Stochastic Channel Selection in Cognitive Radio Networks

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Stochastic Channel Selection in Cognitive Radio Networks

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Networks

Yang Song and Yuguang Fang

Yanchao Zhang

University of Florida

Gainesville, Florida 32611

Email: {yangsong@, fang@ece.}ufl.edu

New Jersey Institute of Technology

University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102

Email: yczhang@njit.edu

strategy for secondary users in cognitive radio networks. We

claim that in order to avoid the costly channel switchings, a

secondary user may desire an optimal channel which maximizes

the probability of successful transmissions, rather than consistently adapting channels to the random environment. We propose

a stochastic channel selection algorithm based on the learning

automata techniques. This algorithm adjusts the probability of

selecting each available channel and converges to the -optimal

solution asymptotically.

I. I NTRODUCTION

In wireless communication, the most valuable resource is

the available radio frequencies. The dramatic increase in wireless services aggravates the scarcity of the frequency spectrum.

In Unite States, the Federal Communications Commission

(FCC) regulates the frequency spectrum and allocates it in

an exclusive-usage fashion. Currently, the spectrum is overcrowded and there is few space available for the new emerging

wireless services. Ironically, as reported in a set of real

experiments [1], the majority of the current allocated spectrum

is severely under-utilized. For example, in [1], it is observed

that, on average, there is only about 5.2% of the spectrum

below 3GHz is actually in use. The ubiquitous spectrum

holes and the growth of new wireless services motivate the

DAPRA to start the XG program [2] in order to investigate

the policies and regulation rules which enable the spectrum

holes to be utilized by other users, a.k.a., secondary user,

more efficiently. The new scheme is termed as opportunistic

spectrum access (OSA) or dynamic spectrum access (DSA) in

general.

In order to dynamically sense the frequency spectrum and

adjust the operating frequency, the cognitive radios are proposed as the solution to fully utilize the valuable spectrum.

Cognitive radios, usually based on the software defined radio

(SDR) techniques, are able to detect the current spectrum,

sense the spectrum holes and adjust the parameters, such as

frequency, power and transmission rate, in order to use the

spectrum more efficiently and economically. For example, a

novel IEEE 802.22 standard is introduced in [3], which enables

the cognitive radios to utilize the unused analog TV broadcast

This work was supported in part by the U.S. National Science Foundation

under Grant DBI-0529012 and under Grant CNS-0626881.

broadcast band whenever the primary user, i.e., TV broadcast

signal, is absent. Moreover, if there are multiple primary users

exist, i.e., there are multiple frequency opportunities available,

the cognitive radios can dynamically switch among all available frequencies following the unpredictable returns of the primary users. There are several MAC protocols proposed in the

literature [4] for cognitive radio networks, which serve as the

guidelines of switching channels according the environmental

changes. However, few of them take account of the drastic

cost of changing frequencies in current manufactured wireless

devices. The aggravated delay and the deteriorated packet-lossratio induced by the channel switchings have caught more and

more attention in the community [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11].

For example, a recent experimental study [12] shows that, on

average, channel switchings can cause up to a packet loss ratio

of 3%, exclusively. In cognitive radio networks, the situation

is even worse. Due to the random characteristics of primary

users, the secondary user with frequency-agile MAC protocols

needs to switch the operating frequency adaptively and consistently. Therefore, the long-term performance, in terms of

QoS support and aggregated throughput, will be dramatically

degraded due to the overwhelming cost in channel switchings.

Thus, from the secondary users point of view, it may be more

favorable to implement a channel selection strategy which

reluctates to switch the channels, unless necessary. Moreover,

note that the essential rationale of adapting channels is to

minimize the conflicts with the primary users. Hence, we

claim that the prudent strategy for a secondary user is to

insist on the statistically optimal channel which maximizes the

probability of successful transmissions, rather than adaptively

switching channels as the random and unpredictable behaviors

of primary users fluctuate.

However, the problem of acquiring the optimal channel is by

no means straightforward. Were the distributions of returning

time and operating duration of primary users known as a

prior, the problem is easy to solve, yet this knowledge is

not attainable in practical cognitive radio networks. In this

paper, we propose a novel stochastic channel selection algorithm based on learning automata (LA), which dynamically

adjusts the probability of choosing one channel on the fly and

asymptotically converges to the optimal channel, in the sense

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II

briefly overviews the background and the motivation of this

paper. The stochastic channel selection algorithm is proposed

in Section III. An illustrative example of the algorithm is

provided in Section IV. Finally, Section V concludes this

paper.

II. BACKGROUND AND M OTIVATION

A. Cognitive Radio Networks

In the literature, the dynamic spectrum access schemes are

categorized into three classes [13]: exclusive use model, open

sharing model and hierarchical access model. The exclusive

use model represents the scenarios where the primary users

can sublease part of the private spectrum to other secondary

users for profit. Each user, either primary or secondary, does

not share the spectrum with other users. However, in the open

sharing model, all the users obey a certain spectrum etiquette

and share the spectrum with each other. The unlicensed ISM

band is a well-known example. In the hierarchical access

model, primary users and secondary users coexist and the secondary users can transmit only when the summed interference

measured at the primary users receiver is below a certain

threshold. For detailed overview of the dynamic spectrum

access schemes for cognitive radio networks, one may refer to

[14] and a new comprehensive survey in [13].

In our work, we consider a hierarchical access model of

cognitive radio networks with minimum interference tolerance

where the secondary users are required to terminate the current

transmission immediately after the corresponding primary user

returns. In the network, there are multiple primary users with

different frequencies and each secondary user is a pair of

transmitter and receiver which are both cognitive radios. We

assume that the secondary users have the capability of sensing

the spectrum and the willingness of terminating the current

transmission whenever the primary user returns. The traffic

generated on each secondary user is transmitted over consequent time slots. At the beginning of each time slot, the loaded

secondary user selects one of the available frequencies as the

transmission frequency, and transmits. If the corresponding

primary user, i.e., the one who owns the selected channel,

does not return within this time slot, the transmission is

successful. On the contrary, if the primary user returns, the

current transmission will be terminated and the secondary

user needs to retransmit all the packets in the next available

time slot. We also consider the influence of other secondary

users on the channel selection strategy of this particular

secondary user. Apparently, whether the transmission of this

particular secondary user, say k, is successful or not depends

not only the primary users but also the neighboring users of

k as well. The definition of neighboring users depends on

the specific spectrum etiquette. For example, if we use the

traditional carrier sensing mechanism, the neighboring users

of k is defined as the secondary users (1) whose transmitter

is within the carrier sensing range of the k-th receiver, or

(2) whose receiver is within the carrier sensing range of the

user, in a time slot, the transmission is successful if (1) at the

beginning of the slot, there is no neighboring users1 operating

at the same frequency channel as k has selected, and (2) the

primary user who owns this channel does not return within

the current time slot, and define as failure otherwise.

From the k-th secondary users perspective, the strategy

of dynamically adapting channels according to the random

environment, which consists of all primary users and coexisting secondary users, is likely unfavorable, owing to the

dominant and burdensome cost in channel switchings. Instead,

one prudent secondary user may want to find the optimal

channel in terms of maximizing the probability of successful

transmissions. Hence, the expected throughput is maximized

by insisting on the statistically optimal channel, if the transmission rate is assumed fixed. Besides, there is no more costly

channel switchings once the optimal channel is obtained. However, as mentioned above, the problem of acquiring the optimal

channel from a zero-knowledge on the statistics of the random

environment, which consists of nondeterministic primary users

and unpredictable coexisting secondary users, is challenging.

Fortunately, the learning automata (LA) provides us a family

of algorithmic tools which converge to the optimum strategy

asymptotically in arbitrary stationary random environments

with no prior distribution knowledge required. We will briefly

overview the principles of the learning automata in the next

subsection.

B. Learning Automata

In classical control theory, the mathematical model for a

system is usually assumed to be known. The expected output

of the current input can be predicted in a deterministic fashion.

Although the later developed stochastic control theory deals

with the issues of uncertain parameters, they both assume

an unchanging system. Stochastic learning approaches are

introduced to solve the problems of random systems. The scenarios where learning automata techniques can be applied are

summarized as follows [15]. In a random environment, there

are finite actions available for the decision maker to choose

from. Each deterministic action induces a random output from

the random environment, which could be either favorable or

unfavorable. Based on the observations, an LA algorithm is

expected to determine a strategy of selecting actions at a

stage given the past actions and corresponding outputs. We

can view the random environment as a black box, depicted in

Figure 1. At each decision instance, the decision maker picks

an action according a certain rule as the input to the random

environment and waits for the random output. Apparently, if

we are patient enough, we could execute voluminous trials

for each action, say a million times, to estimate the optimal

action in terms of maximum probability of getting rewards.

The beauty of the LA approaches lies in that they can converge

to the -optimal solution with a reasonable fast pace for

1 In general, the neighboring users of k is defined as the secondary users

whose actions may potentially cause a transmission failure of user k.

Random Environment

?

Random Output

Decision Maker

Fig. 1.

The interaction between the decision maker and the random

environment.

approaches can also track the optimal action for non-stationary

environments as long as the statistic characteristics of the

environment does not change very fast. Recently, the learning

automata techniques have been extensively applied in various

aspects in the communication and networking communities

[16] [17] [18] [19] [20]. For an overview of learning automata

techniques, refer to [21].

Let us revisit the paradigm of cognitive radio networks.

From the k-th secondary users perspective, the outer world

can be viewed as a random environment. The randomness in

the response from this outer world is induced by both the

unpredictable returns of primary users and the uncontrollable

behaviors of neighboring users. We consider this complex

outer world for the secondary user k as a black box. At the

beginning of each transmission slot, the secondary user selects

one of the available channels. The output of this black box is

a binary number where = 0 denotes the transmission

is successful and = 1 otherwise. In the next section,

we will propose an LA-based stochastic channel selection

algorithm for secondary users in cognitive radio networks. The

convergence property of the algorithm will also be discussed.

III. S TOCHASTIC C HANNEL S ELECTION

We consider a stationary2 cognitive radio network where

M primary users and C secondary users coexist, illustrated

in Figure 2. Each secondary user is a cognitive transmitter......

M primary users/channels

C secondary users

transmitter

Fig. 2.

receiver

stochastic channel selection algorithm can track the optimal solution in slow

statistic-varying environment as well.

among 1, , M indexed channels. The transmission of the

primary users are protected by enforcing the secondary users to

exit immediately whenever the legitimate primary user comes

back. For simplicity, we assume that each secondary user has a

fixed transmission rate. The traffic generated at the transmitter

of the k-th secondary user is transmitted to the receiver in

consequent time slots. We denote the starting time of each

slot as Ti where i is the slot number. Each secondary user,

say k, keeps a probability vector Pk = [p1 , , pM ] and

an estimation vector Dk = [d1 , , dM ], where pi is the

probability of choosing channel i and di is the estimated

possibility of successful transmission by selecting channel i.

At the beginning of a slot, say m-th slot, the transmitter

picks a channel according to the probability vector Pk . If the

selected channel is busy, i.e., the primary user is present, the

same process repeats until an available channel is selected and

transmission begins. If the transmission is successful, user k

will set = 0 and = 1 otherwise. Based on the received

value of , the user k updates the probability vector Pk and

the estimation vector Dk . Then enters the next time slot Tm+1 .

The algorithm executed in the k-th secondary users is

provided in detail as follows.

Parameters:3

R: The resolution parameter (tunable).

W : The initialization parameter (tunable).

M : The number of primary users, i.e., the number of

channel opportunities.

C: The number of secondary users.

H(n): The number of channels which have higher values

in the estimation vector D than the current selected

channel.

: The step size of adjusting the probability vector and

= R1 .

Si (n): The number of slots where the transmissions with

channel i are successful, up to Tn .

Ci (n): The number of slots where the channel i are

chosen to transmit packets, up to Tn .

Algorithm:

Initialization:

1

for

- The user k sets P (0) = [p1 , , pM ] where pi = M

all 1 i M .

- Chooses an available channel according to P (0) then

transmits and records the values of s, until each channel

is selected W times.

- Depending on the values of s, i.e., whether the corresponding transmissions were successful, sets Si (0) and

Ci (0) for each channel i.

Si (0)

- Initializes D(0) = [d1 , , dM ] where di = C

.

i (0)

Do:

3 We

the probability vector P (n).

- Update the probability vector P (n) according to the

following equations.

pj (n + 1)

pj (n + 1)

pi (n + 1)

min pj (n) +

,1

H(n)

j if dj (n) > di (n).

,0

max pj (n)

M H(n)

j if dj (n) < di (n)

X

1

pj (n + 1)

(1)

(2)

(3)

j6=i

- After Tn , the secondary user adjusts the running estimation of the successful transmission possibility, i.e., D, by

Si (n + 1)

Ci (n + 1)

=

=

di (n + 1)

Si (n) + (1 )

Ci (n) + 1

Si (n + 1)

Ci (n + 1)

(4)

(5)

(6)

otherwise.

the unpredictable returns of the primary users. We assume

that there are five primary users with distinct channels. The

traffic on the secondary user is transmitted over successive

time slots. The returning probability vector consists of

five probabilities, i.e., = [p1 , , p5 ] where pi denotes the

probability of returning of the i-th primary user in each slot.

Without loss of generality, we assume that the primary users

have short jobs and hence the durations are within one time

slot. The simulation parameters are summarized as follows.

R: The resolution parameter is set to R = 50.

W: The initialization parameter is set to W = 10.

M: There are five primary users, i.e., M = 5.

C: There is a single secondary user, i.e., C = 1.

1

: The step size is set to = R = 0.02.

B: The convergence threshold is set to B = 0.9999.

We assume that the returning probability vector is =

[0.2, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.3]. By inspection, we observe that the second primary user has the least possibility of returning in each

slot. Therefore, channel 2 is the optimal strategy in the sense

that the probability of successful transmissions is maximized.

The stochastic channel selection algorithm implemented in

the secondary user is expected to find this optimal strategy

asymptotically, which is verified in Figure 3.

M = 5, C = 1

Until:

- max(P (n)) > B where B is a predefined convergence

threshold.

0.9

End.

0.7

(7)

probability of successful transmissions.

IV. A N I LLUSTRATIVE E XAMPLE

In this section, we use a simple example to illustrate the

effectiveness of the stochastic channel selection algorithm

introduced in the previous section.

For simplicity, we consider a single-secondary-user cognitive radio network with consistent traffic load. In other words,

0.8

probability

the family of the Discrete Generalized Pursuit Algorithms

(DGPA) defined in [22] where the convergence speeds of various learning automata approaches are compared numerically.

It is shown that DGPA converges remarkably faster than other

LA-based algorithms. Moreover, the -optimality of DGPA is

proved in [22], based on the earlier results in [23]. Thus,

we provide the following theorem for the stochastic channel

selection algorithm without proof due to the page limit.

Theorem 1: The stochastic channel selection algorithm is

-optimal for any stationary cognitive radio networks. In other

words, for any arbitrarily small > 0 and > 0, there exists

a n0 satisfying

Channel 1

Channel 2

Channel 3

Channel 4

Channel 5

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

50

100

iteration

Fig. 3. The probability updating history of the stochastic channel selection

algorithm.

of channel selection probabilities. At the initialization step,

each channel is assigned with an equal probability. We notice

that channel 3, 4, 5 are eliminated by the stochastic channel

selection algorithm soon. Channel 1 has been preserved by the

algorithm since p1 = 0.2 and it is the second-best candidate

to the optimal strategy, i.e., channel 2 where p2 = 0.1.

Interestingly, in a certain period of time, channel 1 outperforms

channel 2 dramatically, e.g., at around the 70-th iteration,

the probabilities of selecting channel 1 and 2 are 0.7 v.s.

150

selection algorithm leans to the optimal strategy gradually and

the probability of selecting the optimal channel approaches 1

asymptotically, as expected.

V. C ONCLUSIONS

We consider the design issues of optimal channel selection

for secondary users in cognitive radio networks. We claim

that the overwhelming cost in frequent channel-switchings,

in terms of aggravated delay and packet loss ratio, makes

the schemes with less consistent switchings more appealing

and favorable. We propose a stochastic channel selection

algorithm based on the learning automata techniques. This

algorithm asymptotically converges to the -optimal strategy,

in the sense that the probability of successful transmissions

is maximized. Our analysis shows the effectiveness of the

proposed algorithm.

R EFERENCES

[1] [Online]. Available: http://www.sharedspectrum.com

[2] [Online]. Available: http://web-ext2.darpa.mil/sto/smallunitops/xg.html

[3] C. Cordeiro, K. Challapali, D. Birru, and S. S. N, Ieee 802.22: the

first worldwide wireless standard based on cognitive radios, First IEEE

International Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access

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[4] Proceedings of the first IEEE Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic

Spectrum Access Networks, Nov.2005.

[5] P. Kyasanur, J. So, C. Chereddi, and N. H. Vaidya, Multi-channel mesh

networks: Challenges and protocols, IEEE Wireless Communications,

Apr.2006, invited paper.

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networks: Impact of channels, interfaces, and interface switching delay,

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