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Gap Analysis

What Is Gap Analysis?


Gap analysis is a survey instrument used to determine the gaps
between a service offered and a customers expectations.

SERVQUAL Expectations Survey & Perceptions Survey

Developed byParasurman,Zeithamel, and Berry to assess services


quality.

SERVQUAL instruments are a series of questions that deal with tangibles,


reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy

Tangibles- physical facilities, equipment, staff appearance, etc.


Reliability- ability to perform service dependably and accurately.
Responsiveness- willingness to help and respond to customer
need.

Assurance- ability of staff to inspire confidence and trust.


Empathy- the extent to which caring individualized service is
given.

SERVQUAL

Gap 1 Tangibles-difference between actual customer expectations, and what management perceives to be customer

Gap 2 Reliability-difference in managers expectations of service quality, and the actual service quality specifications.

Gap 3 Responsiveness-Delivery of perfect services is not guaranteed, even if service specifications are defined, due to

Gap 4 Assurance-differences between services delivery and the external communications with the customer.

Gap 5 Empathy-differences in expected service and perceived service.

expectations.

lack of training, preparations, and training.

GAPS MODEL OF SERVICE QUALITY


Zeithaml,BitnerandGremler

Gaps Model of Service Quality

CustomerGap:differencebetween customer expectations andperceptions

Provider Gap 1(The Knowledge Gap):

Provider Gap 2(The Service Design & Standards Gap):

not having the right service designs and standards

Provider Gap 3(The Service Performance Gap):

not knowing what customersexpect

not delivering to service standards

Provider Gap 4(The Communication Gap):

not matching performance to promises

The Customer Gap

Expected
service

Customer Gap

Perceived
service

Provider Gap 1

CUSTOMER
Expected Service

GAP 1

Company Perceptions of
COMPANY

Consumer Expectations

Provider Gap 2
CUSTOMER

COMPANY

Customer-Driven
Service Designs and Standards

GAP 2
Company Perceptions of
Consumer Expectations

Provider Gap 3
CUSTOMER

Service Delivery

COMPANY
GAP 3

Customer-Driven
Service Designs and Standards

Provider Gap 4
CUSTOMER

COMPANY

External Communications to

Service Delivery

Customers

GAP 4

Gaps Model of Service Quality

Expected Service
CUSTOMER
Customer
Gap

Perceived
Service

COMPANY

External Communications to

Service
Delivery

GAP 1

GAP 3
Customer-Driven Service Designs and
Standards

GAP 2
Company Perceptions of Consumer
Expectations

Customers

GAP 4

The Gaps Model

The key to closing the Customer Gap is to close all Provider Gaps 1- 4

Key Factors Leading to the Customer Gap

Customer Expectations
Customer
Gap

Customer
Perceptions

Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 1


Customer Expectations

Gap
1

CompanyPerceptions of CustomerExpectations

Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 2


Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards

Gap
2

Management Perceptions of Customer Expectations

Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 3


Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards

Gap
3

ServiceDelivery

Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 4


ServiceDelivery

Gap
4

ExternalCommunications to Customers