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IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering (IOSR-JECE) vol.10 issue.4 version.3

- robotic arm
- Inverse Kinematics
- Session 1 Introduction to Robotics _ Mechanisms
- GEAR METROLOGY
- CAD-based Simulation of the Hobbing Process
- SN_Sec_12-4_12-5
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e-ISSN: 2278-2834,p- ISSN: 2278-8735.Volume 10, Issue 4, Ver. III (Jul - Aug .2015), PP 08-14

www.iosrjournals.org

Ivan Isho Gorial

Mechatronics Engineering Branch, Control and Systems Engineering Department, University of

Technology,Baghdad, Iraq

Corresponding author: ivanisho@gmail.com

Abstract:This paper proposes an online system based on an intelligent method of a serial robot multi links. The

suggested planning system is composed of multi links an individual fuzzy units which control separately each

manipulator joint. The purpose of this paperis to move the arm from a desired source to a desired destination.

Simulation results show that the robot reaches the goal point successfullywith minimum error in terms of path

planning.

Keywords:Cartesian space, path planning, fuzzy logic, robot manipulator, multi links.

I.

Introduction

A robot controller is a mobile chain of connections interconnected by joints. One end is settled to the

ground, and a hand or end effector that can move openly in space is joined at the other end [1]. Most automated

controllers are solid strong with capable engines, solid adapting frameworks, and to a great degree exact models

of the dynamic response [2].

Robotics is a comparatively new field of modern innovation that crosses traditional engineering limits. [3].

By ignoring the forces and moments that cause motion of the structure kinematic analysis of the

mechanical system of a robot concerns the description of the motion with respect to a xed reference Cartesian

frame. It is significant to recognize kinematics and dierential kinematics. Kinematics describes the analytical

relationship between the joint positions and the end-eector position and orientation with reference to a robot

manipulator[4].

There are several robot motion planning methods such as artificial potential field method, configuration

space method, and method based on the fuzzy logic [5, 6, 7, and 8].

Wang, [9] presented a paper utilizing neural networks for a robot armon three dimensionspath

planning. They documented that it is sophisticated to find a good path when the robot is in a difficult dynamic

change condition. Algorithms for the device to do path planning and trajectory prediction were described.

Kermiche et al., [10] demonstrated fuzzy logic control of planar robot in the presence of fixed obstacle.

They presented solution for the problem of learning and controlling a two-link plan robot manipulator in the

presence of fixed obstacle.

Koker et al.,[11] presented neural network based inverse kinematics solution of a robotic manipulator.

Inverse kinematics problem is generally more complex for robotic manipulators.

In this paper, a Cartesian space path planning using fuzzy logic method is presented for multi links industrial

robots operating.

II.

Fuzzy Logic

Fuzzy control teaching are finished up by fuzzy math system.Fuzzy relation technique recreates the

individual's reasoning, and investigations fuzzy data. It is not necessary to know the definite model of the object

to be controlled. It can meet the real-time prerequisites for robot movement planning. It has a good real-time

capacity, Figure (1) shows structure of fuzzy inference system (FIS) [12].

DOI: 10.9790/2834-10430814

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8 | Page

Fuzzy sets

Crisp values

x1*

xn*

Fuzzy set

Inference

engine

Fuzzification

Rule base

Crisp value

Defuzzification

y*

Knowledge

base

Data base

Calculaions

Data flows

III.

Kinematics Model

Kinematics is the technology of motion that treats motion without reverence to the forces which cause it [14].

3.1 Forward kinematics of manipulators

Forward kinematics is an extremely essential issue in the investigation of mechanical control. This is

the static geometrical issue of processing the position and orientation of the end-effector of the manipulator.

Specifically, the forward kinematic issue is to process the position and orientation of the tool frame relative to

the base frame,given an arrangement of joint points, Figure (2) shows kinematic illustrate the actual instrument

frame in accordance with the base casing as anelement of the articulationparameters [14].

Figure (2):kinematic illustrate the actual instrument frame in accordance with the base casing as an element of

the articulation parameters [14].

3.2 Inverse kinematics of manipulators

For the specied positions and orientations of the manipulators end-effector with regards to the base

frame, inverse kinematics is the resolveof most possible and feasible sets of joint variables [2].Welding and also

certain types of assembly operations require that a specic path should be negotiated by the end-effector are

numerous industrial purposes. To do this, it is it's important to nd the corresponding motion of each joint,

which will produce the desired tip motion. This is a typical case of inverse kinematic application [15], Figure (3)

shows a given position and orientation of the tool frame, values for the joint variables can be calculated via the

inverse kinematics [14].

Figure (3): For a given position and orientation of the tool frame, values for the joint variables can be calculated

via the inverse kinematics [14].

DOI: 10.9790/2834-10430814

www.iosrjournals.org

9 | Page

IV.

Proposed Method

Our system proposes a structure of fuzzy logicto solve the problem of Cartesian space path planning.

The suggested fuzzy consists of fuzzy blocks for several links robot manipulator as example. Each fuzzy block

plans the motion of each robot link separately.A block of the inverse kinematics is needed to generate the new

robot joint variable(1 i + 1 , (2 i + 1 , (3 i + 1 ) generate from the new Cartesian point(x i + 1 , y i +

1,z(i+1)). Figure (4) shows structure of the suggested motion planning.

e (i 1)

x

e y (i 1)

e (i 1)

z

xg

y

g

zg

goal

point

+

initial

point

error

x (i )

y (i )

z (i )

(i 1)

1

(i 1)

2

(i 1)

Fuzzy Logic

Controller

Blocks

x (i )

y (i )

z (i )

Robot

Manipulator

Kinemtics

IK

x (i 1)

y (i 1)

z (i 1)

( i )

1

( i )

2

( i )

3

(i )

FK

Figure (4): Fuzzy structure for online planning of a multilinks robot manipulator

Fuzzy membership function design is shown in the Figures (5, 6 and 7).

(c) Output

Figure (6): Membership function plots of FB2

(c) Output

Figure (7): Membership function plots of FB3

(c) Output

In these figures the design made for the robot manipulator in the computer modeling. The rules used for every

fuzzy block to produce the proper output using the k Mamdani method. For example below the rules of the first

fuzzy block for first link will be as:

If (ex(i + 1)) is N) and (x i is NS) then (x i + 1 )is NB)

If (ex(i + 1)) is N) and (x i is PS) then (x i + 1 ) is NB)

If (ex(i + 1)) is N) and (x i is PB) then (x i + 1 ) is NB)

DOI: 10.9790/2834-10430814

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10 | Page

If (ex(i + 1)) is Z) and (x i is NS) then (x i + 1 ) is Z)

If (ex(i + 1)) is P) and (x i is NB) then (x i + 1 ) is PB)

If (ex(i + 1)) is P) and (x i is PM) then (x i + 1 ) is PM)

Also the rules of the second fuzzy block for second link will be as:

If (ey(i + 1)) is N) and (y i is PM) then (y i + 1 ) is NB)

If (ey(i + 1)) is Z) and (y i is NM) then (y i + 1 ) is Z)

If (ey(i + 1)) is Z) and (y i is NS) then (y i + 1 ) is Z)

If (ey(i + 1)) is Z) and (y i is PS) then (y i + 1 ) is Z)

If (ey(i + 1)) is Z) and (y i is PM) then (y i + 1 ) is Z)

If (ey(i + 1)) is Z) and (y i is PB) then (y i + 1 ) is PB)

Moreover the rules of the last fuzzy block for last link will be as:

If (ez(i + 1)) is N) and z i is NB) then (z i + 1 ) is NM)

If (ez(i + 1)) is N) and z i is NM) then (z i + 1 ) is NM)

If (ez(i + 1)) is Z) and z i is NB) then (z i + 1 ) is Z)

If (ez(i + 1)) is Z) and z i is NM) then (z i + 1 ) is Z)

If (ez(i + 1)) is P) and z i is NS) then (z i + 1 ) is PB)

If (ez(i + 1)) is P) and z i is PS) then (z i + 1 ) is PB)

The most used ways to compute the fuzzy intersection (fuzzy-AND) operation with respecttothe fuzzy rules are

the minimum and product operators. The final output of every fuzzy block can be computed applying the center

of gravity (COG) defuzzification method total rules.

crisp =

k bk

k

(k)

(k)

Table (1):List of symbols and meaning

Symbols

N

Z

P

NB

NM

NS

PS

Meaning

Negative

Zero

Positive

Negative Big

Negative Medium

Negative Small

Positive Small

Symbols

PM

PB

FK

IK

FB

bk

ex (i + 1)

ey (i + 1)

The new y-axis error.

z(i)

x i + 1

ez (i + 1)

x i + 1

x(i)

robot end effector.

The current y-axis value of the

robot end effector.

Fuzzy Inference System

y i + 1

y(i)

FIS

V.

Meaning

Positive Medium

Positive Big

Forward Kinematics

Inverse Kinematics

Fuzzy Block

Center of membership function of the consequent of rule (k)

The area under the membership function

(k)

z i + 1

Represents the required change in x-axis for planning the robot motion

to the next point (i+1).

Represents the required change in x-axis for planning the robot motion

to the next point (i+1).

Represents the required change in y-axis for planning the robot motion

to the next point (i+1).

Represents the required change in z-axis for planning the robot motion

to the next point (i+1).

e x ( i 1 ) (m)

(a)

x (i ) (m)

z(i 1) (m)

x(i 1) (m)

y ( i 1) (m)

Modeling and simulation performed to test the total process of Figure (4). The signals used to mode the

robot motion were. A multi links robot arm each other equal 0.45 m used for this model. Figure (8) shows

surface view of fuzzy blocks used for this model.

e y (i 1) (m)

y (i ) (m)

(b)

Figure (8): Surface View of: (a) FB1 (b) FB2 (c) FB3

DOI: 10.9790/2834-10430814

www.iosrjournals.org

e z (i 1) (m)

z (i ) (m)

(c)

11 | Page

The results of the computer modeling are shown in Figure (9) where the robot has to move from the

start point (x = 1.35 m,y = 0 m,z = 0 m)to the goal point (x = 1.35 m,y = 0.2 m, z = 0 m) the error in

reaching the goal after (200) program iterations was:ex = 0.0039 m,ey = 1.1573 10010 m,ez =

3.6937 10018 m. Figure (10) shows the graphs of run1.

Point

Start

Z, m

Goal

Point

Y, m

100

150

Iterations

200

50

100

150

iterations

Iterations

50

100

150

iterations

Iterations

200

50

100

150

iterations

Iterations

200

200

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

0

50

100

150

iterations

Iterations

200

200

0.2

0

-0.2

0

50

100

150

iterations

Iterations

200

200

3

2

1

0

0

50

100

150

Iterations

iterations

200

zz,m

(m)

100

150

iterations

Iterations

0.5

0

-0.5

0

50

100

150

iterations

Iterations

0.05

dz,

z (m)

m

50

50

eez,

m

z (m)

yy,m

(m)

eey,

m

y (m)

200

1

0

-1

0

200

-0.05

0

200

1

0

-1

-2

0

50

100

Iterations

iterations

150

th3,

3 (rad)

rad

0

-1

-2

-3

0

100

150

Iterations

Iterations

m

dy,

y (m)

1

0

-1

-2

-3

0

50

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

0

th2,

rad

2 (rad)

1

0

-1

0

0.2

0

-0.2

0

th1,

rad )

1 (rad

dx,

x (m)

m

eex,

m

x (m)

x (m)

x, m

X, m

Figure (9):Multi links robot manipulator Cartesian space path planning using fuzzy logic of run1

50

100

150

iterations

Iterations

Figure (10): Change of Cartesian path planning parameters with program iteration index of run1

Furthermore, the results of run2are shown in Figure (11) where the robot has to move from the start point

(x = 1.35 m,y = 0.2 m, z = 0 m)to the goal point (x = 1.35m, y = 0m, z = 0 m)the error in reaching the

goal after (180) program iterations was:

ex = 0.0034 m, ey = 5.4284 10009 m, ez = 3.6937 10018 m

Figure (12) shows the graphs of run2.

DOI: 10.9790/2834-10430814

www.iosrjournals.org

12 | Page

Z, m

Start Point

Goal Point

Y, m

th1,

rad)

1 (rad

-0.1

0

4

2

0

0

150

0.02

0

-0.02

0

150

1

0

-1

-2

0

dy,y (m)

m

50

100

iterations

Iterations

50

100

Iterations

iterations

150

150

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

0

50

100

iterations

Iterations

150

150

0.2

0

-0.2

0

50

100

iterations

Iterations

150

150

4

2

0

0

z (m)

z,m

100

Iterations

iterations

e (m)

ez,

z m

0

-0.5

0

50

0.5

150

0.1

50

100

Iterations

iterations

50

100

iterations

Iterations

zdz,(m)

m

50

100

iterations

Iterations

150

1

0

-1

0

50

100

iterations

Iterations

th3, rad

y(m)

y,m

150

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

0

3 (rad)

4

2

0

-2

0

50

100

iterations

Iterations

eey,

m

y (m)

1

0

-1

0

th2,

rad

2 (rad)

m

dx,

x (m)

eex,

m

x (m)

x (m)

x, m

X, m

Figure (11):Multi links robot manipulator Cartesian space path planning using fuzzy logic of run2.

50

100

iterations

Iterations

50

100

iterations

Iterations

150

Figure (12): Change of Cartesian path planning parameters with program iteration index of run2

VI.

Conclusion

Our planning system in Cartesian space showed good results since the error of reaching the goal point

after program iterations was without motion oscillation of the robot near the goal point. In the first run, the robot

moved from a desired point to a goal point with minimum error with program iterations (200).

In the second run the results showedalso a minimum error with less program iterations (180) in another start and

goal point.

References

[1].

[2].

[3].

[4].

[5].

[6].

[7].

Carl D, Crane III, Joseph D, (Eds). Kinematic Analysis of Robot Manipulators, Cambridge University Press, UK,USA, Australia,

2008.

Appin Knowledge Solutions, Robotics: Appin Knowledge Solutions, Infinity Science Press Publications LCC, Hingham,

Massachusetts, New Delhi, 2007.

Cubero S. Industrial robotics: Theory Modeling and Control P lV pro literatureVerlag Robert Mayer-Scholz, Germany.Ch 13,

pp. 379-380, 2007.

Siciliano B., Sciavicco L., Villani L., and Oriollo G., Robotic: Modeling, Planning, and Control, Springer, Verland, London

limited, p.p. 104-106, 2010.

Cheung E., and Lumelsky V., Proximity Sensing in Robot Manipulator Motion Planning: System and Implementation Issues,

IEEE Trans. Robotics and Automation, 1989, 5(6): 740751. Downloaded from Iraqi Virtual science library at 8/2/2013.

Lumelsky V. J., Shur M. S., and Wagner S., Sensitive Skin, IEEE Sensors Journal, 1(1): 4151, 2001.

Cheung E., and Lumelsky V., Development of Sensitive Skin for A 3D Robot Arm Operating in an Uncertain Environment, IEEE

International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 12: 10561061, 1989.

DOI: 10.9790/2834-10430814

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13 | Page

[8].

[9].

[10].

[11].

[12].

[13].

[14].

Cheung E., and Lumelsky V., Motion Planning for a Whole-Sensitive Robot Arm Manipulator, IEEE International Conference on

Robotics and Automation, 1: 344349, 1990.

Wei W. and Shimin W., 3-D Path Planning using Neural Networks for a Robot Manipulator, IEEE computer society pp. 3 -6,

2011. Downloaded from Iraqi Virtual science library at 3/11/2011.

Kermiche S., Larbi S. M., and Abbassi H. A., Fuzzy Logic Control of Robot Manipulator in the Presence of Fixed Obstacle,The

International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 4, No.1, pp. 26-32, January 2007.

Koker R., Oz C., Cakar T., and Ekiz H., A Study of Neural Network Based Inverse Kinematics Solution for a Three-Joint Robot,

Robotics and Autonomous Systems 49, 227234, 2004.

Gerke M. and Hoyer H., Fuzzy Collision Avoidance for Industrial Robots, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent

Robots and Systems, 2: 510517, 1995.

http://www.cvis.cz/eng/hlavni.php?stranka=novinky/clanek.php&id=68, downloaded at 9/7/2015.

Craig J. J., Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control, Pearson Prentice Hall, USA, p.p. 5-6 2005.

DOI: 10.9790/2834-10430814

www.iosrjournals.org

14 | Page

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