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Designing Efficient Boiler

Systems for Commercial


Buildings
Jeff Stein, PE
Taylor Engineering
Alameda, CA
PG&E Energy
Center
May 2010

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Boiler Classifications
Some Typical Boilers
NOx Regulations and NOx Control
Efficiency Basics
Energy Codes
Boiler Efficiency Standards
Efficiency Part II
Choosing a Condensing Boiler
HW System Design
eQUEST Simulation
Case Study
3

Disclaimer
 Manufacturers

literature and data is


used in this presentation for
illustration purposes only.
 We do not endorse the data or
recommend any particular products.

Boiler Classifications

Boiler Classifications
 Pressure

and Temperature

 Fuel
 Heat

Exchanger Type
 Materials
 Draft Type
 Burner Type
 Chamber Type

Boiler Classifications


Pressure and Temperature


Steam

 Low pressure (<15 psig)


 Medium pressure (15 to 160 psig)
 High pressure (> 160 psig)
Hot Water
 Low temperature (<250F and < 160 psi) [MOST COMMERCIAL BOILERS]
 Section IV of ASME Code

 Medium temperature (250 to 350F)


 Section I of AMSE Code

 High temperature (>350F)









Fuel
Heat Exchanger Type
Materials
Draft Type
Burner Type
Chamber Type

Boiler Classifications



Pressure and Temperature


Fuel







Fuel oil
Natural gas/propane
Electric
Other (coal, wood)

Heat Exchanger Type


Materials
Draft Type
Burner Type
Chamber Type
8

Boiler Classifications




Pressure and Temperature


Fuel
Heat Exchanger Type






Water Tube
 Straight tube
 Bent tube

Fire Tube
 Single pass
 Multiple pass

Modular / Sectional

Materials
Draft Type
Burner Type
Chamber Type
9

Source: ASHRAE, used with permission

Boiler Classifications





Pressure and Temperature


Fuel
Heat Exchanger Type
Materials

Non-Condensing
 Carbon Steel
 Copper
 Cast Iron

Condensing
 Stainless Steel
 Aluminum
 Cast Iron





Draft Type
Burner Type
Chamber Type
10

Boiler Classifications






Pressure and Temperature


Fuel
Heat Exchanger Type
Materials
Draft Type




Atmospheric (natural draft)


Forced draft
Induced draft

Burner Type
Chamber Type
11

Boiler Classifications







Pressure and Temperature


Fuel
Heat Exchanger Type
Materials
Draft Type
Burner Type

One Stage
High/Low Fire
Modulating

Chamber Type
12

Boiler Classifications








Pressure and Temperature


Fuel
Heat Exchanger Type
Materials
Draft Type
Burner Type
Chamber Type

Dry base combustion chamber below water chamber


Wet base combustion chamber surrounded by water
chamber
Wet leg (mud leg)
Dry back
Wet back
13

Source: ASHRAE, used with permission

Some Typical Boilers

Typical Commercial Boilers

COPPER OR STEEL BENT TUBE


BOILER

COPPER FIN-TUBE
BOILER

15

Source: ASHRAE, used with permission

Fire--Tube Boilers
Fire

3 pass wetback
4 pass dryback

HW Only

4 pass wetback
16

Source: Cleaver Brooks, used with permission

Firetube Boilers


Four flue gas passes

Wetback - Water cooled rear


tube sheets
On some boilers a door can be
opened to gain access to second
pass tubes and tube sheet

17

Source: Cleaver Brooks, used with permission

Scotch Marine Firetube Boilers








Scotch marine is most


common type of fire tube.
Large water volume
Can handle load changes
(i.e. less thermal shock)
Slow responding
Good for steam since
volume enables them to
respond to load changes
with relatively little change
in pressure. However, since
the boiler typically holds a
large water mass, it requires
more time to initiate
steaming and more time to
accommodate changes in
steam pressure.
This happens to be a 4 pass
dryback

18

Source: Cleaver Brooks, used with permission

Dryback vs Wetback
 Dryback

- turnaround area is
refractory lined

Easier maintenance
 Wetback

- turnaround zone is watercooled, eliminating the need for the


refractory lining

Cheaper
Higher maintenance (for steam)
Slightly more efficient
Poorer circulation loose stay bolts?
19

Industrial Water Tube

O Style

A Style

D Style

20

Source: Cleaver Brooks, used with permission

Commercial Water Tube

21

Source: Cleaver Brooks, used with permission

Modular / Copper Fin Tube

Pros

Small foot print


Lower 1st cost
Responsive
Efficient
Light weight
Quiet

Cons

Gas / LP only
Life span
Maintenance
Venting issues
Pumping critical
Short cycling
22
Hot water only Source: Raypack, Lochinvar, used with permission

Cast Iron Sectional Boiler

23

Source: Crown Boilers, used with permission

Thermal Shock
 Rapid

changes in temperature (up or


down) cause thermal stresses.

e.g. staging on a cold lag boiler


 The

frequency and degree contribute


to failureB
 Mini bypasses?

24

Thermal Shock

Tube Attachment

Rolled and
Beaded Tube

Rolled and
Flared Tube

Rolled and
Welded Tube

Tube End
Cooling
Tube End
Cooling

Tube End
Cooling

25

Source: Cleaver Brooks, used with permission

NOx Regulations and NOx


Control

Bay Area Air Quality Management


District Boiler Regulations

27

Regulation 9, Rule 6 Natural Gas Water


Heaters & Boilers


New boilers up to 2 MMBTU/hr

Device
75K to 400K BTU/hr
(storage and instantaneous)

nanogram NOx / joule


output
Current: 40 (60 ppm)
1/1/2013: 14 (20 ppm)

400K to 2 MM BTU/hr
(storage and instantaneous)

Current: 20 (30 ppm)


1/1/2013: 14 (20 ppm)

28

Regulation 9, Rule 7 Boilers, Steam


Generators, Process Heaters


New and existing boilers

Some exceptions

Input (MM BTU/hr)

Old NOx
Limit

New NOx
Limit

Effective Date

Non-natural gas,
non-LPG heaters

40 ppmv
(10 MM
BTU/hr &
up)

40 ppmv
(1 to <10 MM
BTU/hr)

1/1/2011
(1 to <10
MMBTU/hr)

>2 to 5 (gas-fired)

None

30 ppmv

1/1/2011

>5 to <10 (gas-fired)

None

15 ppmv

10 to <20 (gas-fired)

30 ppmv

15 ppmv

20 to <75 (gas-fired)

30 ppmv

9 ppmv

75 & up (gas-fired)

30 ppmv

5 ppmv

1/1/2012

1/1/2012
29

Units
1

MBH = 1KBtuh = 1,000 Btu/hr


 1 MMBtuh = 1,000,000 Btu/hr
 1 Boiler HP = 33,475 Btu/hr

E.g. 100 HP = 3 million Btuh


 Nominal

capacity

Some manufacturers use input capacity


Others use output capacity

30

NOx Formation
 The

majority of NOx produced during


combustion is NO (95%). Once
emitted into the atmosphere, NO
reacts to form NO2. It is NO2 that
reacts with other pollutants to form
ozone.
 NOx production affected by:

flame temperature
amount of nitrogen in the fuel
excess air level
combustion air temperature.

31

NOx Control
 Post

Combustion Control Methods

Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction


Selective Catalytic Reduction
 Combustion

Control Techniques

Low Excess Air Firing


Low Nitrogen Fuel Oil
Burner Modifications to spread out flame
Water/Steam Injection reduces efficiency
Flue Gas Recirculation most effective
32

Flue Gas Recirculation


A

portion of the O2 depleted exhaust


gases are recirculated back into the
combustion zone in order to lower the
flame temperature (from 3,500oF to
2,900oF) and reduce NOx formation.

33

Source: Cleaver Brooks, used with permission

Flue Gas Recirculation

Internal FGR

External FGR

34

Source: Cleaver Brooks, used with permission

Efficiency Basics

Boiler Efficiency (not well known)

36

Efficiency Terms
 Combustion

Efficiency

Includes only stack losses


Does the burner completely burn the fuel?
 Thermal/Overall

Efficiency

Includes stack losses and jacket losses


how effectively is heat transferred to the
water?
 Combustion

Analyzer Gross/Net

Gross efficiency assumes no condensation


Net assumes 100% condensation
37

Combustion Efficiency






Not enough air results in sooting, CO formation,


back-fire, and damage to equipment - maybe even
explosion
Too much air means fuel is being used to heat the
air and results in more energy out the stack.
ROT: 20% excess air ( 4% O2 in stack)
Air/fuel ratio control

Maintains proper air/fuel ratio over entire boiler turndown


range
Excess air trim enhances boiler efficiency
Wide range of control strategies
 Single point positioning w/jackshaft
 Parallel positioning
 Metered cross-limited
38

Air-Fuel Ratio
13.6

Quantity in flue gas

CO2

CO

Highest
Efficiency
operating
region

Oxygen

Hydrocarbons

Excess Fuel

7.4
CO2
02

1 2

Flue Gas Oxygen %

Excess Air

39

Air to Fuel Ratio Affected by


 Ambient

temp
 Barometric pressure
 Other boilers on common exhaust
 Hi/Lo or Modulating controls

40

Single Point Positioning

41
Source: Cleaver Brooks, used with permission

Parallel Positioning

42
Source: Cleaver Brooks, used with permission

Energy Codes

Energy Code CA Title 20




For commercial
boilers:
only full load
combustion
efficiency
No part load or
thermal efficiency

44

Previous Energy Code (Title 24)

45

ASHRAE 90.190.1-2007

431.86 Uniform test method for the


measurement of energy efficiency of commercial
packaged boilers.

(a) Scope. This section provides test procedures that must be


followed for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the steady state
combustion efficiency of a gas-fired or oil-fired commercial
packaged boiler.
Refers to methods in HI BTS-2000
46

Boiler Efficiency
Standards

Boiler Rating Standard

Source: AHRI, used with permission

48

BTS-2000
 Full

Load Efficiency Only

No Part Load Ratings!


 Inlet

Water Temperature

Non-condensing boilers: 35F to 80F!


Condensing boilers: 80F
 Outlet

water temperature: 180F


 No limits on or corrections for room
or inlet air temperature!
 BTS-2000 will over-estimate real
efficiency and capacity
49

Help is on the way: ASHRAE 155P








METHOD OF TESTING FOR RATING


COMMERCIAL SPACE HEATING BOILER
SYSTEMS
PURPOSE: This standard provides procedures
for determining the steady state thermal
efficiency, part load efficiency and idling energy
input rate of individual boilers, and application
seasonal efficiency of commercial space heating
boiler systems
Committee formed in 1994
Coming soon?: public review of steady state test
methods
Future version: equations and software for
calculating application seasonal efficiency
including load profile, control sequences, etc.
50

ASHRAE 155P

Steady State
Tests

Required (R) and Optional (O) Tests

High Return
Water
Temperature

High fire

Intermediate
Return Water
Temperature

High fire

Low Return
Water
Temperature

High fire

Idling Tests
Throughflow Loss Tests

Singlestage
burner

Twostage
burner

Automatic
stepmodulating
burner

180R/ 140

Int fire

O
180 / 140-170
R

Low fire
O

Int fire

R
O
O

Low fire
R*

120
R*/ 80

R*

Int fire

Low fire

120 / 80-110
R*

R*

High temp

180RLWT

Low temp

High temp

140 O
EWT

Low temp

*required for low return water temperature and condensing boilers only.

51

Research for 155P




Cast-iron, single stage, atmospheric burner, 180


HWST, constant flow

52
Source: Hewitt, BSE Magazine, June 2005, used with permission

Same data

53
Source: Hewitt, BSE Magazine, June 2005, used with permission

Forced Draft

54
Source: Hewitt, BSE Magazine, June 2005, used with permission

Condensing at 180 HWST

55
Source: Hewitt, BSE Magazine, June 2005, used with permission

Condensing at 110 HWST

56
Source: Hewitt, BSE Magazine, June 2005, used with permission

Effect of HWST Setpoint

57
Source: Hewitt, BSE Magazine, June 2005, used with permission

Input-Output Relationship at Different Leaving Water Temperatures


Expanded View of High Fire Area
1.000

0.980

0.960

220

0.940

210
200

Input

0.920

190
180

0.900

170
160

0.880

150
140
130

0.860

110
0.840

0.820

0.800
0.8

0.82

0.84

0.86

0.88

0.9
Output

0.92

0.94

0.96

0.98

58

Modulating Burner
 "In

the modulating regime, the


relationship of input (y) to output (x)
is often slightly concave up, due in
part to the tendency of many burners
to have increased excess air at low
fire.

59

ASHRAE 155P - CONCERNS


 No

cycling tests at part load


 Allowed to retune boiler for each test
 Allows 100F room temperature
 Does not recognize temperature
compensation (O2 trim control)
 Uses electricity site/source multiplier
of 1
 WISH LIST:

No retuning
Test at 100%, 40%, 10%, 0% (idling)
60

Efficiency Part II

What Affects Boiler Efficiency










Air/fuel ratio (combustion efficiency)

Turn-down controls
Temperature compensation

HX design
Inlet water temperature
Minimum flow / maximum T
Cycling/draft controls

Pre-purge, post-purge, stack dampers

Vessel losses radiation and convection

room temperature, wind speed


Boiler mass, insulation
Cool down / heat up

Parasitics

Draft fan electric heat?


Other
62

All Boiler are Condensing Boilers, but

63
Source: 2008 ASHRAE Handbook, used with permission

only Some Boilers are Designed to


Condense


Corrosion
resistant
materials
Condensate
drain

Source: Lochinvar, used with permission

64

Science of Condensing Boilers




Natural gas combustion:

90% sensible heat (theoretical maximum


combustion efficiency without condensing)
10% latent heat in water vapor

For condensation to start the HX


surface temperature must be below
the dew point (boiling point) of the
water vapor (135-140F), which
depends on the pressure of the
steam
As the steam is condensed out, the
volume of steam is reduce, its
partial pressure is reduced, and the
dew point drops
The colder the entering water the
more condensing possible
65

Choosing a Condensing
Boiler

Choosing a Condensing Boiler
















Minimum flow
Secondary HX
Turndown
Air shut-off
HX material
Flue material
Temperature compensation
Water pressure drop
Max water pressure
NOx
Controls setpoint reset, adjustable deadband
Water volume more is better?
Warranty
67

Some Condensing Boilers (this list is


incomplete and data may not be correct!)
Make

Model

Input
HX material
Flue material
(kBtuh)

Aerco

BMK

SS

AL29-4C

Ajax

Cu

AL29-4C

Bryan

Atlas Series A
(GS
Triple-Flex

Buderus

GB

Burnham

Alpine

cast aluminum
AL29-4C,
sectional
CPVC
328, 441,
CVC, PVC, 588,
80,105,
SS 733,
SS

Cleaver Brooks

Clearfire CFC

SS

De Dietrich

C230 ECO-A

Fulton Pulse

PHW 2000

Gas Master

GMI

sch 40,
combu
SS

Hamilton

EVO

SS

Heat Transfer

ModCon

SS

Hydrotherm

KN

Laars

Rheos

Lochinvar

Intelli-fin

Patterson Kelly

PK Mach

Raypak

Xtherm

RBI

Futera Fusion

750,
Cu finned
SStube
Cat.wIVsecondary
compatible
1000,900,HX4:1
at inlet
1500,
Cu finned
Cat
tube
IV, w
non-specified
secondary
500 to HX4:1
at inlet

Triangle Tube

Prestige Solo

SS

Viessmann

Vitocrossal 300

SS

Weil McLain

Turndown recirc pump


min flow

max T

1500,
2000,
500
to

20:1
(model
3.5:1

137.6 F

3000

(model
3:1
5:1

210,to
285, 5:1
500
cast aluminum/silicium
Cat. II or 2500
360sectional
to 860 5:1
AL29-4C

IV type4C,
BH 300 AL29
5:1
on
SS flue air 2,000
200 - 8000 "virtually
AL29-4C, PVC
80 to 8000 infinite
5:1

SS, PVC, CPVC


300, 500, 5:1
850
cast ironCat.
sectional
IV AL29-4C
600, 1000,
SS
5:1
2000
Cu
SS
1200,
4:1
finned
1600, HX4:1
Cu finned
AL29-4C
tube w secondary
1500,
at inlet
1700,
cast aluminum
Cat. IV sectional
AL29-4C
300, 450,
SS
5:1

2000
60
to 399

no
optional.

0 GPM
(model
30
GPM
(models

32F
(050),

Comes
Dependen 40 F
with
a
t4.2
onGPM 54F (adjustable u
Recomme
nded.
35 F
not requiredat
none
120 F
no
No

none
81 F
except 5- None
None
26 GPM at 100
>150F
F

Recomme 2.2 GPM 60 F


nded
and (model
Requires
14 GPM79) 45 F
a
pump, (model
Recomme
2 GPM
100 F
nded
Yes. and (KN
15.4 2)
GPM 140 F
(model
Yes. Provided.
90 GPM

80-90 F

Recomme 15 (model 40 F
nded and 47
300)
yes
GPM 40 F
(H7-1005)
Yes. Provided.
It has it's 35 F
own pump

Al29-4C, 316
638,
L-grade
846, SS
3:1? (to be No.
verified by Enrique,
None
rep)
80F
1071,
Ultra Series 3 (UG)
cast aluminum
PVC, CPVC
sectional
80, 105,
5:1
Yes. The 3.5 GPM 50 F
155, 230,
boiler is to (model 80)

68

Some Condensing Boilers




Up-fire water-tube

Down-fire fire-tube

69
Source: Aerco, used with permission

Source: Cleaver Brooks, used with permission

Bryan Triple-Flex
 Preheats

combustion air with flue

gases

Source: Bryan Boiler, used with permission, patent pending

70

Buderus SB
 Two

return water connections

71

Source: Buderus, used with permission

Minimum Flow


Very low flow may go from turbulent to laminar


at HX wall

Reduced thermal efficiency and higher stack temperature


Flashing to steam can damage heat exchanger

If the total coil flow is below the boiler min flow


then supply water is bypassed to the return,
which raises the return temperature and reduces
efficiency this is more pronounced at low
(condensing) water temperatures
Min flow may be:

Recommendation e.g. to limit cycling


Required primary/secondary e.g. built-in recirculation pump
flow switch
T lockout - e.g. soft lockout at 46F, hard lockout at 72F
72

Condensing boiler manufacturers data


Thermal Efficiency of BMK1.5LN
5% Input

50% Input

100% Input

ANSI Z21.13

BTS2000

100
99.3

98
97.5

97.5

96

95.8

Efficiency, %

95.1

94

93.9
93.2
92.8

92

92
91.4
90.9

90
89.1
88.3

88.5

88

88
87.2
86.6

86.6
86

86
50

70

90

110

130

Return Water Temperature, 20F Rise

150

170

Source: Aerco, used with permission

73

Secondary HX



Primary HX is non-condensing
Bypass valve maintains primary HX EWT > 130F
Secondary loop

Source: Lochinvar, used with permission

74

Secondary HXs

Source: Laars, used with permission

Source: Lochinvar, used with permission

75

Secondary HX When Does in Condense?


HWRT Setpt

Load
small

low
big
small
high

big

Actual HWRT Result


no condensing since sec HX is seeing
mostly HWST
low
no condensing
high
condensing but bypass opens, limited
flow to sec loop, starves the load
low
no condensing
high
condensing but bypass opens, limited
flow to sec loop, starves the load
low
no condensing
high

Could end up fixing the


setpoint above condensing and
running 24/7 to avoid starving
the load

76

Turndown The Real Story?




A boiler can still cycle at high load if the


controller overshoots

Combustion efficiency may be worse at low


fire due to excess air

Stabilizing the firing rate is harder when the


turndown is greater

Not necessarily reflected in manufacturers data

The greater the turndown the greater the risk


of flame failure with cold inlet air

Flame detector will not make if too rich or too lean


Boiler technicians often limit the turndown to 3:1
77

Air-Fuel Ratio
13.6

Quantity in flue gas

CO2

CO

Highest
Efficiency
operating
region

Oxygen

Hydrocarbons

Excess Fuel

7.4
CO2
02

1 2

Flue Gas Oxygen %

Excess Air

78

Air-Fuel Field Calibration




Recalibration as part of initial start-up is necessary due to


changes in the local altitude, gas BTU content, gas supply
piping and supply regulators, shipping damage, etc.

79
Source: Aerco, used with permission

Air-Fuel Calibration
 Controllable

minimum

P across air or fuel damper/fan varies


with the square of the flow
P ~ flow2

Small changes in pressure will have big


change in flow
100 % = 4 WC
75 % = 2.2 WC
50 % = 1 WC
25 % = .2 WC
5% = 0.01 WC
80

Water volume


Boilers are getting smaller


(less water)

Reduces cool down losses


makes firing controls more
difficult and increases risk of
flashing to steam

Fire tube boilers claim more


water volume and therefore
better low flow performance

81
Source: Triangle Tube, used with permission

Heating Hot Water


System Design

HW System Design







Zone design
Temperatures supply, T
Coils - rows
Valves - 2-way, zone pumps
Boiler(s) Number, equal/uneven sizing
Piping design primary-only,
primary/secondary
Headered vs Dedicated Pumps
Minimum Flow
Constant flow
3-way valves
Controlled bypass
Sequences
Boiler staging
HWST reset
83

Boiler System Efficiency








Boiler sizing
Boiler staging
Throughflow
Design HWST and T
Controls





HWST reset
HW flow controls (2-way control valves)
Minimum flow controls

Piping losses some beneficial


Leaks
Pumping energy electric heat!
84

Primary Only Dedicated Pumps




Works fine for boilers that can handle condensing on morning warm
up, like atmospheric boilers. Not so good for sealed combustion (e.g.
forced draft copper fin-tube)

85

Primary Only Headered Pumps




More expensive and complicated than dedicated pumps for little benefit

86

Primary Only Mixing Valve for Loop


Reset



Does not allow much reset without condensing


Likely to short cycle

87

Primary Only Mixing Valve in the right


place!


Could result in low boiler flow if loop setpoint is high and load is low

88

Primary/Secondary



Maintains constant flow through boiler but does not prevent condensing on
warm up
Lower throughflow losses if primary pumps cycle with boiler at low load

89

Primary/Secondary with thermostatic


valves



Could require boilers to run 24/7 if they are not oversized


Mixing valve is open when boiler is off and may not be able to open fast
enough when boiler starts to prevent short-cycling

90

Primary Only controlled bypass




Maintains minimum flow but may not prevent short cycling

91

Short Cycling
 Efficiency

pre-purge/post-purge
 Excessive wear on boiler
components (e.g. heating and
cooling)
 Nuisance shutdowns and
unexplained flame failures with flame
programmer fault codes that have no
easily identifiable cause

92

Options to Address Cycling at Low Load













Oversized pipes
Some 3-way coil valves
Controlled bypass
Buffer tank

Primary/sec. with tank in common leg


Primary only with tank in bypass

High turndown
Modular / pony boilers
Boiler lockout at low loads
Bigger deadband
Fuzzy Logic?

.. the controller fires the boiler stages to provide the target


temperature at secondary loop sensor. It continuously samples the
inlet, outlet and target temperatures. Over time, it will learn the system
curve and adjust the firing of the stages to meet the demand in the most
efficient wayX

93

Primary/Secondary With tank in common


leg



Does not allow boiler to see cold return water at low load
How to prevent overfiring with all that mass?

94

Primary Only with tank in bypass




Boiler more likely to see cold return water (e.g. morning warmup)

95

Recommendations


Non-condensing

Condensing

Low mass, forced draft, modulating


Primary/secondary with mixing valves
Some mass in primary circuit and bypass circuit
Primary-Only with 3-way valves far away or
bypass with buffer tank

Both

Multiple or pony boilers


Large deadband on boiler cycling
Commission firing controls to insure turndown
and prevent overshoot
96

Firing Rate Controls


 How

is the firing rate adjusted to


maintain setpoint?

Internal Control
PID
P-only
Adjustable parameters

External control

97

Internal Control - PID

98

Internal Control Mystery?

99

Internal Control P-Only

100
Source: Laars, used with permission

Firing Rate External Control


 4-20mA

signal = 0 to 100% fire


 More risk of tripping overtemperature safety?

101

Boiler Staging




Enable lead boiler if OAT<lockout and at


least a few boiler requests
Enable lag boiler(s) if operating boiler(s)
cannot maintain setpoint
Disable lag boiler(s)

If flow meter: avg. Btuh is less than lower stage


If feedback from boilers: avg. firing rate is below
minimum
If no flow meter: based on low T?

Reset HWST setpoint using trim and


respond (include lockouts and ignores)
102

VFDs on HW Pumps
 Not

required by Title 24
 Pump energy goes into the water
(VFD losses do not)
 Reducing pump energy increases
boiler energy
 Not cost effective (VFD, P sensor,
controls, etc.)

payback ~25 years


 VFDs

can solve problems with overpressurized valves


103

eQUEST Simulation

Simulation eQUEST (www.doe2.com)

RATED-HWR-T
For the HW-CONDENSING boiler, specifies the return water
temperature at which both the CAPACITY and HEAT-INPUT-RATIO
are defined. The default is 80F
105
Source: eQUEST, used with permission

eQUEST

106
Source: eQUEST, used with permission

eQUEST

HIR-FT = a curve that modifies the fuel consumption as a function of


the supply temperature and the environmental temperature. There is
no defaultXFor the HW-CONDENSING boiler, this curve is not
used. Instead, the HIR-FPLR curve is used, and uses both the partload ratio and the return water temperature.

107
Source: eQUEST, used with permission

eQUEST HIR=f(PLR) Curves


eQUEST Boiler Thermal Efficiency as a function of Load Ratio
(with default full load efficiencies)
100%

Unstable!

90%
Thermal Efficiency

80%
70%
60%
50%
40%

Condensing High Eff @140EWT


Condensing @140 EWT
Forced Draft
Atmospheric

30%
20%
10%
0%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100
%

Load
108

eQUEST HIR=f(PLR) Curves at Low EWT


eQUEST Boiler Thermal Efficiency as a function of Load Ratio
(with default full load efficiencies)
Unstable!

100%
90%
Thermal Efficiency

80%
70%
60%

Condensing High Eff @80 EWT

50%

Condensing @ 80 EWT

40%

Forced Draft
Atmospheric

30%
20%
10%
0%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100
%

Load

109

eQUEST Condensing Boiler Curves vs EWT


EQUEST Standard Efficiency Condensing Boiler Thermal Efficiency vs.
Hot Water Temperature
100%
90%

Thermal Efficiency

80%
70%
~5% Load

60%

~20%Load

50%

~60% Load

40%

100% Load

30%
20%
10%
0%
50

70

90

110

130

150

170

Entering Hot Water Tem perature (F)


110

Hi Eff. Condensing Boiler Curves vs EWT


EQUEST High Efficiency Condensing Boiler Thermal Efficiency vs. Hot
Water Temperature
100%
90%

Thermal Efficiency

80%
70%
60%

~20% Load

50%

~50%Load

40%

~75% Load

30%

100% Load

20%
10%
0%
50

70

90

110

130

150

170

Entering Hot Water Tem perature (F)


111

eQUEST HW Load Sensitivity


 With

SAT Reset:

 Without

SAT Reset:

112

Calibrating Existing Building Models







Zones: sizing, sequences, min flow, internal loads


Systems: sizing, SAT reset
Plant: sizing, HIR, curves, staging, HWST reset
Monthly data does not tell if you match hourly load profile

113

Case Study

Sonoma State University

115

Sonoma State Issues







Oversized/Inefficient
Thermal Shock
Distribution Losses
Manned Operation





Boiler does not cycle at low fire


Prevent overpressurization / maintain minimum
flow
Required by code so boiler shut off at night

250F HW setpoint based on old HX


design and fear of condensation
Existing local boilers use campus HW?
Campus Expansion new local boilers?
116

Taylor Scope


Evaluate:

LCC Analysis of several options for improving plant


performance and extending plant useful life.

Energy efficiency
Ability to adequately serve the loads
Current condition and remaining useful life of existing
hot water system equipment
Operation and Maintenance issues

E.g. pony boiler LCC analysis


Consider expected future capacity based on planned
campus new construction and retrofits.

Master Plan

implementation schedule for recommended retrofit


measures.

117

Options




Abandon plant?
Pony boilers
Improve Controls






HWST Reset
 Range? OA reset? Feedback?

Stack damper?

Eliminate HX at buildings?

Pumps in series with check valve


Bldg pumps could run alone at night

Fix cycling?
Unmanned operation?
Dont shut off at night?

Simulate both ways

Better to use satellite boilers?


118

HW Plant History
 Originally

designed for 325oF LWT,

160 psi
 New boilers installed in 1997

250 LWT / 170 EWT


360 GPM
10:1 turndown (boiler rep says it is more
like 4:1)

119

Campus HW System

120

Current Operating Practice







They run one boiler and its pump as the lead for a month then the
other, never both.
Boiler Isolation valves never closed

Fixed HWST setpoint of 250oF


The boiler is shut off every night at 10pm and restarted at 5am. Off
in summer.

(Trends do not show throughflow?), operator says: only few GPM in lag

(When the boilers/pumps are off at night the HWST and HWRT falls to
about 150-180 by the next morning.)

Manual cycling at low load

Turn off at 220 HWRT / Turn on at 190 HWRT


Apparently the boilers will modulate down to low fire and then stay at low
fire and overheat the water until the safeties trip.

Manual Bypass Control Maintain 80-95 psi on secondary supply


side

Auto bypass on dP failed. Consider using flow meter?


Operators say min flow = 350 GPM (this is also the design flow)
Operators say pipes/valves out in the loop cannot handle more than 95 psi.

121

HW Loads
 Mostly

heating, some DHW


 Several buildings served by plant
have abandoned campus HW for
DHW and added local boilers.
 Some new and existing buildings are
abandoning campus HW

122

Annual Burner Tuning

123

Oversizing Penalty Depends on Idle Loss

Idle loss depends on HWST, pre-purge, etc.


124
Source: T. Butcher, Brookhaven

HWST Reset and HX Selections


 Ives

Hall 1965

 Person

 Art

Theater 1986

Building Renovation 1996

125

126

Allen Bradley Trend Data


Weds 1-5-05

GPM

600

BOILER\2\FLOW_WATER
BOILER\2\TEMP_STACK
BOILER\TEMP_RETURN
BOILER\TEMP_SUPPLY

270

500

250

400

230

300

210

200

100

450 GPM, 50 dT, for 17 hrs = 191 mil Btu


output
avg output: 11,000,000 Btuh (44% loaded)
daily gas data: 197 mil Btu input
97% thermal efficiency! (not system effic)

190

170

0
150
12:0 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:0 11:0 12:0 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:0 11:0 12:0
0 AM AM AM AM AM AM AM AM AM 0
0
0 PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM 0
0
0
AM
AM AM PM
PM PM AM

127

Medium Load Day


400 GPM, 45 dT, for 9 hrs = 80 mil Btu output
(36% loaded)
daily600
gas data: 95 mil Btu input

Thurs 4-21-05

BOILER\1\FLOW_WATER
BOILER\TEMP_RETURN
BOILER\TEMP_SUPPLY
270

GPM

84% thermal efficiency


500

250

400

230

300

210

200

190

100

170

0
150
12:0 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:0 11:0 12:0 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:0 11:0 12:0
0 AM AM AM AM AM AM AM AM AM 0
0
0 PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM 0
0
0
AM
AM AM PM
PM PM AM

128

Low Load Day


400 GPM, 20 dT, for 3.2 hrs = 13 mil Btu
output
avg output: -- Btuh (--% loaded)
500

Sun 5-29-05

BOILER\1\FLOW_WATER
BOILER\1\TEMP_STACK
BOILER\TEMP_RETURN
BOILER\TEMP_SUPPLY

270.00

GPM

daily gas data: 26 mil Btu input


50% efficiency
400

250.00

300

230.00

200

210.00

100

190.00

0
170.00
12:0 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:0 11:0 12:0 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:0 11:0 12:0
0 AM AM AM AM AM AM AM AM AM 0
0
0 PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM PM 0
0
0
AM
AM AM PM
PM PM AM
-100

150.00

129

Boiler Load Profile

Hours/year

Boiler Annual Load Profile (extrapolated from 2/1/08 to 4/8/08)


(negative output means boiler losses exceed boiler output)
800
750
700
650
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
-

50% is half the


output of 1
boiler or about
12 million Btuh

-25% -20% -15% -10% -5%

0%

5%

10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60%

Percent Output (note: 25% means hours between 20% and 25%)
130

Typical Day
Boiler overfires
then cycles

When boiler is disabled


HWST<HWRT due to
throughflow losses

131

Efficiency calculations
 Obvious

errors imply actual


efficiency is even lower

interval
all of feb
all of march
april 1-8
march 4, 5am-12pm
march 4, 6pm-10pm
march 4, 7pm-9pm
march 4, all day

avg output
output (kbtu)
input (kbtu)
efficiency (kbtuh)
pct load
828,325
1,280,968
65%
764,029
1,734,243
44%
296,179
498,164
59%
34,201
22,540
9,866
50,756

45,447
15,387
7,620
71,254

75%
146%
129%
71%

4717
5303
4933

19%
21%
20%

132

Efficiency vs. Load


Boiler-1 Hourly Average Efficiency vs Load
(negative load means boiler losses exceed boiler output)
200%

Efficiency (output/input)

150%
100%
50%
0%
-30%

-20%

-10%
0%
-50%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

-100%
-150%
-200%
Load Ratio (output/capacity)

133

Efficiency vs. HWRT


Boiler-1 Hourly Average Efficiency vs HWRT
200%

Efficiency (output/input)

150%
100%
50%
0%
150
-50%

170

190

210

230

250

-100%
-150%
-200%
Hot Water Return Temperature

134

Some Findings
 50MMBH

capacity, 12MMBH peak

load
 $500,000/yr boiler fuel cost
 Average thermal effic: 55%
 Pumps are undersized (same GPM
but half the original T)
 Per Title 8, Section 778, manned
operation is not required for Lowpressure boilers, High-temperature
water boilers, Miniature boilers, etc.
135

Piping Losses Calculation





50,000 therm/yr
Assumptions:

24,000 gallons
20 degree temp drop from 10pm-5am
Loss rate constant (conservative)
All buildings have flow no dead legs
No useful heat extraction when main HW pumps
off could bldg pumps be extracting heat from
HX?

Deleting the HXs and reducing the HWST


will reduce piping losses
136

Recommendations
 Add

Pony Boilers
 Reset HWST based on building valve
feedback
 Remove building heat exchangers
 Fix low fire-cycling
 Run 24/7 and serve all buildings
 Run Two Pumps with One Existing
Boiler at High Load
 Control bypass with flow meter, if no
pony boilers
137

Recommendations

Check valve:
-Prevent plant from pushing water the wrong way through bypass
-Prevents building pump from stealing water from other buildings
138

Gas Meter Data

Btu based on STANDARD Cubic Foot of Gas

60F / 14.73 PSIA / 1000 BTU

Gas meter reads in ACTUAL cubic feet

Standard = Actual x Press. Factor x Temp. Factor x SuperX Factor




Pressure Factor = (Line Pressure + Atmos Pres.) / Base pres.


 E.g. At 10 PSIG your factor would be (10 + 14.48)/14.73 = 1.66

Temp Factor = (460 + Base)/(460+Line Temp)


SuperX is really not applicable below 60 PSIG so assume 1

A Corrector measures line temp and pressure and corrects


meter output ($1500)
PG&E put a corrector on gas line to SSU campus (not per
boiler)
139

Improving Existing Boiler Systems

O2 Trim
 accounts for boiler room
temperature

Parallel Positioning
 separate actuators for gas
and air valves

Flue gas recirculation


Draft control
VSD on combustion fan
Economizer
New burner higher
turndown
HWST reset
Maintenance

PG&E Rebates:

 Brush out soot


 Chemically remove scale
 Tuning
 Stack temp should be
50-100F above HWST
140