speak/sing with the lips in the instrument. and the pitch is determined in the score (in unison or octave with the flute). the resulting sound is very close to the spoken voice.

If nothing else i specified. All sections has to be played at least once.t o Example 16. to ñ wo!     œ œ p . mp Key clicks Voice SOLO FLUTE 4. Singing in unison or octave b˙ œ bœ Œ By closed embouchure. > open embouchure pp p   b‚ ‚ >‚ > > j >œ ‰ Shiftmf graudally from only air sound to full tone Whistle tone w. but shall never be played more than once in a row. the notated dynamic is valid for both flute and voice system. Whispering into the instrument Performing notes ï ñ j j ∑ ‚ ‚ ‚ >‚ > No paus between the sections should bepmade. General Unvoiced sound K ‚> ‚ ‚r ‚ ‚ > > > > The piece consists out of 7 sections named A-G wich are free for the performer to play in any order. Only air sound Œ Unvoiced whispering “Ch” as in Bach t .‚ Lisa ‚ ‰ In (2013). Œ The‚Night ‚From Coming Example b‚ n‚ 15.t ‚ b‚ ñ ï ï ‚ ‚ ‚Keep j half open embouchure ‚ ‚Stenberg. Sections may be repeated at a maximum of three times. Toru Takemitsu. Terrestre (2002). LISA STENBERG   Voiced sound (sing) 17   . >‚ from technique to another.4.to Œ pp ï ‚™ ‚. Kajsa Saariaho. Commissioned by Marina Cyriano Voice (1971). the composer means that the embouchure hole must be j Œ ‰ ‚ ‚ The broken (dashed) indicates a gradual shift covered witharrow the lips. ho Flute wo! >‚ Kr >‚ >‚ >‚ >‚ cho to to j >œ >‚ >‚ cho >‚ cho ∑ ‚ ‚ ‰ œ œ ‰ ‰ Accidentals is valid only for the specific note notated at.ko All trills shall be performed as timbral trills All glissandos shall be performed as lip glissandos if possible 4.5. All sections shall be performed from start to the end.to p . pp fz ó #˙˙ o mp Œ closed embouchure.t b œ ™Singing œo inn wunison or octave is considered the easiest possibility of singing while playing b‚ by the main flute methods.   œo œ œ œ œ #˙ µ˙ nO o 3   2 KEEP THE NIGHT FROM COMING IN Composed for Marina Cyriano Example 14. Œ cho w. s Gradually shift from unvoiced whispering “ch” to voiced “o” - o to w.

Example 18. Example 17. The fingering is used to produce the marked pitch. Laconisme de l’Aile (1982).     4. while the flute plays another distinct line.8. Kajsa Saariaho.7. The flutist should also change the vowel sung.   18   .6. however. 4. Singing different vowels: Singing different vowels changes the timbre and gives movement to the voice line but also affects the color of the flute sound. the flutist does not produce the normal tone but just blows air through the instrument. A great example (in a single bar!) of a complex combination shows us the fantastic diversity that this technique allows. Singing and playing alternately In the following example the flutist should sing the following pitch with a breath tone. Mirrors for Flute and Cello (1997). the flutist goes from a B to an Eb with the voice. Kajsa Saariaho. 4. through a slow glissando. In Example 18. Glissando with voice: One resource used very often by composers is to sing a slow glissando.

9)                                                                                                                 1  Robert  Dick. Throat Tuning In the flute method Tone Development through Extended Techniques (1989). Example 21. setting up an oscillation of the air stream in and out of the flute. François Rossé. Kotoko uha! Questions de Tempéraments (1997).     Example 19. causing the air inside the instrument to vibrate. 5. Fredrik Högberg. Kajsa Saariaho. but back through the mouth. Laconisme de l’Aile (1982).     19   . Robert Dick1 introduces us to the Throat Tuning: The tone begins when the air is blown across the edge of the embouchure hole. 1989.9. But the vibrations pass not only forward from the embouchure into the flute. (Dick.  is  a  leading  proponent  of  contemporary  music  and  is  know   worldwide  for  his  command  of  extended  techniques  for  flute. Some random funny examples: Example 20. neck and chest of the flutist as well. Flight of the Dragonfly (1996).  composer  and  flutist. 4. p.

dynamics and projection. Mastery of throat tune is achieved by practice of singing and simultaneously singing and playing the flute. we began to observe that the systematic study of new techniques brings great benefits. Throat tuning is when the throat of the flutist is in position to resonate best. which can have great effects on traditional playing as well. This will build up over time with daily work. Instead of regarding new sonorities as “strange effects that composers write”. 9) Throat tune should be an important part of the flutist’s practice and can be achieved by only singing. p. the flutist needs to work with memory and inner audition. p. or by singing and playing simultaneously. 9) 6. and quartertones and smaller microtones sharpen the sense of pitch as well. always paying attention to the comfort of the vocal chords and the tension of the outside neck muscles. the throat is in position to resonate that pitch best. (Dick. When the vocal cords are held in position to sing a given pitch. 9)   20   . 1986 p. 7) If we take the singing while playing as an example of a new technique. The benefits can be the development of the strength. This specific technique of using the voice should be slowly introduced into the daily practice. The sound of the air vibrating within the flute is resonating also within the body of the flutist. flexibility and sensitivity of the embouchure and breath support. extended techniques are seen as an optional appendix to the traditional technique. 1986. the tone of the flute is a complex combination of the flutist and the flute. (Dick. It happens when the vocal cords are brought to the correct position to sing a pitch. the vocal cords can be easily strained when singing and playing simultaneously. (Dick. One must hear the desired pitch clearly before playing it when familiar fingerings are not used. To be able to sing and play different voices. (Dick. we could recognize the importance of introducing these techniques in the daily practice. and while caution is important. Reflections Why sing if you’re not a singer? Even today. do not avoid this work – it is too important. It should be emphasized that unless the flutist is a trained singer. and strengthening the air support. Another very interesting benefit suggested by Dick is sharpening the musician’s ear. But by going deep into the new flute methods. Robert Dick (1986) maintains that working with new sonorities will greatly benefit traditional flute playing. 1989. such as improving the intonation.     According to him. The practice of new techniques can also increase the player’s range of color. We’ll discuss the challenges of learning and practicing this technique in the next chapter. 1989. p. the development of the inner ear is one of the most important benefits that the flutist can get through practice.

He has composed for different chamber music ensembles. choir. nœ Olle Sundström enrgetic q = 90 f œ 6 & Œ p bœ œ bœ œ œ œ Œ Ó œ ≈bœR Œ œ bœ œ Œ œ bœ ‰ Ó œnœbœ Œ In the following excerpt of the flute part of Spark of Imagination.       3 Floating Embers 1. to explore the possibilities of using the voice of the flute player. My collaboration with Olle Sundström started in the context of this research. in Piteå. Olle Sundström. was written in 2012. Introduction Floating Embers. he heard through a friend about my project and Spark of of Imagination Flute took the initiative to contact me. orchestra. written for NEO3 in 2011) and he was interested in continuing to explore it. The piece. As a current student the same school. and is currently studying composition with Professor Jan Sandström at Musikhögskolan / the School of Music. I will present in this chapter an overview of the piece and discuss the use of the flutist’s voice in this context and my collaboration with the composer. Sara Hammarström. and film. a duo for flute and voice (soprano). One of my flute teachers. Olle Sundström had in his mind o œ A œ œ b œ using œo œ bœ a strong idea: of the flutist. © Olle Sundström 2011                                                                                                                 2  Olle Sundström was born in 1989 in Stockholm. music psychology and composition at the University of Uppsala. He had already composed other œ œ œ theŒ singing œ ‰ œJvoice ∑ ‰ œ Œ b˙ææ & 44 ∑ pieces using this specific flute technique (for example in Spark of Imagination. the flutist should sing in unison with the written bœ œ . being charged with promoting contemporary art music on a national basis. The ensemble consists of seven musicians employed full-time and has Studio Acusticum in Piteå as its home base. œ œ œ b œ œ œ b œ œbœ œ n œ J œn œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œbœ œ œ œ ≈æJ ≈æJ ‰ Ó line: & f 3 10 3 3 3 f mp bœ œ æœ bœ æ & ‰ æJ ‰ J ‰ æJ ‰ J 2 13 ˙ & œ 21 p ˙ & œ 27 p U & w 33 pp f 2 B mysterious tranquil sing Ó p b˙ ˙ mf Œ œ œ b˙ Œ p mf œ œ Œ œ œ œ ˙ Œ Œ œ œ b˙ Œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ ˙ Œ bœ ˙ bœ bœ Œ œ bœ bœ ˙ Œ mf mf p p C Slightly faster mf mf 9 Ó p p q = 100 b˙ ˙ mf mf 45 p mf p ∑ 44 2 Example 22. Spark of Imagination (2011). composed before the beginning of our collaboration. by the Swedish composer Olle Sundström2. was commissioned for my Master’s project.Norrbotten NEO is a Swedish ensemble. 3 NEO . He has studied musicology.   21   . From the beginning. is part of the ensemble. Sweden.

This first part of the piece explores several effects that require knowledge of extended techniques. the voice of the flutist has no major role. 2. bar 1 to 38 . bar 39 to 58 . 2012. In Floating Embers. both in the flute and the singer’s part. Piteå. written for flute and voice (soprano) can be considered a tripartite composition. First Section: EDGY In the first section of Floating Embers.   22   . 2. The technique is used but the composer emphasises other effects.First section: Edgy. These techniques will be mentioned briefly. bar 59 to 104 Floating Embers requires from the flutist the use of other extended techniques besides singing and playing.Second section: Mysterioso.1. creating a delicate airy atmosphere. Olle Sundström and Marina Cyrino in an “Experimentation Session”. each part with a different character: . Floating Embers: a walk around extended flute techniques Floating Embers.Third section: Intense.     One of the main characteristics that will run through the whole collaboration between Olle Sundström and myself is his interest in the singing voice of the flutist. he explores it in many different ways. Edgy starts with flute air sounds and flutter tongue while the singer has a soft line mixing different vowels and phonemes. Figure 5.

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It results  blowing  in a very   directly  loud and aggressive             /     $   # . effect. into the flute.

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18) defines trumpet embouchure 3 as a tone      created through a   #  combination of lip tension.  Levine (2002. air pressure and resonating spaces. The lips are pressed       together and vibrate a strong exhaling pressure. p.     through  tightly  .

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combination between     Floating Embers. produced on  . the the trumpet embouchure.

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which is disturbed by the  first part. The  flute has  a calm. part of Floating a melodic character replaces the effects of the   melodic line.2.     2. Second Section:      MYSTERIOSO   second      In the  Embers.

cantabile introduction of the flutist’s voice in bar 48:  &'  &'  &' # .

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bar 48-49.         .    Floating Embers.                   2   2   Example 30.

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creating multiple sonorities. The flutter tongue is the only effect introduced in the first part that is also used in the Mysterioso (except for  . different from the pitch of the flute sound.     Here the flutist should sing the phoneme ta-ke-te in the notated pitch.

.  singing and playing).

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2.3. Third  Section:   INTENSE  .

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in bars 59 to 67. the singing and playing . This final part of the  piece can be  subdivided  in two.   1    1   The Intense part starts with a canonical duet between the flute and the singer. First. according to the different uses of the singing and playing technique.

is.

explored .

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as .

in .

the.

Mysterioso. .

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through .

The difference is that in this the flutist sings only in octaves with the flute   1  1 third  part  1   line. technique the thematic phonemes “ta-ke-te”. .

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 Singing in unison or octaves with the  .

 note played is fairly easy to perform and produces  little or no modulation. p.  (Dick. 143)    . Singing in others intervals with played note is more difficult […].   1989.

 and gives  .  bar  end.

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new .

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1  melodic line The intervals created by the two lines give the harmonic  in the    progression.      flutist’s voice     its main character. The use of the reaches its maximum complexity in this section. and simultaneously play a       flute. Here the flutist  has to sing a melodic  bass line.           .

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 Floating  bar 73 .  Embers. Example  # 32.

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invert.

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composer .

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and the soprano sings in a very high  .  wanted flute creates chords and a melodic bass line.

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the typical register of the flute. we have a melting  the between the voice of the flutist and the voice of the singer. It can be tricky for         audience to. imitating a flute. As result.    register.

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The challenges and solutions found through practice will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter.     This is the most difficult part for the flutist when it comes to the use of the voice. The composer explores a very high register of the voice. culminating on g3:  . One last interesting detail of this piece concerns the singer’s part.

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 #  Embers and the use of the flutist’s voice.

 3. Floating   .

Floating Embers. bar 67.     .           Example 33.

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since it combines flute sound not only with   the flutist’s voice but also .    Floating Embers is an innovative piece.

with the voice .

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of a singer. .

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Until in my research about .

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   . other pieces that use the voice of the flutist. I found only one written for this kind of   setting.

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a Brazilian composer.    pedal. is written for flute and voice (baritone).   “… como regatos e árvores” (2006) by Rafael Nassif. In this piece the flutist has to sing while playing.

and Here we have an  .

flutist’s voice  singing: excerpt with flute    # .

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          Example 34. “…como regatos e árvores” (2006).  . Rafael Nassif.

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      In Floating is used in a traditional established way (if   Embers. the voice of the flutist .

voice.

of the.

Most . but mainly in two different ways. “normal” and “traditional” can be used in this kind of context…). The      flutist is always explored as a singing voice.

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the composer uses the voice to create a counterpoint of distinct melodic lines. exploring the polyphonic facet of the flute.     of the time. An excerpt of the third part of the piece shows us an example of flute pedal with  .

  moving voice. the flutist sings a melodic line.      #                                                          . While the flute sound sustains a C.

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Another excerpt from the third part (Example 36) shows us again an example of   singing voice while playing. butthis time in its maximum complexity and difficulty      #   .

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bar 79 to 84. Floating Embers.    Example 36.        voice  Each bar can an of pedal  .

separately  example  with  .

flute  be  considered a moving .

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but in a larger context. Here. the .      part. the bass line that the flutist should sing is also moving.

but it has an .singing line is not only a color added to the flute sound.

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   important harmonic role. Thisuse of the voice is   very tricky and requires a lot of practice so that the flutist is. creating chords through a bass line.

able .

to remember .

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It’s also necessary/     $   # to find a good balance between the voice and the . to sing     voice the right pitch with a good intonation between intervals create by  the flutist’s and the flute.

 flute sound and keep the continuityof both lines.     .

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not as a second melodic line.               The other  kind of using the singing voiceof theflutist.      3   articulation  was to use the voice as a color to produce a different kind result in the     sound. The .

flutist .

has .

to play.

repeated .

notes .

while  singing .

“ta – ke – te”.           28   !"  !" .

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bar 55 to 58.     #                    1     1   1                                 1   1        $   1     1     1     1     1   Example 37. . Floating Embers.

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 of combined syllables (ta-ka-ta / te-ke-te/  du-gu-du) appears .

but usually the syllables are used just as reference .  in most  of the This #kind   1for the tongue flute methods.

 position. It means that imagines  the . to produce different tongue attacks.

flutist .

only .

the composer asks the flutist to sing while playing. The composer takes advantage one aspect be seen as a  that  could  of     . even grotesque. rough. so the articulation   1    becomes noisy. In this piece.    and tries to the syllables keep the mouth’s shape. but doesn’t use the vocal cords. The challenge here was to produce a clear staccato sound.

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however. often noisy timbre. p. 1989.      sonorities 1  Unless the flutist has an exceptionally clear voice. the multiple created by singing and playing simultaneously are usually of a rather coarse. (Dick. 143)  .

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  We can find this kind of articulation in Eólia (1984) by Philippe Hurel. The sounds   1    “te-ke-te” are spoken. without simultaneous flute playing. and not sung in a specific pitch as.

in Floating Embers.  .

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     #         .

             1   Hurel.

Philippe . Eólia Example 38.

  #  . (1984).

                1   1  4. Practicing Floating Embers: challengesand solutions   .

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Floating Embers was the first collaboration in my Master project. the use of the voice while playing was a new technique for me. In this section. The focus will be the challenges I’ve faced and practice    tips that I’ve found during my practice of the piece to solve those challenges. then move the flute slowly towards the mouth and increase the intensity of the air until a flute tone appears. Levine (2002) suggest a simple practice tip for flutists that are starting to learn singing and playing: The flutist should produce a vocalized sound while exhaling without the flute. One important point to   29   . Even if I had some previous experience of extended flute techniques. specific passages  in Floating Embers where the flutist’s voice is  requiredwill be discussed.

The air pressure must be strong enough to overcome the resistance presented by the vocal cords. p. If the singing line has an important polyphonic role. then the voice can be more prominent than the flute sound. This exercise (Example 39) can be adapted to specific passages in a piece and is a great tool for memorizing the singing part. When I started practicing the piece. Robert Dick’s “Throat Tune” technique was introduced in the previous chapter. p. Robert Dick (1986. or I could produce a great flute tone but then my voice was too soft. if the voice is used to add a color in the flute line then the flutist can sing softly. the voice automatically sang in unison with the flute. so I could separate the two melodic lines in my mind. Through practice I found some solutions that helped me a lot. For example. In the beginning. just normal solfeggio education. One strategy I used was to sing the melodic line without blowing in the flute.20) One of the first challenges I faced practicing Floating Embers was that of finding a good balance between the melodic line produce by the flute and that produced by my voice. at the same time it also helps improving the traditional flute technique (as we discussed previously in Chapter 2. if the flutist has to speak a clear text. (Levine. section 5. Example 39. I could sing quite loud but then I lost the focus of the flute tone. It took some time to separate the movement of the fingers from the voice. but just moving the finger positions. then the flutist can aim for an equal balance between the lines.10). Finding a balance has to do with the relation between the lines. Or. Now the passages of Floating Embers that require the use of the flutist’s voice will be presented with my systematization of the learning process:   30   . throat tune allows the flutist to achieve maximum resonance of the flute sound). Here I’ll mention one of the exercises he proposes that proved very helpful in my own practice. Another challenge is one that is directly related to singing: to remember the right pitch. 2002. And it was really hard to sing a tone while the fingers press another tonekey in the flute.     focus on is that the outside neck muscles should be relaxed. As a flutist. Throat Tune Exercise. The flutist should develop through practice the ability to perform with all these different kinds of balance. I didn’t have so much training in that. I had great help from Robert Dick’s Tone Development through Extended Techniques.

                        $ $  $ $  $ $4.1.  $Passage $  $ from $  (( bar 19 $ to $ 26:  $Voice $  $glissando $  $ $with  $flute $ pedal  .

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Floating Embers.    .      Example 40. bar 19 to 26.

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The major a clear glissando and keep the dynamics required by the composer.    In this example we have flute pedal with moving voice.     - . The main  with 3  the  voices.  Practice Tips: the glissando from the Eb to the F# with the dynamics written /     $   #    Practice  in the score only voice. When it’s comfortable. The flutist starts to Challenge: $ $  $ $  $ $sing  in %& unison  difficulty   here  is to sing  with the flute. just sing and play. singer   .

   to blend      idea is to work with the the two          .

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Bar 37 %  2             .   4.2.

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bar 37. Floating Embers. . #  %  Example 41.

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 In this example the flutist has to sing .

an F and play a C#. Challenge:             %&  %&    .

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 2    2             Example 42. Floating Embers. bar 49 to 51.       .

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voice  can  be heard .it is the final note of the singer’s phrase.     The F from the            so the  in the previous  bar.

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  .     flutist should pay attention and  take &' the tone from&'there. in the pp dynamics. the natural tendency is to play the C# in the flute an octave lower. The difficulty here is the &'  &'    dynamics indicated.

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                        .   helped  find the “right”      imagination before playingand This memory me to  2   2  C#. Imagine Practice Tips: the sound of the C# in the second octave flute. %      just  singing.

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Passage from bar 47 to 52: Singing “ta ke te” in different tones           /    /     .     4.3.

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b) Play the flute and sing alternately (don’t play the flute part during the singing part) Example 44. Practice Journal. a) Play the voice line with the flute: Example 43. Practice Journal. The challenges are: to remember the right pitch and find a good staccato articulation. d) Play and sing as written   32   . Here I took the example of bar 49 to 51. Practice Journal.     Challenge: The passage has been discussed previously in the section 3 of this chapter. Practice Tips: For the voice memory training I found good results following these steps. but it’s valid for the whole passage from bar 47 to 52. c) Play the flute and sing alternately (don’t play the flute part but move the fingers) Example 45.

4.     4. Passage from bar 55 to 66: Sing “Ta-ke-te” in octaves with the flute line  .

FloatingEmbers. bar 55 to 56. the Challenge: Although $   1     1     1   challenge of singing and playing a staccato articulation is still the main focus. singing and playing simultaneously as written until it’s possible to  produce a short and clear articulation.                       #  1             1   1           1     Example 46. .        it’s much more simple to sing in octaves with the flute line.   1   Practice Tips: Practice slowly.

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5.  .    4. Passage from  bar 67 from 72: Flute pedal with moving voice.

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  #             Challenge: In this passage the major challenges are to find a balance between the .

 Floating Embers.  flutist’s voice and the flute line and to sing the tone G from bar 72 (since it’s a      difficult . bar 67 to 72. Example 47.

interval to sing and play simultaneously).  .

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 Practice Tips:           .

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to practice .

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two .

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 the passage a) For the.

balance   .

between  starting .

I recommend .

lines with a good tone in the voice and an air sound in the flute line. After several times it    becomes natural for the lips to sing and find a good C tone directly. then slowly increasing     1    the pressure of the air to find a focus sound on the flute.    .

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Practice Journal.     1          #   .           Example 48.

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I’ll look to the interaction and changes made to the piece during the process of composition of Floating Embers. Most of the collaboration consisted in rehearsals with me and the singer and discussions on the realization of the score. Introduction The collaboration with Olle Sundström started when I was looking for composers interested in this research project and available for participating in it. only small adjustments were made to the score. not to downplay the role of the experience. I used the tone C.   36   . At this point. Returning to the patterns of collaboration presented in Chapter One. through an informal conversation. to find the tone D. Collaboration 5. After that first meeting. played in bar 88. and it requires from the flutist to practice their inner ear. as it has not appeared before. It’s always difficult to categorize such a complex process as an artistic collaboration. a soprano with whom he had already collaborated in other compositions of his. It’s a question of memory training. Even if the piece was mainly finished in November 2012 the collaboration remained until April 2013. the composer showed me some sketches and soon after that we started the rehearsals of the first version of the piece with the singer. As described in the introduction to this chapter. The composer remained very active and interested in all rehearsals. slap tongue and some possibilities of using the flutists voice. he had already in mind the setting of the piece: a duo for flute and soprano. Here I’ll try to describe the impact I had as a performer during the collaboration process. A studio recording of Floating Embers was made in March 2013. My intent is to conduct a dialogue with these theoretical models. recording sessions and performances. After that. The singer that would participate in the project was also chosen: Josefine Gellwar Madsen.     Challenge: The only difficulty is to find the tone D with the voice. Practice Tips: I have no specific recommendation. he took the initiative to contact me and he had a strong interest for using the singing voice of the flutist. we had our first meeting with defined roles as composer and performer. where I played for him some extended techniques presented is this chapter as trumpet sound. The actual collaborative work started in September 2012. Collaborative patterns One of the aims of this research is to explore the use of the flutist’s voice through collaboration.2. tongue ram. When he first contacted me. The first contact we had was in May 2012.1. The process of composing the piece was from September 2012 to November 2012. The piece was premiered in December 2012. 5. two models of collaboration proved relevant to this research: John-Steiner (2000) and Hayden and Windsor (2007). 5.

however. The reason for classifying the collaboration as complementary was based on the respective roles: the composer did the writing and I did the playing and gave feedback on flute notation. Family and Integrative. Integrative collaboration requires prolonged periods of committed activity and we didn’t had enough time to develop this kind of relationship. with small traces of ‘Integrative’ collaboration. Second. We shared a desire to explore new possibilities of music. for two reasons. First.     John-Steiner presents four patterns of work collaboration: Distributed. the composer already had a passion for the singing voice before starting to exchange ideas with me. we discussed how to translate his ideas on sound into flute notation and the possibilities of using my voice. I believe it was the beginning of an integrative pattern. Even if a simple detail such as using the voice while playing doesn’t seem so revolutionary. Complementary. My collaboration with Olle Sundström was mainly of the ‘Complementary’ kind. I cannot say. that it was a fully ‘Integrative collaboration’.  . I also found a pattern of Integrative collaboration in our work. Our conversations served as inspiration and material for his compositional ideas.

   2 Hayden  and Windsor (2007) discuss patterns of artistic collaboration specifically   applied to a musical and propose three distinct categories: ‘Directive’.   context  .

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Small informal moments. short conversations in the corridor.  including after a concert.sessions   $ and $ rehearsals $ $  $ $  be a little uncomfortable or rigid in the Experimentation can beginning.  reasons such as shortage of time or lack of remuneration for her work. Something that I believe to be part of my strongest input in the    process of the composition of Floating Embers started with a question asked by the composer in the corridor of the school: “What can you sing?” The special agency of     my voice in  the process of collaboration  will be discussed in Chapter 6.   break.  or during a coffee    . had a positive impact on the process. for example.    The informal part of the collaboration with Olle. She also had a great influence on the piece and we should have found a way to exchange and integrate more our ideas about the collaboration. are extremely  e-mails. when you don’t know the composer in advance. Still.  phone calls and short conversations  important     to create a more spontaneous bond that will be reflected in the actual    collaboration work.  . the singer was a very committed performer and     /  interested in the piece.

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      39   . Even if my input consists in small details. a very important detail in a project linked to a thesis. Piteå. Mattias Wessel and Josefine Gellwar Madsen recording Floating Embers. Marina Cyrino. also with the deadlines. 2013. great creative ideas can grow. The collaboration worked marvellously. In these small exchanges.     interest in the singing voice allowed him to explore deeply that aspect of the technique. Figure 6. these details shouldn’t be underestimated. Olle Sundström.

Composition. In. Our collaboration started with an e-mail. 2007 she began her studies at the Bachelor Program in Music. to explore the possibilities of using the voice of the flute player. in the context of this research. which will be compared to that described in the previous chapter. The piece was also commissioned for my Master’s project. The collaboration with Lisa Stenberg started in November 2012.               4 Keep the Night from Coming In 1. created sound design for theater and composed for documentary film and art film. The process of experimentation was very long and                                                                                                                 4  Lisa   Stenberg:   Composer. ranging from symphony orchestra to solo musicians. She is working with acoustic music. As a composer. Sweden. as a possible composer that would have an interest in participating in a collaboration project. Lisa had also studied in Piteå. During the years she has also collaborated with dancers and performance artists. Introduction This chapter presents and discusses the piece Keep the Night from Coming In (2013) for solo flute. she showed great interest. As a performer she appears with sound works and improvisations based on real-time processing of different sound sources. Sara Hammarström. We met in person only four times. In 2010. Another strong contrast to the collaboration with Olle Sundström was the duration of the compositional process. Luckily.     40   . exactly two weeks before I started writing this chapter. solo as well as in different constellations with other musicians or dancers. Luleå University of Technology under the guidance of Professor Jan Sandström. Composition at the department for Arts. Non-musical ideas and the sounds themselves are often at the center and the starting point for her work in which the ideas are explored and molded into a sonic shape. and we developed a rich collaboration. She was suggested by one of my flute teachers. Performer. where I explained my research project and asked if she was interested in joining it. she entered the Master Program in Music Performance. An important difference from the previous collaboration is related to the distance. Lisa Stenberg and I started to exchange ideas in November 2012 but the piece was not finished until April 2013. the result of my collaboration with the Swedish composer Lisa Stenberg4. but when I started my project she had already moved to Stockholm. she embraces ensembles of various sizes and constellations. The greater part of the process was thus conducted through e-mails and Skype meetings. I will present an overview of the piece and discuss the use of the flutist’s voice in this context and my collaboration with the composer. Communication and Education. electro acoustic music and combinations of those expressions.

1. One very important remark is that the collaboration with Lisa Stenberg is still in progress. The open nature of the score will also affect the structure of this chapter. each section of the piece will be presented separately. Rather than presenting linearly all the specific uses of the flutist’s voice and then discussing the challenges and solutions arrived at through practice. Figure 7. All these factors will affect the structure of this chapter. Even if Keep the Night From Coming In just got out of the oven. The requirements of the composer are the following: all sections shall be played at least once. which are free for the performer to play in any order. Keep the Night From Coming In: an overview 2. small changes in the score are still possible. The piece has not yet been performed in public. sections may be repeated at a maximum of three times but never be played more than twice in a row. A studio recording has been made for the purpose of this research. I have a lot of material to discuss in this chapter due to the amount of sketches that the composer produced. An open score One of the most interesting outcomes of this collaboration regards the form of the piece. all sections shall be performed from start to end. Keep the Night from Coming In consists out of seven sections. In each section the focus will be the description and discussion of the use of the flutist’s voice and relevant comments. beginning in February 2013. A large part of the material for the piece was already present in the sketches that I tested and discussed. in contrast to the structure of Chapters 3 and 5.     interesting and the time to practice the final version of the piece was very short. Lisa Stenberg and Marina Cyrino in an ‘Experimentation Session’. 2012. I understand the form of the piece as a direct outcome of our collaboration and I will discuss this subject in depth in section 4 of this chapter. Even if the piece is mainly finished. 2.   41   . I feel comfortable in presenting the several aspects of the flutist’s voice. Piteå.

musical sections shallproduce be performed start toor thevoiced end. the flute player produces sounds by sending breath through piece consists out ofp. Shift graudally from only air sound to full tone Whistle tone w. Open. The transitions between half and closed embouchures allow the exploration of different colors for the air sounds. whistle tones. embouchure glissando. with theAlllips and air from sounds sounds. air sounds. Extended flute techniques Keep The Night from Coming In contains numerous relevant extended flute techniques: multiphonics.t   42   . 7 sections A-Gshould wich arecover free for completely the performer to in any order. singing or whispering. Thenamed flutist theplayembouchure All sections has to be played at least once. the friction needed for producing a flute tone. The broken (dashed) arrow indicates a gradual shift from technique to another. Blowing inside hole doesn’t produce If nothing else the notated dynamic is validthe for embouchure both flute and voice system. flutter tongue. key clicks sounds. half open. Performing notes In the score Lisa Stenberg indicates a range of degrees of openness of the mouthpiece: open. Flutists can play with many shades of air sounds and whispering voice. the fluteThe (Manabe.     KEEP THE NIGHT FROM COMING IN Composed for Marina Cyriano Commissioned byclosed Marinaembouchure Cyriano 2. flute tone with thisi specified.in a row. technique. Keep The Night from Coming In. half open embouchure open embouchure Example 59. A peculiarity of the closed embouchure is that is not possible to produce a regular Accidentals is valid only for the specific note notated at.3. and One of the distinctive features of the piece is that it explores a very interesting aspect SOLO FLUTE of the flute: the closed embouchure. Open embouchure is the traditional position of the lips. examples usingmay thebeclosed were 13. performance notes. The possibilities of using closed Flute embouchure are air sounds. In General the closed embouchure. half-open and closed. All trills shall be performed as timbral trills All glissandos shall be performed as lip glissandos if possible closed embouchure. Only air sound 2. Sections repeatedembouchure at a maximum of threeintroduced times. The closed embouchure results in a hollow. 2008.2. but shall(Examples never be played No paus between the sections should be made.more 14 than andonce 15). In chapter 2. stifled sound.1). The techniques that weren’t mentioned in the previous chapters will be described briefly.

performance notes. (Dick. flz. .t œ ‰ ñ æ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ˙æ ï œ ˙ o p gliss. bœ mp mf Example 61.t to j The flute’s ‚ capacity œ ˙ produce from two to five pitches simultaneouslythhas been clearly and has historical >‚ established. piece.. brato æ ‚ÍÍÍÍÍ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ˙æ Œ ˙ œ p to to Multiphonics ˙mf j >‚ gliss.ñ O Ó Œ mf Œ ï j ‚> ‰   ï j ‚> ‰ >‚ >‚ j >‚ j ‰ >‚ >‚ >‚ to ñ O Œ ï j Œ ‚> p j >‚ Œ ñ flz.t . 2011. chi . o roots that go back as far as the early 19 century. Voice In Keep the Night From Coming In the key click sounds are used as percussive effects with open and closed embouchure. 1986. ‚ ‚ ‚ . p. ‚‰ o p œ™ flz. the bœmost difficult technical challenges if the flutist is not familiar with ˙ gliss. section A. section C. (Dick. and a major challenge. A multiphonic is an extended technique in óinstrumental music in which a monophonic ˙˙ one note at a time) is made to produce j j instrumentO (one which˙ generally ‚™produces ‚ #only ‚> >‚ several notes at once. bœ f mf In Keep The Night from Coming In threemfmultiphonics are used. bœ µ˙ o ppp mf o ppp o pp mf ˙ p to ñ ˙˙ó # ‚ ‚™ ó ˙ . 2002 p. 83) œ™ mf gliss. Unvoiced sound   Unvoiced whispering “Ch” as in Bach Voiced sound (sing) 43   . Keep the Night from Coming In. which depend on the resonance volume of the body of the flute. bœ mf æ undoubtedly find the types of sonorities Œ that most speak to him or her. n‚. mf j bœ p   ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ t . ‚. Keep the Night from Coming In.27) Key clicks Example 62. and each player will glissThe . 9) o mp p to ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ t . p.t .p. flz.t . b‚.o LISA to STENBERG to 1989. j bœb œ Acquiring a fluid multiphonic technique is a long-term process. and they are one of gliss. (Levine.t . Keep the Night from Coming In. wealth of the flute’s multiphonic capacity is extraordinary. Key click without flute sound: Key clicks without sound are purely percussive events.36) p #œ œ ≈ #œ œ ˙ ˙ gliss.t . .t . (Robinson. ‚. œ œ œR˙ #˙ ææ≈ ≈ ˙˙ Œ ˙ ˙˙gliss.t . œ of ˙ the bœ the technique: o p mf o œ bœ mf ˙ Example 60. but also in between. the key clicks will sound a major seventh lower.t . ‚ ‚ ‚ o ‚mp p ‚‚ ‰ œ .t .t . When the embouchure hole is covered by the lips.t .

section B.t . œ œ #˙ µ˙ O o 3 Œ œglisbs. ‚ ‚ ‚b‚ œ œ œnœ ˙ ¢& œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ nœ ‚ b‚.to ï ‚ ñ ‚ ï j ‚> ‚ ‚ j >‚ pp s p - o to . 1986. . series w. . . bœ o mf pp ñ ó #˙˙ n˙˙ o mp o o Ÿ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ‚ ‚ ‚ . . Keep the Night from Coming In. The technique is produced by changing Copyright © 2013 LISA STENBERG the lip tension or by turning the instrument inward (to produce a descending glissando) or outward (to produce an ascending glissando) (Levine. ‚ ¿¿¿¿¿ ∑ .45).gliss. . Œ ∑ ï j ‚> ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ Œ b‚ n‚ ‚ ‚ ‰Whistle j ‚j Œ ‚> >tones >‚ j j slow j ‰ ‰extremely Œ j focused Œ Œ but air ‚stream across the edge of the embouchure holeŒ >‚ >‚ > >‚ >‚ >‚ >œ cho œ™ fz n˙ ‰ ææ cho >‚ cho œ. . 2002. bœ ppp mf œ Œ pp mf Ó ˙˙ o œ Œ J ‰ ppp ˙˙ o mf Glissandi in flute literature can be understood as seamless transitions from one tone to & ¢ another.to >‚ b>‚ ‚ > f >‚ Œ woh! ‰ p . . . n‚.t˙ J pp bœ ææ #æœ œ ææ mf j ‰ ‚> mf b‚ ‚ >‚ > > Œ The flute whistle tone. . . . but low-octave fingerings enable the flutist to produce the harmonic throughout the flute range. b‚. .gliss. section B.bœ ˙˙ o ˙ mf ˙ ˙ o p mf ï ó ° & <b>œ œœ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ‰ Œ œ gliss. ‚. . also known as the flageolet.t œ b˙ b œ ™ œo bw. 44   n˙ ó #˙˙ o mp o ‚ ‚ ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ p .œ ˙ œ p mp œ œ Œ gliss. is produced by blowing an Whisper over the edge of the blowing wall cho chotones are woh!the sound of the cho air breaking cho cho cho without exciting the air in the flute’s tube into vibration. ‚. bœ ñ Œ ppp œ #œ œ œ nœ p mf 3   mf ó wide vibrato C extremely ˙ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ° Œ ˙˙ & Embouchure glissando ‚. p.‰ œ™ œ > > & Œ mf   ¢& ™ >œ >œ s to Ó œ gliss.t˙ b œ ™ œo nw tones are echo of a loud Œ In Keep TheJ Night from#˙˙Coming In. Trillingœj alternative œ œ œ >‚ >‚ >‚ >‚ >‚ >‚ >‚ >‚ >‚ > > of this same tone produces the variations of the same tone. ‚.26) Any standard fingering can be used. ppp mf wo Example 63. ˙ bœ bœ œ o œ œ œ œ œ #˙ µ˙ nO o 3 œ ≈R ≈ ppp mf mp o ï j j ‚> >‚ Example 64. . They can be Embouchure or Fingering glissando. This technique produces a cha cho cho cho cho cho to to to woh! ñ coloristic effect in a same tone. w. . ‚. . ‚. Keep the Night from Coming In. p. . Keep The Night From Coming In uses embouchure or lip glissando. whistle Œ used as abdelicate b‚ ‚ flute sound. w. œo œ œgliss. pp fz pp o mp o fz mf pp fz mf œ™ ‰ #æœ   æ Œ œ œ bœ n œ p œ a œ bœ œ ï n˙ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ Œ ‚™ ‚. (Dick. Œ j ‚> ‰ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ‰ >‚ b>‚Timbral trills cha >‚ j >‚ Œ cha ‚ ‰ b‚ rK ‚ ‚> >‚ > ‚ > > > >‚ >‚ Œ Œ #œ ææ ñ ‚ ‚ p ‰ Œ j ∑ fingerings Timbral trills are between two notes‰of the same Krpitch.

Whisper sounds > andto> tThe .bœ ˙˙ ˙ piece.t . . w.t œ. ‘is it air?’. ‚> ‚> >‚ between whispered KEEP THE NIGHT FROM COMING IN 3 Example 65. . ‚ ‚‰ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‰ œ b‚.t .t˙ J œ™ Œ pp = 55) fz >‚ pp j >œ cho j >‚ Œ woh! ‰ cho >‚ >‚ cho Œ >‚ cho Œ   cho w. but shall never be played more than once in a row.4. The piece ñ ï ï flz. . . bœ gliss. All sections has to be played at least once.tvoice . b‚. Only air sound ppp mf Œ pp œ mf Ó ˙˙ o Example 66. ‘wo’. . . section B.gliss. bœ Commissioned by Marina Cyriano t . Unvoiced whispering “Ch” as in Bach ‚ chi to Voiced sound (sing) bœ ‚ p ‚ œ . Keep the Night from Coming In. section E. b œ j æŒ œ j œ j j ‰ j ‰ œ ˙˙ó Œ # Œ Œ ‚ ‚> œæ æ >‚ æ œ œ œ #œ n˙ ‰ ‚> #œ œ ‰ #œ ‚ ‚ ‚™ æ œ . ‚.t -of t the flutist o is always blended to to to Voice singing in octaves with the flute line are the two main modes of using the voice while SOLO FLUTE playing. ‘cho’.4. . ‘is it flute sound?’ o No paus between the sections gliss. wide vibrato ˙xtremely ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ Œ ˙˙ ‚.t   45   ˙˙ o ppp #˙ µ˙ o mp . . ‚. ñ mfFlute ï œœ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ‰ Œ ó #˙˙ n˙˙ o mp o o All trills shall be performed as timbral trills All glissandos shall be performed as lip glissandos if possible Ÿ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ‚. All sections shall be performed from start to the end. . Accidentals is valid only for the specific note notated at. . pp p Copyright © 2013 LISA STENBERG j ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ Composed ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ for Marinaœ Cyriano œ gliss. explores the melting point œbetween flutist’s and the flute sound. then the singing voiceœof the flutist˙ is mf 3 mf combined in octaves owithppp the air sound. . These nuances create a delicate variety in the timbre and articulation of the musical gestures. bœ ‘is it voice?’.mf Œ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚   o .to . bœ gliss. Gradually shift from unvoiced whispering “ch” to voiced “o” ppp mf œ bœ The broken (dashed) arrow indicates a gradual shift wo from technique to another.to . n‚. .to ó œ™ F œ. bœ œ ˙ ofgliss. Keep the Night from Coming In. If nothing else i specified. w.t˙ J ubato cho fz t and gentle >‚ cho j >‚ ‰ >‚ cho j >‚ cho œ. ‚. ‚. the notated dynamic is valid for both flute and voice system. vowels and syllables indications in the voice line (‘t’.2. vowels. p and voiced sounds.4. The melting points æ æ æ æ æ æ œ æ æ n œ to p to æ to to to to to æ ææ æ æ o mp o æ p 3 ï Keep The mfNightñ From Coming In plays around limits and boundaries.(open ‚ ‚ ‚spaces ‚ ‚ ‚inside ‚ ‚ and ˙ outside œ thea œflute bœ and>‚ closed >‚embouchure). ‚. should be made. > > >‚ >‚ æ b œ n ˙ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ 2.to . ‚ ¿¿¿¿¿ ∑ . ‚. syllables Copyright © 2013 LISA STENBERG Keep The Night from Coming In is full of different consonants. extremely wide vibrato j >‚ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ The following example showsŒ us exactly œ œ nœofœ blending œ œthat permeates œ #œ the œ feeling Œ thegliss. Consonants.o #œ œ ≈ f mf line In one musical gesture the composer explores the incertitude ˙ becomesœ a tone.p The use mf of the flutist’s pp p mf pp p pp mf ï voice Gmf flz. b ˙ b œ ™ œo bw. half open embouchure mf open embouchure œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ nœ ñ p mf ó ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ . mf between the p air and the flute tone.œThe whole flute line starts with air sound.1. ‘a’…). . Sections may be repeated at a maximum of three times. . . œ Œ J ‰ ppp mf ˙˙ o ppp œ ≈ R ≈ ˙˙ o mf ppp Shift graudally from only air sound to full tone 2. between œ bœ œthe n˙ j Œ voice ææ ‚ ‚ ‚ j j j Œ j j ‰ Œ O O O gliss. bœ o mf pp ‚. .t˙ b œ ™ œo COMING IN JKEEP THE #˙˙ NIGHT FROM Œ b‚ b‚ pp pp o mp o fz mf fz mf œ™ Œ Œ fz nw w.t pp Aï ñ ñ ñ ï ñ ï ï ï ï ï j Œ j Ó O j j j j j j Ó ‰ Ó ∑ ‰ ‰ Ó Œ ‰ O O O O O O O ‚> ‚> ‚> >‚ ‚> ‚> ‚> ‚> ‰ >‚ >‚ ó pp 2. and subsequently the air sound of the flute p mf Performing notes Ó ˙ o p General Unvoiced sound The piece consists out of 7 sections named A-G wich are free for the performer to play in any order. .to . . Whistle tone w.t - ‰ œ™ œ > > mf ™ >œ >œ s to j ‚ ‰ j ‚ Œ j ‚ Œ Key clicks j ‚ >with the >flute sound. ‘s’. ‚ ‚ ‚b‚ œ œ œnœ ˙ closed embouchure.

.to . the ‘cho’ and ‘cha’ became 3 p o difference mf mp wo very because the small ˙ ¢&clearó because of the use of the whispering voice but also osensitive to details. Keep the Night from Comingf In: the>seven sections 3. #˙˙ o n˙˙ ‰Œ ‚ ‚ ‚.t gesture ofó the . section E. ‚for whispering ‚ &different <b>œ œœ¿ ˙ ¿ ¿ œ¿ ¿ ¿ b∑œ b œ œ The . œ œ gliss. the flutist’s voice is first used as whispered or unvoiced.t B ° & Œ œ gliss. . . n‚. nœ 3 œ œ œpbœ œ œ œ between 2008.1. ° ‚ ‚ & ‚ ‚ ¢& >‚ to KEEP THE NIGHT FROM CO Soft and gentle   o fz mp to b‚ ‚ >‚ > > cho o to j ‰ ‚> mf j >œ cho mf 3 p ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ a ñ ˙ó ï ï #˙ Œ ‚ ‚™ j j n˙∑ ¿ ¿ ‚¿ ¿ ¿‰ ¿ ¿‚¿ ‰ O . Œ O Œ œ isbs. .œgl. ‚. >‚ b>‚ ‚ ‰ ‚j ‚j Œ > > 3.t . . p o j ‰ j Œ bœ >‚ j bœ j >‚ ‰ j >‚ pp   j >‚ Œ to O Œ O p to ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ œ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ extremely wide vibrato ‰ œ™ œ > > Ó mf ¢& œ ™ >œ >œ œ gliss.¢& Section ‚ ‚ A ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ Œ Œ to .t .œ ˙inmfnormal Œ œ œ singing. Eï o ppp mf. issboth œ œ œ œ #˙b‚.t œ™ œ w.t . j bœ ‰ j >‚ Œ j ‚> j >‚ O pp O .to . When œ œ œo ¿ indications œ¿ ¿œ¿gli¿ss¿. ‚. pp.to .° ‚ ‚ & ‚ ‚   ¢& mf æ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ˙æ 3 p mf ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ t .t . bœ Œ ppp p mf 3 ñ In. pp fz fz pp fz pp ¢& Rubato >‚ cho Œ cho bw. .to >‚ cho >‚ cho ‰ >‚ cho Kr ‰ ‚>Copyright ‚> © 2013 ‚> STENBERG ‚> >‚ >‚ >‚ LISA >‚ j >‚ cho j >‚ Œ cho ï j ‚> cho cho Œ cho Œ woh! j >‚ >‚ ‰ cho In the first section of Keep the Night from Coming In. . . changes that occur throughout the piece make the listener more wide vibrato C extremely ˙ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ œ œ œ ° J ‰ ˙˙ R ≈ ˙ ˙ Œ ˙ Œ Ó ˙ Œ ≈ & gliss. section A. syllable “to” with closed w.t˙ bœ Œ pp mf Œ fz (q = 55) ó G A flz. gliss. . 46   æ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ˙ Example 69.œ¿µ¿œ areœo used œ . ‚.to .t˙ the flutist œ™ œ. embouchure (inside the embouchure hole). O O o mp o > > p œ bœ mf pp p pp n˙ œ ï j j Œ ‰ œ gliss.t .3In the following example. . # ˙ ° are sung unvoiced. Œ b‚ of the flute. ‚ ‚ ‚b‚ œ œ œnœvoice and singing voice.t . Keep the Night from Coming ï ñ óD ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Ÿ ó ° gliss. piece whisper the. In the first w. the timbre is richerglthan o mp o o ppp mf vowels In addition. & µ ˙ µ˙ O whispered singing through the flute produces clear distinctions of timbre (Manabe. ° ° ææ ï œ & œ jæ Œ Flute & p >‚ mf ¢ ¢& >‚j Œ & Voice to ï ñ bœ ñ ï ï œ œ ææ ææœjæœ æÓ æœ #æœO næ˙ ‰ O ææÓ#æœ œ ‰j#有 j Œ Óœ O œ bœ n œO æ ææ ‚ ‚ ‚æ æ æ æ > > p 3> pp j >‚ to p mf mf pp j >‚ œ to ñ flz. o ppp mf o ppp mf mf pp mf ° Kr Œ j >‚ ‰ ‰ ‚ ‰ j ‰ & ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ b>‚ b>‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚> ‚> ‚> b>‚ >‚ ‚> >‚ > ¢& > > > > ¢& s mf j >‚ ‰ cho to >‚ o p >‚ cho cho ° ‚ & ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ mf j >‚ Œ >‚ cho >‚ cha cha >‚ ‰ Œ cha cho Example 68. always mixed with the air sound of the flute. Example 67.bœ ˙˙ o ˙ mf ˙ ˙ œ gliss. ‚ bœ ‚ bœ . section B. . creating an articulated but muffled J mixed with #˙˙ the air sound The°& result is an Jexplosive Œbut veryJdelicate whispered sound. Keep the Night fromï Coming In.9).nO o mp ¢& p. . Keep the Night from Coming In. . œ œ. ‚. b‚. bœ ‚> Copyright © 2013 LISA STENBERG mf œ œ p œ gliss. . should ˙ œ™ œ b ˙ ™ œo F b œsound.

.t . bœ mfsinging voice. . œ nœ œthe Œ air˙sounds gliss. ‚.t .t .t . . . #˙ flz. but in all examples oin this piece. . Keep the Night from Coming In. œt -the #tœ. ‚. . bmf pp j ‚ >‚ Œ œ mf bœ œ œ-œ noœ œ œ œchi to j ‚> o ˙ oj ‚> ‰ >‚ >‚ ‰ to to ñ Œ Ó ïgliss. . n‚. bœ mf bœ ˙ o mf mf œ ˙˙ ≈ R ≈ ˙˙ o ˙ppp mf ‚™ o gliss. ‚.2. p #˙ ˙˙ ó µ˙ ˙ o#˙ ppp o o mp ˙ gliss. ‚ ‚ b‚ œ œ nœ . ˙ gliss. ppp   ppp #mf˙ µ˙ o mp Œ mf Example 72.t .#Section > æ> > to mp po ˙ gliss.t . Keep the Night from Coming In. always in octaves with Inf this section voicej of the is used as mf j the j flutist Œ ˙ Copyright ©‚2013 LISA STENBERG the flute line. p o œ™ pp > to ñ O Œ O p œ t . . ‚‰ ‚ œ ˙> . ‚> ‚> >‚ >‚ to ñ flz.t . ˙ gliss. section A.t œ Œ J ‰ ˙˙ o ppp æ mf ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ Example 71. of œthis section is that it introduces for the >‚ One particular >‚ >‚ characteristic gliss.t . j ‰ gliss . . ‚ ‚‰ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‰ œ b‚. . 3 ˙ œ gliss. section B. .t .t - LISA STENBERG æ ‚ œ‚ ‚ ‚bœj ‚ ‰‚ ‚‚j ‚Œ ˙ ‚j œ j ‰ mf ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ > ‚ ‚ ‚ > > ‚ ï to gliss. . bœ to flute s.o Example 70.talso .t .t Œ. p f flz. bœ #œ œ ≈ #œ œ ˙ ææ ppp bœ œ o p mf ó ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ . œ bœ ‚ >‚ æ> to to ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ to t . . bœ o Opp o f LISA STENBERG gliss. ‚ ¿> ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ∑> > ‚ ‚.t .t . n‚. wo rato mf œ bœ 47   ˙ mf mf mp ˙ o .twhole #œ œ ≈ #œ œ ˙ ˙˙ t and œ. ‚. ‚ ‚‚ ‰ ppp p mf o p mf ‚. ‚. ñ ææ j p‰ j ‰ ó j >O ‚ O Ó Œ Ÿ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ó ‚o ‚mp gliss. > b œ FROM COMING IN œ transition œ between oÓ . bœ ˙ j ‚>ñ O ‰Œ o p ¿ pj >‚ to o œ ˙ bœ ó ñ ï˙ ñ O ï‚ñ j ï ˙ ï ‚™ ‚.t . chi o œ the˙flute sound.gliss. pp mf œ to p bœ æ extremely wide vibrato ‚‰ ‚ ó #˙˙ mp ppp ‚‚ ‰ mf ˙ œ Œ bœ œ ñ o p ˙˙ gliss. .t ï ñ j j Œ flz. ‚. . bœ ˙ gliss. j ‰ j ‰ extremely wide vibrato ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ‚> ‚> ‚ >‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ flz. bœ oThe only challenge is to to singing to first time the voiceto starting before sing the right pitch. p mf to j bœ p ï j Œ >‚ j j >‚ >‚ O to to chi j >‚ j >‚ Œ j >‚ ‚ to ˙ p œ ˙ .t .t . ‚ . b œŒ mf j Œ pp jmf j O ppp œ œ ‚B≈ #œ œ‚ ˙‚ bœ 3.t . . ‚.ñ O Ó ï O pp ñ O ï   j j ‚> ‰ >‚ Ó O p mf pp ñ O ï j ‰ j ‰ O >‚ >‚ ∑ p mf pp ñ O Ó ï O p pp ï j ‚> ‰ Œ mf ï ï   j ‚> ‰ >‚ >‚ ‚‚‚‚‚‚‚ p the j Later in the section the whisper voice became singing voice in octaves j with j flute Œ ‰ ‰ ‚> line.t œ piece. . section A. mf ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ œ ó œ œ œ‚ ‚ ‚ œœ mf ŒO ppp mf bœ t . the note to be sung appears just p before in the flute line. n˙˙ o ˙o b‚.bœ to ˙ to œ glistothis œ æ mf tone and whispering voice to singing voice will be recurrent.t . bœ ™ ˙ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ˙ œ #˙ n˙˙ ‚ ‚ œ œ ‚.t . bœ flz. . Œ ˙˙ . ï ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ï ‚ ‚ ˙ææ ï jp ‰ >‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ > gliss.in In section. ‚. Keep the Night from Coming In.

t œ™ voiceœ. section G. voice. b œ ™ ˙ w. ™ œoboth œo nw vowels are used for the voice. Keep the Night from Coming In.t œ œ p . bœ ææ #‚æœj œ >æ ææ o 3 p mp b‚ cho ï j ‚> j #>œœ œ woh! cho ‚ ‰ rK b>‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚> >‚ > œ™ œ.   ‰ #œ fz Œ pp j ‰ ‚> b‚ ‚ >‚ > > j >‚ >‚ mf Œ Œ ‰ >‚ >‚ Œ Œ 48   cho b˙ j >œ woh! pp ∑ cho ñ ‚ ‚ p Œ bœ™ œ œ p .5.j >‚ a 3 cha >‚ >‚ cho   3. appears bw. b œ b œ b‚œ œo œ œ œ œŒ #˙ œ oŒ mp o fz mf nO pp µ˙ pp œ ˙ o mf j >‚ >‚ ‰ >‚ cha cha œ œ glia Œ œ bœ œ bœ bœ œ n˙ >‚ >‚ cho ‰ >‚ cho >‚ cho cho ï j j ‚> >‚ Kr ‚> >‚ >‚ >‚ cho to to œo œ œ œ œ #˙ ï Copyright © 2013 LISA STENBERG µ ˙ nO j Œo j ‰ mp ‚ ‚>3 ‚ b>‚ >‚ j œ> to woh! ss. Different syllables produce a >‚ w. ‚ro ‚ ‚ o > > > > >mp> p cha ˙ fz ï Example 73.3. Different w. In section C the multiphonics create a sound very close to singing and playing. œ œ Œ ‚> ‰ j ‚j Œ b>‚ ‚ 3. Keep the Night from Coming In.ko ï ‚ ñ ‚ ï j ‚> ‚ ‚ j >‚ mf pp p ‚ b‚ ‰ ‰ . section D. Example 74. Keep the Night from Coming In. The multiphonic’s sound result makes the listener asks ‘Is it flute or j j Œ In section j ‰has also a reminiscentŒ character of the j Œ whistle ‚tone F the ‚>voice>‚ sound?’ œ> > that could>‚ be produced >‚ >‚ with the lips.t octaves with the flute. œ œŒ#˙ pp µ˙ œ™ o Œ fzœglisbs. ‰richness j Œ ‚> of>‚ timbres.t˙ > > > > ‰ Œ cho >‚ >‚ cho cho >‚ cho J ‰ Kr ‚> #˙ ‚ ˙> >‚ >‚ >‚ cho cho o to to to bœ™ o ï j j ∑ ‚> >‚ w. ˙ J Œ pp j Œ ‚> j Œ n˙>‚ ‰ bœ ∑ j œ> p ∑ œ œ woh! p . n‚ ‚>These ‚ ‚ > an extended technique > > is used in a way >to create a>sound effect > similar to the use of mf the flutist’s voice. section E. Section D and Section G The inw.œ ˙ #˙˙ œ gliss.to fz ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ Œ b‚ n‚ ‚ ‚ Œ ï ‚ ó #˙˙ Œ ‰ œo ‰ b‚ ‚ ‚ nw w.t J œ œgliss.t˙ only once in eachbsection. Section C and Section F ï ‰ j Œ j ‰ >‚ cho >‚ cho cho Œ Kr ‚> >‚ >‚ >‚ cho to to j >œ to ‰ woh! ñ   Œ j >œ cho cho cho woh! cho cho cho ∑ œ woh! j ‚two sections‚are put together because j the flutist’s bvoice ‚ is‚ not used. But inb‚both. going ‚> œ> from very soft attacks >‚ >‚ >‚ o ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ > mf pp mf mp ó ˙ # œ # ˙ ‰‚ Œ Œ ‚™ ‚ K >æ b>‚ ‰ œ œ ¿bœ¿ n¿œ ¿ ‰n˙ ¿‚ ¿ ¿‚¿ ¿ ¿>‚ ¿ ¿‰ b>‚ ‚. causing œ a small changeb ˙ in the timbre. bw.to ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ Œ b‚ n‚ ‚ Œ Section E presents a variety of different articulations. Section ‚ > > >E f ˙ >‚ >‚ cho cho cho œ.t > ñ ñ ‚ ‚ j j Œ j ‰ to more explosive Œones.4.to pp Œ ‰ ‰ œ bœ t . It works like a very delicate whistle ‰ >‚ cho Œ cha b>‚ ‚ > >‚ ‰ >‚ p - ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ cho 3.t cho œoj b>œ‚ woh! mp fz mf ñ Example 75.

in Stockholm. In the first experimentation session we had. Each performance of Keep The Night from Coming In can be different and may involve a very personal way of playing it.2. not only myself. 4. to be active in the compositional process. The others three were very intense instrumental sessions (which I named ‘Experimentation Sessions’) where we exchanged many ideas and Lisa gathered sound samples from my playing. making clear that the collaboration around Keep The Night from Coming In is still in progress. Collaboration 4. She was very interested in discovering and experimenting with this technique.     4. of composer. We had to develop our own way of interacting: Lisa Stenberg. meaning and direction. the first in a cafeteria where we exchanged thoughts and ideas. Patterns of collaborations I will here return to the models of collaboration of John-Steiner (2000) and Hayden and Windsor (2007). The focus in this section will be the discussion of the collaboration process from November 2012 to April 2013. not reduce the experience.   49   . in Piteå. Choosing different ways of combining the seven sections of the piece requires active reflections on musical form. But the process still involved ‘Integrative’ collaboration. Recordings of these sessions were used by Lisa as compositional material. Lisa Stenberg had not had any previous experience of writing for the flutist’s voice. We met in person four times. she first asked me: “What do you like to do on the flute?” This question directed the partnership in a way that I became very active in providing compositional ideas. After these three sessions.1 Introduction The physical distance marked the whole process of collaboration. it was based on complementary knowledge. as in the collaboration with Olle Sundström. She sent me sketches. I still had the role of performer and she. and me. the rest of our conversations took place by email in a cyclical process. the intent here is only to dialogue with these theories. I sent back the material with comments and new ideas. and she sent feedback and more sketches. It was mainly a ‘Complementary’ collaboration because. The strongest mark of the ‘Integrative’ mode is the form of the score: an open score. Looking back to John-Steiner’s four patterns of artistic collaboration: My collaboration with Lisa Stenberg was mainly a ‘Complementary’ collaboration but with strong elements of ‘Integrative’. I practiced and recorded myself playing. Keep The Night from Coming In allows any flutist. As in the discussion around my collaboration with Olle Sundström.

27).t˙ Œ pp n˙ Copyright © 2013 LISA STENBERG œ œ p . Section F.t pp ñ ‚ ï ‚ pp p ‚ s fz ó #˙˙ o mp ‰ p . Œ j j Œ j ‰ Œ ‰ j Œ Œ ¢& ° & cho cho cho cho cha ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ >‚ to . ï I really like the contrasting effect.to bœ™ o œo b‚ mf nw w.to ó F œ™ fz œ. but the composer is still the author of the piece. 4. one of the‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ Œ ‚ ‚ Œ j forŒ her things j ‰ that & ‚ ‚ >‚ b>‚ ‚ ‰ ‚j ‚j Œ b>‚ ‚ Œ b‚ n‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ > > > > that. ° ææ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ n˙ ‰ b œ #œ œ ‰ #œ Œ Œ ‚™ ‚.to . mp œ œ Œ œ p gliss.to . Keep The Night From Coming In. The first example of my contribution to the piece doesn’t concern the use of the voice. 1986. ‘Interactive’ because it involved negotiation between composer and performer. ˙ bœ bœ œ o œ œ œ œ œ #˙ µ˙ nO o 3 mp o ï j j >‚ >‚ Eï ° Kr Œ j >‚ b‚ ‰ ‚ ‰ b‚ & j ‰ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ‰ ‚ ‚> ‚> b>‚ >‚ ‚> >‚ > ‚> >‚ >‚ >‚ > > > Example 76. and just ñ after the same tone is played as whistle tone.to . w. w.3. as both composer and performer have a very active role in it. resulting in very contrasting colors for the same tone. I enjoy very much the whistle tone technique. Examples of negotiation during the collaboration Lisa Stenberg showed great interest in my personal ideas not only of using the flutist’s voice but also other effects that I liked to play.to . p. œ œ #˙ ° Œ O & µ˙ O 3 3 p o mf ¢& Œ œ bœ ˙ gliss. my collaboration with Lisa Stenberg can be considered a mix between ‘Interactive’ and ‘Collaborative’. a ° ‚ ‚ echo.t˙ J pp cha >‚ cho >‚ cho >‚ cho Œ wo! w.t˙ J pp cho Œ œ™ fz cha >‚ cho œ.t œ. ï G flz. At the same time it is a very clear example of my input. mysterious When Lisa asked me to play I liked. also combined f first effects I showed her was> exactly mf with harmonics.œ µ œ œo œ œgliss. & œ ææ æ æ æ æ æ æ æ bœ n œ n˙ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ æ ææ æ œ œ50   p   ææ æ æ æ p 3 to ‚ ‚ ‰ ‚ - o .to >‚ cho Example ó 77.     Using the categories proposed by Hayden and Windsor (2007). I could trace more easily the direct influence I had on the piece. consequently the structure of the piece is decided through collective decision. Whistle tone’s exercise (Dick. The score is open. As the process of experimentation was long. ¢& mf j >‚ ‰ >‚ >‚ j >‚ Œ >‚ >‚ >‚ ‰ ‰ >‚ >‚ ‰ >‚ >‚ Kr >‚ >‚ >‚ >‚ j >œ ∑ j >œ ∑ ñ ‚ ‚ p œ œ In this exercise a loud normal tone is produced in the third octave of the flute. ‘Collaborative’ because the collaboration affected the structure of the score. We can see it > in the > piece. b ˙ J œ™ fz ¢& cho bœ™ o fz cho >‚ cho #˙˙ o mp pp cho >‚ >œ cho cho >‚ cho œo b‚ mf to ¢& mf œ a œ bœ œ to wo! wo! cho bw. To practice this technique I like to use one of Robert Dick’s exercises: D œ œo œ œgliss.

j ‰ j Œ œ bœ >‚ ad lib.t . Excerpt ïfrom a sketchó by . I recorded a sound vowels combined . .t & mf 3 f (open.an‚. > œ œ > œ the >nœ ‘t’ as‚‘to’ œ ‚ is‚ found ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚in‚Keep ‚ The Night from Coming In. mf ppp mf o composition. As ∑a reflection > of this discussion. ˙ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ‚ ‚ contributed a lot to my development as œnœ . œ™ œ.Lisa Stenberg. 79. . w.. ‘to’.jï‰ j ‰ j ‰ O j ‰ Ÿ‚~~~~~‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ˙ææ Ó Œ O O #˙˙O n ˙ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ are glis sung unvoiced.t˙ to œ™ œ. flz.gliss. to the j ‰ to listen j ‰ the subtle changes Œ composer ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ of color and to use them in the piece. .t .t .o . the voice line > > > had a ‘t’ as indication .t . ˙to . O ïj ∑ o t t o <Ÿ> ï & gliss. Keep The Night from Coming In reflects the collaborative nature of its composition process.bœTHE n>‚ NIGHT ‚> FROM ‚> ‰ ‰ >‚ >‚ INO t p & œ t j bœ t j ‰ ‰ j n>‚ >‚ pp p j ‰ ‰ j j ‚> >‚ >‚ œ ó ˙ # ˙ O™ O. œ nœ . . œb‚ than> in‚normal & p‰ ‚ Œ ‚mf ‚>‚bvowels ˙ or s. pp ‚ n œ bœ ‚ p with pp p mf sample with different ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ œ .k. ï j j‰ ‰ j O j j j & KEEP O COMING œ gliss. w. p o mp#œ oœ ≈o#œpppœ ˙ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ Œ œ ˙ bœ Another important performer-composer dialogue centered on the differentæ gliss. t. ˙˙ J J J wide vibrato#˙˙ # n˙˙ extremely & One strong characteristic of the final score is the richness O of combinations between ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ flz. especially by its structure as an open score.. n œ œ œ œ ord. the ˙timbre is>richer >As ‚when >œœ>nœsinging œ. ‚‚‚‚‚ sketches. to ‚ ‚ bœ œ to to to t t t . Keep The Night From Coming In. j Using jcombined ‰ Ó ‰ O or not the different vowels consonants. bœ w. toœ™ œ. allows O O O with ‚>variations>‚ in tone ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ˙ œ and intensity >of the same note.. n ‚ .t . . half-opened) their possibilities and how tomfclarify the p embouchure techniques mf ppp œ ˙ gliss. ˙ Example vibrato vibrato o . . bw. .t œ œ œ & ‰ ‚j Œ > p t j bœ ‰ j ‚> Œ j ‚> ñ O Œ O pp j ‚> w. t.k. . .t . .œ œ #˙ molto vib. . . ñ . . > gliss.     ñ voice.t ï j Œ ‚> p j ‚> Œ t.t . ‚ ‚‰mp‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ppp ‰ œexperience mp fz #˙ mf fz mf p mf ˙ n ˙ ‚ ∑ ˙ ‚ œ .. bœ and . very interested in using vowels to change the color of ææ subtle j ‰ sound.mf ‘ti’. pp vowels fz fz pp fz and consonants. . ñ Example 78. ‘tu’. Another example of my input. ‘te’. The experimentation sessions b‚. . t & œ t chi t - o o oo o pp I suggested mp ppp mf the ‘t’: ‘ta’. pp Rubato q = 55 Flute Voice & j j Ó & ‚jIn ‰one‰ of‚the ‚ ‚ ‚of‚ articulation.. mp Œ bœ œ   Ó ˙˙ œ Œ J ‰ 51   ˙˙ œ ≈ R ≈ ˙˙ ˙˙ #˙ µ˙ ‚™ ‚. & ˙ into œ the practice of sketches and gave me confidence enough to venture o oinspired o notation. o o bœ™ œ ˙ b œ ™ œ n ˙ op œo œ œgliss. o mp t-t-t-t-t-t-t-t ˙ p ‚ ‚ œ ˙ o ñ ï ñ ñ ï ï ï ï flz. ˙ o Œ œ o p . Section A.theï use of the flutist’s ñ I’m ïconcerns the use ofï vowels. pp b œ œ o mp o Œ mf 3gliss. thisï time related ñto .performer.. ï ñ . j j ‚> >‚ O j j ‚> >‚ molto to to ‚ p œ ˙ chi . mf n ˙ 5. We tested many different p mf combinations ofpp vowels pand consonants.t ad lib.t . Reflections # ˙ n ˙ ˙ b‚ b‚ ñ & O µ˙ ó ˙ ˙ ˙œ Ÿ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ó pp pp The collaboration with Lisa Stenberg can be considered a rewarding that o o o o 3 ‚. .. normal flute playing.

  52   . Example 80. But I don’t see it as a negative situation. The aspect of practicing Keep The Night from Coming In couldn’t be explored deeply for the simple reason that the piece was finished at the same time as this text was first written.     The long process of experimentation led to a bigger exchange of ideas but prevented the project from being fulfilled according to schedule. rather as part of the collaboration process. Lisa Stenberg’s sketch with my notes.

in order to explore more thoroughly and to better understand the use of the voice while playing. From a musician’s perspective. It also reveals that collaboration between composer and performer affects the practice of musicians and provides an important creative stimulus for the performer.   53   . and reflect on the creative process of writing this unusual type of etude. it is of course impossible to use everything we tried or discovered. It is a small example of creative audacity that I hope it can serve to inspire others to be more creative in their own performance. with its various aspects of using the flutist’s voice. Roe (2007) discusses the benefits of collaboration in musician’s practice. Old Game is written for flutists that have an interest in exploring their own voice while playing. Finally it became one of my methods of investigation. This experience points to an attempt to connect the distinct categories that are very well established in Western classical music: composer-researcher-performer. The etude covers many of the possibilities mentioned in this thesis. During the rehearsals and experimentation sessions there were lots of possibilities and sound material that were not used by the composers. Composing this etude was not my initial intention. I had the privilege to work during almost a year with two committed composers that stimulated and inspired me to explore the use of my voice while playing. but it grew as an idea during the process of collaborating with composers. In this chapter I will present Old Game.           5 Old Game 1. Introduction Old Game is an etude for flute and flutist’s voice written by me in the context of this research.

The text inspired me most of all. because the text turns around human bonding in the context of isolation. spoken in a loud voice. that couldn’t be used in other circumstances. which are also seen as strange. it is a play. or Voice by Takemitsu. or even to the listener. Also because it was written in the context of the “theatre of the absurd”. had a great impact on me. During the collaboration with Olle Sundström and Lisa Stenberg I really missed that particular aspect of using the voice while playing. a strong visceral experience. First. As inspiration for using the speaking voice of the flutist I started to think about words or texts that could be expressive and have a connection with the flute sound. As an admirer of Samuel Beckett’s works. It’s amazing in those examples how the voice of the flutist integrates itself with the musical material and gives to the performer. ‘speaking and playing’ was the first technique that I decided to explore. the text has a deep. As the form of using the flutist’s voice was not pre-established and the composers were free to explore the techniques as they wished. I started to read passages of his dramatic works and I found in Endgame a text that corresponded perfectly to my musical ideas. As this is a research context. 2013. strange. this technique was missing in both of the pieces. Old Game – The text When I decided to write down some of my musical ideas. apparently chaotic nature that fits so well with new techniques. 2. which means that it is written to be acted. Piteå. Discomfort permeates the whole play and it seemed to me that this general atmosphere has a strong connection with the experience I had had during these two last years far from home. apparently chaotic things that some flutists do.     Figure 8. I thought it would be a unique chance to use a famous text. dealing with a very different culture.   54   . Pieces like Laconisme de l’aile and Terrestre by Saariaho. Marina Cyrino performing Old Game.

Gloomily. Second excerpt. It was originally written in French   (original  title:  Fin  de  partie) and translated into English by Beckett himself. Later in this chapter. and wait for him to whistle me.     Endgame. opening on 3 April 1957. p.) I'll go now to my kitchen.) I can't be punished any more.) Nearly finished. It is commonly considered. 3. Beckett himself was an avid chess player. (Pause. suddenly. which seemed to me to have great musical and expressive potential. ten feet by ten feet by ten feet. The play was first performed in a French-language production at the Royal Court Theatre in London. The title alludes to the last part of a chess game.   55   . (Pause. (Pause.) There'll be no more speech. I'll lean on the table. it must be nearly finished. we're finished. (2006. The first word I used is the first spoken word of the play and it’s a very interesting and sarcastic way of beginning something: “finished”. there's a heap. a little heap.116) One! Silence! (Pause. and one day. play and lose and have done with losing. one by one. along with such works as Waiting for Godot. p.) Third excerpt (2006. by Samuel Beckett. the impossible heap. to be among Beckett's most important works. lost of old. and wait for him to whistle me. (Pause. is a one-act play with four characters. (Pause. The use of the flutist’s voice: Speaking.93): Finished. written in a style associated with the Theatre of the Absurd. it's finished. (Pause. I’ll explain how I used the text as material for the etude.) Nice dimensions. I chose three small excerpts from Beckett’s play. and look at the wall. (Pause.132) Old Endgame.) Where was I? (Pause. First excerpt (2006. when there are very few pieces left. nearly finished. whispering and playing Samuel Beckett’s text was the first inspiration for the Etude. nice proportions.) Grain upon grain. p.) It's finished.

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Here the voice should increase in dynamics and the flutist should enjoy the dirty noisy sound that comes from the fast beatings. This technique results in very fast beatings between the voice and the flute sound and creates a very dramatic result. In the following passage I explore that tension in order to create a very intense passage where the flute line has $        repeated notes and the voice goes slowly from octave to unison to a minor second.         Another way of exploring the singing voice is to sing in very close intervals with lots of power and air pressure.  #   .

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Here I will just illustrate and reflect around my choice to use them in the context of this etude.  .               Extended flute techniques that appear in Old Game were briefly introduced in  previous chapters.

This inspired me to play with the text . Whistle tones: “Is someone calling or it is just imagination?”  *  . (        The choice of using whistle tones came directly from Samuel Beckett’s text.1. The whistleand whistling are thematic in Endgame.     5.

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Because of its very delicate and ethereal nature.   59   . there's a heap. It relates to the psychological tension of Beckett’s Endgame. 5. the impossible heap. Once I used the whistle tone as a “whistle call” in the beginning of the etude. In Old Game I wanted to use these effects as a surprising moan disturbing a common melodic flute line.93) The key sounds are used as “small grains” that. suddenly. to illustrate Samuel Beckett’s text: “Grain upon grain.3 Timbral trills: Disturb the sound kindly In this etude. key sounds appear only in one passage. it became a thematic material that appears in other moments of the piece as reminiscence of the “whistle call”. The first passage of the text in the beginning of the piece is quite long. the whistle tone can be represented in this etude by the idea of not being sure if someone is really whistling or if we are just imagining it. through accelerando and crescendo. Both create a confusing effect for the listener who is expecting a nice clean flute sound. bar 4 – 5. timbral trills and singing and playing softly a tone in unison resulted in a very similar sound.2 Key click sounds: Let’s do something with the flute when it’s not on the lips In Old Game. Old Game. p. it was fun for me to use these clichés illustrating sounds. help the flutist to increase the tension of the text. and one day. a little heap.   Example 88. 5. one by one. 2006. Both produce small changes in the intonation and fast vibrations of the air.” (Beckett.

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like a groan. I discovered that the    octave) interval the voice  (an  between  and the flute tone resulted in a three-voice chord (Eb – B – Eb). when I was practicing the voice glissando.       In this example.              . The voice singing the ground note results in a very different colour. This multiphonic exists in flute methods but with flute tone for all three sounds. The tone colour of the resulting B is very strange.

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sounds used to express the need to be grunts. whispers. Example 91. sounds that are not described in flute methods can be very interesting: groans. bar 59. This airy “sh”and “s” and other kinds of sounds that aren’t speaking or singing were detailed in Chapter 4. A cliché that I wanted to put in the etude to give it a certain pedantic character but also because unvoiced airy sounds work very well on the flute.   “Sh” or “s”  are common  silent: shhh. No more words. Old Game. #    First.             60   . silence. I used air sounds changing from sh to s for two main reasons.

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6. Challenge: The peculiar challenge of this passage concerns the singing voice. Singing different intervals: from singing to groaning                                  *                                    Example 97. bar 44 to 51. $        6. The    with   softly  a delicate flutist  should voice and increase the air pressure in each bar  start . Old Game.

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.   and the   flute   sound   meet   at the tone D. the   flutist should sing as loudly as possible to create a maximum of vibration between the    two sounds.

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I strongly hope that this etude may serve as inspiration for other performers to experiment with new music and new technical possibilities for their instrument. The tones A and Bb should be well intoned. It synthesises the several different aspects of the use of the flutist's voice found in literature studies. Old Game is the result of a creative artistic work. Practice Tips: To find the right pitch. First concentrate on finding the tone with the voice (the flute has air sound. Old Game. Enjoy the last glissando when the voice meets the last unison. the findings of this research are applied in practice. The focus should be on the balance between the flute sound and the voice. and it helped me develop a clear and consistent notation of a non-usual flute technique. It also represents my reflexion around the use of the voice after collaborating with two different composers. It increased my motivation to explore new techniques and my intimacy with my own instrument. focus on the tones A and Bb that come in the flute part in the previous bar. so the flutist can focus only on the voice). passage from bar 62 to the end. Keep the airflow continuous even if there are strong beatings. then it becomes easy to find a balance between the lines. because it was a technique not really explored by Lisa Stenberg or Olle Sundström.   64   . It has an emphasis on the “speaking voice” of the flutist. 7. The creative processes of systematising and writing down ideas had for me great benefits. Reflections This etude represents for me a concrete result of this research process. Challenge: To find a focus for the flute tone in the low register and sing with a stronger voice than in the other passages in the etude.    Example 98. Here the melodic movement of the voice is important.

  65   .     Figure 9. sketch. Old Game.

The point of departure was a very specific extended technique: the use of the flutist’s voice while playing. I learned this new repertoire from a different perspective than the usual learning process. As a performer and a researcher I gained insights into the creative process of collaborating with others musicians and my creative process of writing. Lisa Stenberg and Marina Cyrino. One single technique was the start of a one-year journey in the life of a performer. Introduction This last chapter will return to the questions that guided this research and reflect around the path taken during the entire process. During the research the subject branched off into a diversity of subjects. experimenting and participating in each step of the compositional process.             6 Discussion 1. patterns of artistic collaborations and composition. It’s interesting to remember that I didn’t have a deep contact with using my voice while playing.   66   . such as other extended flute techniques. which encouraged me to reflect on my own creative practice. 2012. although I was interested enough to suggest to composers the use of that technique as a central focus for new works. Figure 10. Piteå. This research allowed me to be an active part of the compositional process of three new pieces for flute.

It’s now time to return to the research questions: How can the use of the flutist’s voice combined with flute playing be explored through collaboration? In which way can collaborating with composers help us understand the use of the flautist voice? And how can the musician’s practice clarify the use and the learning process of this technique? The individual style of each composer played an important part in the partnership and working methods. I developed practice tips to facilitate the learning process of Floating Embers. Floating Embers. 2. explored many different flute techniques and produced a very special sounding result in combining the singing voice of a flutist with the singing voice of a singer. In my literature studies I couldn’t find a piece that explores the singing voice as a second melodic line as much as in Floating Embers. It’s difficult to classify the main technique   67   . flute and voice. Floating Embers explores and clarifies the use of the singing voice of the flutist. any flutist can develop the capacity to sing and play in a musical way. However. These practice tips can be useful in any other piece that requires the use of the singing voice of the flutist. impermanence The use of the flutist’s voice in Keep the Night From Coming In helps us understand the possibilities of transitions. One curious aspect of the research is that the only requirement I gave to the composers was to use the flutist’s voice. focusing on the singing voice.     2. By practicing Floating Embers. In Chapter 3. The composer had already used the technique in other pieces. related to Keep The Night from Coming In. but the collaboration resulting in Floating Embers allowed the development of the technique to a high level of complexity. discussed in Chapter 4. and is directly related to Floating Embers. The first category corresponds to the singing voice. each piece took a direction that corresponds to what we can consider a distinct category for using the technique. taste and interaction with my own voice and me. The second category is the speaking voice.2. between air and tone. Keep the Night From Coming In: transitions. it was possible to organize patterns that can help to clarify the technique. discussed Chapter 5. discussed in Chapter 3. As a result of this process. boundaries. voice and air… It also explores deeply an aspect not so commonly used: the closed embouchure. The way they could use it was left open to their style. The polyphonic nature of the flutist’s part requires from the performer a distinct kind of practice. 2.1. Transitions inside and outside the flute. The use of the flutist’s voice: the outcomes A general aspect that came out from this research is that the possibilities of using the flutist’s voice are as wide as the imagination. If we go back to the research question: ‘In which way can collaborating with composers help us understand the use of the flutist’s voice’. Floating Embers and the singing voice The collaboration with Olle Sundström and its outcome. corresponding to Old Game. The third category corresponds to the whispering-groaning voice.

using aspects of the flutist’s voice that weren’t covered by the collaboration with Lisa Stenberg and Olle Sundström. but the speaking voice is the aspect that stands out. 2.4. it was possible to cover the main aspects of the use of the flutist’s voice. the whispered voice is the most recurrent. p.3. The speaking voice was intentionally chosen as the main technique in Old Game for the reason that it wasn’t explored in the two collaborations.10) recommends starting at first with one or two minutes a day. Another point that I would like to discuss concerns the problems of practicing techniques that require the use of the voice simultaneously with playing. Old Game and the speaking voice The process of writing the etude. I had the curiosity to try to systematize my own ideas of using the flutist’s voice in ways that weren’t used in Floating Embers or Keep the Night From Coming In. First. dynamics and projection. because it’s impossible to separate the effects of practicing my voice while playing from all other techniques I use in my daily practice. I think that this development is directly related to the effort that the inner ear has to make to be able to produce subtle nuances with the voice or polyphonic lines. Practicing Keep the Night From Coming In clarifies the use of the whispering voice. The contact with my own voice while playing helped me to develop a large range of color. such as singing or whispering. Second. Practicing too much singing while playing can make the vocal chords really tired. of the richness of timbres produced by different vowel combinations. It requires from the flutist to learn the transition between open. Old Game. 2. For this goal I wrote Old Game trying to fill small gaps. I had the idea that it could be a very interesting result for the thesis if the pieces resulting from the collaboration could give a general overview of the main possibilities of using the flutist’s voice. the vocal cords can be strained easily when singing and playing simultaneously.   68   . The air speed should be determined by the comfort of the vocal cords. It should be clear that these are impressions. However. it is possible to find practice tips for all the different uses of the voice presented in the etude. This technique should be slowly introduced into the daily practice. Unless the flutist is a trained singer. Robert Dick (1986. Practicing my own voice while playing In this section I will describe in an intuitive way the benefits and challenges that the practice of this technique have had on my musical development. always paying attention to the comfort of the vocal cords and the tension of the outside neck muscles. and closed in a very musical and delicate way.     used because the theme of the piece is precisely to explore the borderlands between one category and other. With the etude and the two other pieces. The etude contains others possibilities. In Chapter 5. half-open. was grounded in two main goals. The singing voice of the flutist is also explored but always in parallel movement with the flute line. which doesn’t present the same complexity as in Floating Embers.

range. But of course this was my personal experience with the technique. In the context of Western art music. 51 and p.66) suggests another aspect of agency in performercomposer collaboration: the performer’s body. and in Old Game. In Lisa Stenberg’s piece. Keep The Night From Coming In and Old Game. and the friction caused by new elements always pushes us to discover new possibilities. the agency of the composer involves the construction of musical works and the agency of the performer rests on highly developed skills in the performance of a certain instrument. p. Using the voice is entering a world totally different from that of just playing. In the case of this research: the body as the voice. Östersjö comments on Aden Even’s work (2005).49) argues that the instrument is not a neutral tool in the projection of a musical idea. and I would recommend this to other musicians. 2008. great benefits can result from the practice of new techniques such as using the voice while playing. Each flutist should be aware of the limits of his/her own body and respect them. and this subject can be a next step to continue my research into the use of the flutist’s voice through collaboration.1. In the pieces written in the context of this research my voice distinguished itself as a separate agent: its color. all its characteristics shaped Floating Embers. 375). where the interaction between the performer and his/her instrument is described in terms of the ‘resistance’ of the instrument. It is still possible to make adjustments for a low voice in the score. just through the fact that it takes us from our usual way of playing. The increasing division of labour has gradually increased the split into the distinct agencies of ‘composer’ and ‘performer’ (Östersjö. In general. a female voice. This research and the three pieces forming its outcome reinforce this argument. Castello Branco (2012. the instrument should be understood as a distinct agent in the creative process. p. only a feeling of tiredness in the vocal cords sometimes. This leads to a question: can a flutist with a low voice perform these pieces? Olle Sundström answered that it could be possible. technical limits.   69   . p. Östersjö (2008. but it would be a completely new piece. a low voice would change the delicate atmosphere created by the unisons. The flute emerged as a separate agent and its specific quality of allowing the performer to use her / his voice was the point of departure of this project. if I practice too much. 3. I’m used to warm up my voice almost everyday. it would take away some of the musical tension from certain sections of the piece. Collaboration: the outcomes 3. On the contrary. The special agencies in musical collaboration The development of musical notation has resulted in a division of the musician in two. It’s important to highlight that I had lessons with a classical singing teacher for one year and I learned many of the vocal warm up exercises.     I’ve been practicing singing and playing daily for almost one year now and I haven’t experienced any side effect. As a result we have three pieces shaped to my voice.

But many composers that collaborated with me had experienced the gap between the computer sounds and real instrumental possibilities. The musical collaboration composer-performer: What is in between ‘Collaborative’ and ‘Integrative’? Roe (2007. In order for the collaborative work between performer and composer to reach a level of integrated creative work. in theory. Collaboration across generations John-Steiner (2000. The clarinettist Paul Roe (2007) and the guitarist Stefan Östersjö (2008) discuss the need of a specific framework for the analysis of collaborative work in field of music. my experience in collaboration with composers were only between members of my own generation. concludes that his collaborations demonstrated characteristics of a ‘Complementary’ mode (collaboration based on complementary knowledge. I didn’t have this discussion with Lisa Stenberg or Olle Sundström. 378). then between Copland and Bernstein (2000. you don’t need a performer to test sketches or pieces because you have sound samples that make it possible to dispense real musicians.   70   . According to Östersjö (2008. as the results of their research into collaboration also lead to the field between ‘Complementary’ and ‘Integrative’ modes of work. p.2. p. They are born in the computer editing programs era where.3. p. especially when it comes to explore new sonorities. The reason can be that in a student context it is natural to develop partnership with other students but I also notice that young composers of my generation are very open and interested in what a performer can bring.     In summary. 3. This mode involves mentoring and transformation from mentorship to collegiality. 206). John-Steiner refers for example to the chain bonds between Nadia Boulanger and Aaron Copland. clear roles. shared creative vision. 3. in his artistic research into collaboration with five different composers. His conclusion is that in order to achieve a true ‘Integrative’ collaboration. a serious reconsideration of the respective practices of the two agents is needed. 159).151) considered the mode of collaboration ‘across generations’ especially common in music. in this project we could distinguish two more in the creative process: those of the flute (the instrument) and the voice (the body). A computer cannot collaborate. p. Although John-Steiner considered ‘across generations’ a very common pattern of collaborative work in the musical field. but with several composers I worked with. and willingness to engage collectivity) with traces of ‘Integrative’ patterns such as risk-taking. a longer and more intense period of activity will be required. I believe that many young composers are looking forward to participate in projects like this. it’s difficult to imagine a fully ‘Integrative’ mode of collaboration as proposed by John-Steiner in the case of a composer and a performer in Western music tradition. besides the agencies of the composer and the performer.

The palpable ones are: three new pieces for the flute repertoire focusing on one very interesting technique. In all the works I have read about collaboration it seemed that the musicians were a little frustrated for not reaching a fully ‘Integrative’ collaboration. On the other hand. 2007. In addition. composition and research. During this project I realized that the input that a performer can have in a collaborative process is hard to catch. This inherent hegemony creates division between these musicians. audio recordings of the pieces and a written thesis. my collaborations with Olle Sundström and Lisa Stenberg were mostly ‘Complementary’ collaborations with aspects of ‘Integrative’ collaboration. p. Final reflections The outcomes of this research are many. 4. (Roe. It seems to me that the ‘Integrative’ mode is a kind of goal that doesn’t really fit the collaboration between performer-composer nowadays. My conclusions regarding collaboration point to the same direction. Piteå. I was educated as a performer in the Western tradition and in all my experience of collaborating with composers I never experienced the division of labour as a negative aspect as in the following quotation: Typically the composer is seen as ‘creator’. the performer as ‘interpreter’. and the audience as the ‘recipient’ of the music. creating expressive barriers in the dissemination of new work. performance. Figure 11.2) I also believe that new frameworks are needed in order capture the richness that exists in this in between collaborative and integrative. Marina Cyrino and Josefine Gellwar Madsen performing Floating Embers. the limited musician. As a musician I walked the path of practice.     Looking at my project through John-Steiner’s patterns of artistic collaboration. in the divided labour. The technical advances that I incorporated in my flute playing are evident: I learned deeply a new technique not only in growing accustomed   71   . I understand and admire the effort of proposing working processes that go against the individualism of our society. during this two-year journey an enormous amount of intangible outcomes resulted from this process. 2012. And even small exchanges of ideas can bloom into a marvellous new piece of music.

Josefine Gellwar Madsen. I have experienced a great creative stimulus that resulted in my first piece for solo flute.     to using my voice while playing but also a theoretical knowledge that has enriched myself as a musician. In addition. I had the opportunity to be active and discuss one of my favorite aspects of being a musician: to collaborate with composers. But of course I believe that my gains can also be shared with the general community of flutists. Piteå. teachers and musicians that worked with me during this project. musicians and all persons interested in new techniques for flute and collaboration as a working method. Figure 12. I hope that through my text and reflections I could express my gratitude to the composers.     72   . 2012. Learning how to be an action researcher: a little problem with the camera framing. First rehearsal of Floating Embers. Marina Cyrino and Olle Sundström’s arm.

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youtube. Claire Flute Recital: SAARIAHO. K.: FCR122 FERNEYHOUGH. -E. / JOLIVET.: MO782154 SAARIAHO. 2013) http://www. (accessed May 3. S. (accessed May 3. (accessed May 3. F. / BERIO. / BACK. A. 2013) http://www. B. S. (accessed May 3.: Flute Music (Bjarnason). Label: SFZ Music Catalogue No. P.       CD Recordings Chase. directed by Conor McPherson. Label: Montaigne Catalogue No.com/watch?v=NEnd0RecpGg&feature=endscreen&NR=1 Robert Dick’s Throat Tune Lesson.: Laconisme de l'aile / L'Aile du songe / PERSE. / DONATONI. K. K.com/watch?v=ArK2EE1cHdc ICE (International Contemporary Ensemble) performs Saariaho’s Terrestre. 2013) http://www. / CARTER.youtube. Flute Recital: .: Oiseaux (Saraste). / VARESE. H. Mats. Label: BIS Catalogue No.: BCD9120 Möller.youtube.: Cello Music (Descharmes). Label: aeon Catalogue No. / FUJIKARA. E. Label: Bridge Records Catalogue No.: BIS-CD-307 SAARIAHO. L. / ROSENBERG. G.: SFZ2001 SAARIAHO. Label: New Focus Recordings Catalogue No. (Solo per Flauto). Blue Angel films LTD. 2013) http://www. (Terrestre). C. / SCELSI. / BOULEZ.DEBUSSY.-J. E.youtube. K. D.com/watch?v=FCxXc5p96YA Samuel Beckett’s End Game.: Verblendungen / Jardin secret I / NoaNoa.com/watch?v=gB89e4VynP4     76   .: AECD0637      YouTube Links:   Claire Chase (flutist from ICE – International Contemporary Ensemble) rehearsing Jason Eckard’s 16.

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