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please explain four ways in which television changes politics in the 1950- be sure to include the “checkers speech”, first sound bite, and first town hall meeting.
Nixon ran into trouble when he was caught dumping taxpayer’s money into a slush fund. Eisenhower almost dropped him from the ballot, yet Nixon went on national television and professed his apology while referencing his family dog “Checkers” for which the speech is proclaimed, the speech saved him his seat on the ballot. The speech brought on the first of many television sound bites such as 10 second commercials with catchy phrases to promote one candidate over the other. The town hall, which of course was staged, set in forth a new era in presidential races as people saw the usefulness of that ole black and white box and it’s appearance to the American audience.
2) In discussing the Eisenhower Presidency the book says Ike pursued “social harmony rather than social justice”. What does this mean? Be specific.
Ike walked in on America when it was with a bunch of problems. America wanted out, so did Ike. But you can’t just throw out all America’s problems and isolate yourself for ten years just like that. Instead Ike settled on things, and decided to just wrap them up and end them as fast as possible rather than serve them justly. With the Korean war, Ike promised to end it, but it took him 7 months of long peace negotiations, which finally settled to cut Korea into two at the 38th parallel. Ike also tried to stay out of the way with the whole civil rights movement that was sprouting up around this time. He only intervened if he absolutely had too, and even then he only solved the solution by making both sides equal, never supporting one side more then another. Ike had to make everyone happy.
3.)Please explain the rise, fall and impact of Joseph McCarthy.
Joseph McCarthy was a ruthless Wisconsin senator who brought forth “McCarthyism” into the 1950s. After some national political attention, McCarthy accused the senate of knowingly employing 205 Communist party members. The democrats said prove it, so McCarthy went back, did some research, then came back and accused 57 communist employees. The democrats said prove it, McCarthy went back, and when he came forward he actually only had 1 guy, who sorta maybe kinda was related to communist party members. But the “McCarthyism” toll had already taken wind about the country. Ruthless red hunters could now accuse anyone they wanted too, without any evidence to actually back it up! The surprising thing was that most Americans supported McCarthy and his raid against communism. McCarty was able to accuse anyone he wanted too for a while, until he took it too far and accused veterans of the war. His support fell almost 100% overnight. He was tried and convicted of “Conduct unbecoming a member”
4.) Use complete sentences to explain the significance of the following as they relate to the Civil Rights movement: Emmit Till14 year old black youth who was lynched as white’s thought he had “leered” at a white woman. Brought new scope back to the civil rights moment as it showed the violence even youth were going through.
An American DilemmaSwedish scholar Gunnar Myrdal exposed the real truth behind America’s tradition of “All men created equal” and how blacks were treated in the country.
Cracked the racial barrier in big league baseball when the Brooklyn dodgers signed him in 1947. For most part, didn’t help the civil rights movement so much, just a notable occurrence.
1944 Supreme Court RulingRuled that white primary unconstitutional, thereby undermining the status of the democratic party in the south as a status of the democratic party in the south as a white person’s club
Executive Order 8802
Acted as a kind of second emancipation proclamation as the federal government once again committed itself to giving justice to the blacks in America.
Sweatt vs Painter
Ruled that separate professional schools for blacks failed to meet the test of equality
Sat in the white part of the bus, was thrown out, sparked a huge boycott of bus system
Montgomery Bus BoycottThousnds boycotted the bus system in response to rosa park’s actions of getting thrown out. Also sparked interest in martin Luther king to join the movement.
Influence of GandhiMartin Luther King Jr. used influence’s from Gandhi by peaceful protests
Thursday 894-899 (Stop at “A New Look”) More definitions from the Civil Rights MovementTruman’s Civil Rights legislation 1948-
Truman created a report entitled “To secure these rights” that ended segregation in the federal civil service and ordered “equaility of treatment and opportunity” in the armed forces
Truman’s actions regarding armed forcesEarl Warren and “Judicial Activism”-
Truman created “equality of treatment and opportunity” among the armed forces, ending segregated units and squadrons. Shocked America with his surprisingly active judicial intervention in previously taboo social issues, many argued that Warren should be impeached, yet defenders argued that he was rightly stepping out to confront important social issues, especially civil rights for African Americans.
Brown vs. Board of EducationHuge Case. Overturned Plessy Vs Ferguson ! Ruled that segregation in the public schools was “inherently unequal” and thus unconstitutional, startled conservatives like an exploding time bomb.
Backlash- “Declaration of Constitutional Principals”Backlash- “White Citizens Council”Orval Faubus-
A group of senators signed this pledging their unyielding resistance to desegregation, state’s threw away public money and started creating private schools where segregation was much easier A group of southern men that thwarted attempts to make integration a reality. Ten years after the court’s momentous ruling, fewer than 2 percent of the eligible blacks in the deep south were sitting classrooms with whites. Governor of Arkansas, mobilized the national guard to prevent nine black students from enrolling in little rock’s central high school. Confronted with a direct challenge to federal authority, Eisenhower sent troops to escort the children to their classes.
1957 Civil Rights ActSCLC-
It set up a permanent Civil Rights Commission to investigate violations of civil rights and authorized federal injunctions to protect voting rights. Southern Christian Leadership Conference, aimed to mobilize the vast power of black churches on behalf of black rights. This was an exceptionally shrewd strategy because the churches were the largest and best-organized black institutions that had been allowed to flourish in a segregated society.
SNCCStudent Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, aimed to give more focus and force to the efforts of students toward protesting in peaceful ways. Members would eventually lose patience and the group fell apart.
2.) Please complete the chart by examining the policies of “Dynamic Conservatism” Econ Policies Policies toward Native Americans and Latinos
Ike moved as much as he could from the federal government to the state government in an effort to make the government smaller Ike sent back Latinos in Operation wetback, and sent in forth a goal to terminate all Indian tribes, the goal was only mildly successful.
Friday-P 899-905 Key Foreign Policy events and concepts.- Please use complete sentences to define the significance of the following events and terms. (Stop at Kennedy) RollbackNew secretary of state John Foster Dulles, proposed a plan to stem back the red tide and to “roll back” it’s foothold on America soil
Ike’s buildup of superbombers and threats to China-
Ike, in an effort to reduce the spread of communism, created a fleet of super bombers, each full with nuclear warheads. The purpose was to put the Soviet’s and Communist China into line, so that they knew we had enough power to back up our word. Ike used the superbombers to threaten China when it began shelling the small islands near Taiwan.
Geneva Conference 1955Ike proposed peace negations with Soviet Russia, hoping for some success with the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953. but the new leader, Nikita Khrushchev, rudely declined any such offer, and plans went back to the drawing table
Hungary 1956Hungary rose up against Soviet Russia and went to the US for aid. Soviet’s, very angry, proposed to retaliate. America was of course going to launch it’s super bombers, until it realized that the situation was far to small to threaten nuclear arms, and would only escalate if they did.
Massive RetaliationIke realized that massive retaliation was much more costly then he had previously thought. Nuclear arms were much more expensive then previously thought to be
Dien bien phuA city in which French nationalists were trapped in Vietnam. Ike however refused to intervene, wary of another Asia way so soon after Korea, and the non-support of the British.
Ngo-Dinh DiemLeader of the northern Vietnamese area. He promised to hold elections, yet never did, primarily because the communist party seemed certain to win. Because of him Vietnam remained a dangerously divided country.
Warsaw Pact 1955
The rival of NATO, communists in east Europe created this in response to the NATO agreement. This was dangerous as it showed two newly emerged sides which is the basis for a world war.
Iran- 1953Washington was fearing that the Soviet’s would soon go after the oil fields in the middle east. In response, the CIA engineered a coup in 1953 that installed the youthful shah of Iran, Mohammed Reza Pahlevi as a kind of dictator. It was successful in the short fun, but left a bitter taste of America in the mouths of many Iranians
Suez Crisis 1957
The president of Egypt wanted to build a dam to gain urgently needed electricity. America and Britain offered financial aid, yet so did the Soviets. When America and Britain herd that Egypt was possibly dealing with the Soviets, they withdrew their offers. In response, the president of Egypt opened up the Suez canal to all countries
Eisenhower DoctrinePledged US military and economic aid to Middle Eastern Nations threatened by communist aggression. The real reason for this was not the growing threat of communism, but the growing threat of nationalism
Launched in 1957, this tiny 11.5 ounce beeping hunk of metal shattered American confidence as the world saw how communism prevailed in the space race. Americans were laughed at because they had troops occupying high schools while the soviet’s had troops occupying space Established on an effort to close the “rocket gap” , the National Aerospace Administration was at first laughed at due to several failures in the beginning, but then “rocketed” to the top with the successful launch of several satellites and rockets.
National Defense and Education Act (AP classes!!!!) Nuclear Test Ban proposal 1958-
Authorized $887 million in loans to needy college students and in grants for the improvement of teaching the sciences and languages The soviet’s, after several dirty tests, proposed suspension on nuclear testing and urged the western world to do so as well. America followed suite, but still conducted secret testing’s at secret facilities
Khrushchev visit to AmericaKhrushchev visited America on Eisenhower’s request. He spoke before the UN general assembly and talked about an armistice agreement, however no agreement was ever met.
Spirit of Camp David
Khrushchev also visited Camp David on his American travels with president Eisenhower and after emerging from his trip, promised to indefinitely remove his troops from Berlin. The world was thankful for the spirit of Camp David which had so magically changed his mind.
An American U2 spy plane was shot down deep in the heart of Russia. This completely ruined the whole Berlin deal and the spirit of Camp David. It was a big bummer
CIA-directed coup had ousted a leftist government, US mainly only partook in Latin American affairs to overthrow crazy dictators
Cuba started a government and the US backed it up, yet then Fidel Castro comes along and leads a whole big revolution, and turns the government into a communistic government. In response, Washington cut off all diplomatic relations with cuba
Costa Rica 1960-
With cuba now a foothold of communism, Soviet Russia tried to expand communism to other Latin America countries like costa rica. America would have none of it however, they quickly set in place a plan to authorize 500 million to aid Latin America, as a bribe of course.
Saturday-Sunday- Please finish the chapterPlease complete the chart profiling Nixon and Kennedy and issues (905-906) JFK Kennedy was a Roman Catholic. At first people were scared that the pope was going to rule Washington. But he swayed voters to the other side Kennedy said that the nation had lost it’s power, and needed to regain it Nixon Nixon said that the only reason that nation was so called losing it’s power was because of unpatriotic people like JFK Nixon was still heavily against communists, and since this is what he was famous for in the past, he was mainly known for that during the campaign
Now, you may finish this chapter by adding your own review sheet for 907-915 Summarize in a few sentences the Eisenhower years:
America was prosperous during the Eisenhower years. Alaska and Hawii became states in 1959! As a republican president, Eisenhower had further woven the reforms of the Democratic New Deal and Fair Deal into the fabric of national life
Describe the industries that grew and why in the 50s
The invention of the transistor in 1948 sparked a revolution in electronics, especially in computers. Computer giant International Business Machines (IBM) grew immensely. Aerespace industries also grew in the 1950s thanks to Eisenhower’s SAC and to an expanding passenger airline business. By 1956, manual labor jobs (Blue-collar) were exceeded by no manual labor jobs (white collar). Following suit, union membership began to decline.
What was the role of Woman in the new white-collar employment society? (Mention Betty Friedan’s book)
The new white-collar employment opened up new opportunities for women. The baby boom during the years after World War II caused the typical role of mother to fall back into that of the wife. But the majority of the clerical and service work jobs created after 1950 were filed by women. Women’s new dual role as both workers and homemakers raised urgent questions about family life and traditional definitions of gender differences.
Femenist Bety Friedan published “The Feminine Mystique” which helped launch the modern women’s movement. Friedan spoke to many educated women who supported her indictment of the boredom of a housewife.
Billy Graham Oral Roberts
A Baptist who was a “Televangelist”, he preached on TV and captivated thousands. Pentecostal Holiness speaker, also spoke on TV
Fulton J. Sheen Elvis Pressley
Took to the television airwaves to spread Christianity. Created the new music style known as “Rock and role” Traditionalists were repelled by Presley as well as many of the new social movements during the 1950s. Many critics blamed the implications of societal deterioration” to the consumerist lifestyle.
Prewar realist who wrote “The old man and the sea”
John Steinbeck John Heller
Another prewar realist, persisted in graphic portrayals of American Society. Over time, realistic writing fell from favor and the authors tended to write about the war in fantastic prose. Wrote Catch-22 that dealt with the improbably antics and anguish of American airmen in the wartime Mediterranean.
John Updike + John Cheever
Explored deliemmas created by the new mobility and the affluence of American life
Louis Auchincloss Gore Vial
Wrote about upper-class New Yokers. Wrote a series of intriguing historical novels.
Answer this question: Poetry and playwrights flourished during the post war era: William Faulkner
A black author who led the south in a literary renaissance.
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