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Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 207213

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Construction and Building Materials


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

Construction material from construction and demolition debris and lime


production wastes
Vsvolod A. Mymrin a,, Kirill P. Alekseev b, Rodrigo E. Catai a, Ronaldo L.S. Izzo a, Juliana L. Rose a,
Andr Nagalli a, Cezar A. Romano a
a
b

Technological Federal University of Paran (UTFPR), Curitiba, Brazil


Moscow State University, Vorobievy Gory, Moscow, Russia

h i g h l i g h t s
 New construction material from construction and demolition debris.
 Lime production waste was used as binder material.
 Uniaxial resistance strength on the 3 day was 4.0 MPa, on the 60th day 15.3 MPa.
 Established by XRD, SEM and EDS methods ceramics production.
 Utilization of industrial wastes has high economical and environment efciency.

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 15 July 2014
Received in revised form 9 January 2015
Accepted 10 January 2015
Available online 23 January 2015
Keywords:
Construction/demolition debris
Lime production waste
Recycling
Environmental degradation
Composites
Mechanical properties
X-ray diffraction (XRD)
Solgel processes

a b s t r a c t
It was developed a construction material from construction and demolition debris (CDD) and lime production waste (LPW). Beyond it is a viable solution for the utilization of the large amount of lime output
residues generated, having in mind that was also found nothing similar in the world literature. There
were studies on the parameters of chemical and mineralogy compositions of initial components and nal
product, axial resistance strength, water resistance and water absorption. The LPW was characterized by
a high excess of CaCO3. The medium compression resistance of the samples, cured in air conditions during
3 days is 4.0 MPa, on the 60th day arrived to 13.4 MPa and to 17.1 MPa on the 365th day. The XRD and
SEM studies explain the growth of the samples resistance by the transformation of the initial mineral
mixture into carbonates of calcium, carbonates of magnesium, between other carbonates, which led to
the growth of amorphous and crystalline new formations. The main advantage expected from these
materials is the environmental conservation they afford, represented by the use of CDD and LPW.
2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
The construction industry is one of the oldest known industries,
and since the early days of mankind, construction was performed
by hand, creating a large amount of mineral debris as a byproduct.
Since then, among construction waste, a large amount of modern
construction and demolition debris (CDD) has appeared. These
materials include aggregates, such as bricks, concrete, plaster,
ceramics, glass, asphalt, tiles, gypsum wallboard, wood, metals,

Corresponding author at: Federal Technological University of Parana, St.


Deputado Heitor de Alencar Furtado, 4900, Campus Curitiba, CEP: 81280-340
Ecoville, Paran, Brazil. Tel.: +55 (41) 3279 4518.
E-mail address: seva6219@gmail.com (V.A. Mymrin).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.01.054
0950-0618/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

different types of plastics, etc. CDD is being produced in enormous


quantities and often with signicant amounts of different organic
and inorganic pollutants (oily materials, heavy metals, etc.).
The Construction & Demolition Recycling Association (CDRA)
estimates [1] that in the USA, more than 325 million tons of CDD
is generated annually, where 2545% of the waste goes to US
landlls, which thus contributes to reduced life and increased
environmental impacts across the country. Rodrigues et al. [2]
estimated that CDD represents approximately 31% of all waste produced in the European Union. Poon et al. [3] stated that in Hong
Kong in 1998, the daily CDD generation CDD was approximately
32,710 tons.
Many researchers have shown that CDD is polluting the environment, not only mechanically but also chemically. Tolaymat et al. [4]

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V.A. Mymrin et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 207213

found that among samples from CDD recycling facilities in Florida,


11 contained elevated leachable heavy metal concentrations in the
ground, particularly arsenic and lead. Jang and Townsend [5] also
found a process of gypsum dissolution of wallboard and that sulfate
leaching from CDD drywall particles CDD in ne soil was impacting
the environment. Additionally, using a leaching method, Engelsen
[6] identied increased contents of only the major components of
CDD Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Si and SO4.
The most common and viable solution for disposing of CDD is to
incorporate it into the base and sub-base of road construction [7].
Arulrajah et al. [8] compared the properties of CDD bricks with
the properties of crushed brick blends for the Australian pavement
sub-base system. Acchar et al. [9] conrmed that approximately
50% of CDD can be incorporated into red ceramics, such as brick
and tiles without a decrease in their quality. Bricks with CDD inclusions were also developed by Dondi [10]. In the opinion of Jonh
et al. [11] and Mymrin [12], CDD can be used as the primary component (up to 85% by weight) in composites with many other
industrial and municipal wastes to produce various construction
materials, such as solid bricks and hollow bricks, building blocks,
road and aireld bases, etc.
According to [13], to implement these methods on an industrial
scale in the USA, the amount of CDD could correspond to more
than 30% of the initially applied materials, which would thus avoid
the accumulation of these wastes in the environment.
The binder material used in the present research was lime production waste (LPW), which is poorly burnt carbonate for quicklime production that occurs when the sufcient temperature
could not be reached during the combustion process; thus, LPW
can also be formed as a result of quicklime storage in unsuitable
conditions (without sufcient insulation air and humidity).
LPW can also be used for different purposes. Bhatty et al. [14]
used LPW as raw material for Portland cement industries; Hansen
[15] recycled concrete aggregates in combination with y ash to
produce new concrete. Correa and Mymrin [16] used LPW as a binder for rejected concrete. Mymrin [12] used LPW as a binder for
many types of industrial wastes: phosphor-gypsum, pulp from
paper production, sludge from wastewater treatment plants, wood
and coal ash, iron slag, asbestos tiles, porcelain, waste from natural
rocks, etc. Al-Sayed [17] and Do et al. [18] found that using LPW
increases the physical and chemical properties of asphalt mixes.
Arce et al. [19] used LPW to reduce waste generated during the
painting process. Al-Khaja et al. [20] studied the use of LPW in various mineral aggregate mortar mixtures. Bulewicz et al. [21]
reached over 70% desulfurization of ue gases from a coal-burning
power plant that used LPW in the oven. Kumar [22] and Marinkovic and Kostic-Pulek [23] used LPW as raw material to manufacture
bricks.
Even this brief review of the literature shows that the development of methods to dispose of CDD has been conducted many
years ago and in many directions. However, despite this, the fact
remains that the amount of non-recyclable CDD continues to grow
in all countries. Therefore, there remains a need to develop more
attractive, more efcient methods and to create compositions that
more efciently use CDD, which could solve the environmental
problem of how to recycle CDD.
Therefore the objectives of this research are the following: to
develop new construction material from CDD and LPW with predetermined mechanical properties that are better than those established by Brazilian standards. Only two industrial wastes, CDD
and LPW are used as raw material in an extremely simple production process, which is economically and technologically attractive.
The second objective is to investigate the physicochemical processes of these materials structure formation to predict the behavior of the material during its service in structures.

2. Materials, methods and test sample preparation


The CDD and LPW samples were obtained from companies in the metropolitan
region of Curitiba, Brazil. The CDD was dried at 100 C for 24 h and was sieved
through a 1.18-mm sieve. After homogenization of both wastes with different percentage compositions (Table 1), the wastes were hydrated at a dened percentage
of water and set aside for 40 min before being compacted. After compacting with a
loading of 10 MPa, the test samples (TSs) were stored in open air.
The raw materials (CDD and LPW) and TSs were characterized by various complementary methods. To determine a chemical composition it was used Spectrometer of X-Rays Fluorescence Philips/Panalytical model PW2400. Samples
preparation for XRF method included the following operations: drying, milling, confection the compressed tablet confection the compressed tablet with organic wax,
assay loss on ignition at 1000 C for semi-quantitative analysis. Results interpretations were realized by Software Super-Q. These studies of mineralogical compositions of raw and nal materials were done by X-Rays Diffractometer Philips,
model PW1830, Generator Settings 40 kV, 30 mA with monochromatic wavelength
kCu-Ka, at 2h range of 270, step size (2h) 0.02, scan step time 0.5 s. Results were
interpreted with software Super-Q for interpretation XPert High Score, database
PDF-2. Morphological structures by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on FEI
Quanta 200 LV; wet samples of raw materials were dried in a vacuum unit. Dried
samples of raw materials and TSs were glued by conductive adhesive to the samples holder, were sputtered by layer of gold and examined in SEM with accelerating
voltage 50 kV. Chemical micro analyses were executed by method of energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) on Oxford (Penta FET-Precision) X-ACT and by micro-mass
analyses through laser micro-mass analyzer LAMMA-1000, model X-ACT; solubility
and lixiviation of metals from liquid extracts by method of atomic absorption
spectrometry (AAS) on Perkin Elmer 4100 spectrometer; granulometric composition by laser diffraction particle size distribution analysis on Granulometer CILAS
1064, Brazil; mechanical resistance by three-point exural strength (FS) on EMIC
universal testing machine. Water absorption coefcient by immersion was determined on Instrutherm BD 200 according to NBR 13818/1997. Linear shrinkage of
TSs was determined with digital caliper of DIGIMESS. Were controlled also the
changes of apparent specic gravity after TSs at different ages. Bulk density measurements were performed; the carbonates weight content was determined by a
calcimeter via the weight method.
The values of all mechanical properties and standard deviations were obtained
as an average of 10 TS measurements.

3. Calculations
The water resistance coefcient (CWR) was determined from the
axial resistance strength of the TSs on the 28th and 90th day,
which were saturated after a total immersion in water for 24 h
(RSAT), and the strength of the dry TSs (RD) following the standard
in [24], was calculated using the following equation:

C WR RSAT =RD

Water absorption coefcient (CWA) tests were also performed


on the 28th and 90th day of curing following the standard in
[25], which uses the equation:

C WA MSAT  M D =M D   100

where MSAT = the mass of the test specimen saturated after total
immersion in water for 24 h. MD = the mass of the test specimen.

Table 1
Substantial compositions of TSs under study.
N

1
2
3
4
5

Compositions, wt.%
CDD

LPW

90
85
80
75
70

10
15
20
25
30

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V.A. Mymrin et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 207213


Table 3
Chemical composition of raw materials used (by method of XRF).

4. Results and discussion


4.1. Raw materials characterization

Elements

The particle size distribution of the CDD was obtained by sieving the material; the average result of the two samples of both
materials show (Table 2) that only 7.23% of the particle diameters
were greater than 0.6 mm. The primary part of the CDD (76.45%)
contains particle diameters of less than 0.6 mm, and only 15.91%
of the particle diameters were less than 0.149 mm. According to
the Brazilian classication [25], such sand is categorized as small
sand.
The chemical compositions of the raw materials (Table 3) determined by XRF analysis showed that most of the CDD contained
SiO2 (67.02%), CaO (11.54%), Al2O3 (6.30%), Fe2O3 (3.85%) and
MgO (1.37%). The rather high value of calcinations loss (7.57%) is
explained by the presence of carbonates, sulfur and hydrated minerals in the concrete and plaster.
The LPW contained 73.59% of CaO and MgO with an extremely
high (24.07%) calcinations loss (CL). The CO2 recalculation of 9.02%,
which was measured by a calcimeter, compared with that of calcite
(CaCO3) shows the presence of extremely large amounts (20.50%)
of under-red material, which is much greater (12%) than that permitted by the Brazilian standards [26]. This is the reason why this
product cannot be sold as construction material and must be classied as industrial lime production waste (LPW). The CaCO3 values
can be higher and depend of the roast duration and temperature
and the storage length and its conditions. Typically, LPW is used
for acid soil neutralization or sent to industrial waste dumps.
Interpreting the CDD diffractograms patterns (Fig. 1) shows that
the primary components of CDD are quartz SiO2, calcite CaCO3 and
albite ((Na, Ca)(Si, Al)4O8).
The main components of the LPW under study (Fig. 2) are the
following minerals: quicklime CaO, periclase MgO, portlandite
Ca(OH)2, dolomite CaMg(CO3)2, magnesite MgCO3 and quartz SiO2.

The mechanical properties of the TSs and their changes during


hydration were tested after 3, 7, 14, 28, 60, 90, 180 and 365 days
with the following methods: the axial resistance strength, water
resistance strength, water absorption capacity and TSs dilatation.
The axial resistance strength (Fig. 3) was measured for 10 TSs of
each composition. The standard deviation values of the axial resistance strength of the obtained experimental data never exceeded
7% of the average means.
According to [27], the axial resistance of massive sintered bricks
is classied in the following way: class A < 2.5 MPa; class B
2.5 < 4.0 MPa; class C > 4.0 MPa. According to the 15.270-2 NBR
standard (2005), the axial resistance of ceramics blocks must be
between 1.5 and 2.5 MPa for class 15 and between 2.5 and
4.5 MPa for class 25.
The hardening process of all compositions increases constantly
until reaching 5.117.1 MPa after 365 days as the LPW content
increases. However, already by the third day, compositions 35
could be classied as class B materials with resistant values of
2.5 < 4.0 MPa. On the seventh day, the strength values of all compositions, except for composition 1, signicantly exceeded the

Table 2
Granulometric composition of CDD.
Sieve (mm) versus the content of fractions (%)
0.6
7.23

0.42
15.55

CaO
MgO
SiO2
Fe2O3
Al2O3
K2O
SO3
Na2O
P2O5
C.L.
CO2
CaCO3

CDD

LPW

11.54
1.37
67.02
3.85
6.30
0.67
0.58
0.29
0.11
7.57
0.13
0.33

48.4148.41
25.18
1.89
0.23
0.19
0
0
0
0
24.07
9.02
20.50

C.L. calcination loss.

Fig. 1. X-rays diffractogram pattern of CDD under study.

4.2. Mechanical properties

Sieve (mm)
Content (%)

Components, wt.%

0.297
31.78

0.149
29.12

0.075
9.71

<0.075
6.20

Total
99.73

Fig. 2. X-rays diffractogram pattern of LPW used.

requirements of class C (>4.0 MPa) and continued to increase until


reaching 12.917.1 MPa on the 365th day.
The lowest strength at all stages of the hardening was exhibited
by TSs with an LPW content of 10% (composition 1), and thus, the
possibility of its practical use in construction is extremely limited.
The best result was exhibited by composition 4 with LPW content
of 30%; however, from an economic point of view, perhaps it would

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V.A. Mymrin et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 207213

Fig. 3. Changes in the axial resistance strength during hydration of TSs from CDD and LPW.

be possible to choose compositions 24 for industrial application


because the difference in strength between the samples is small,
particularly when compared with the requirements of the aforementioned standards.
The values of the axial resistance of water-saturated TSs of compositions 25 on the 28th curing day were between 5.8 and
8.3 MPa with CWR values between 0.78 and 0.89 on the 90th day
(Table 4).
The values increased until reaching 7.013.0 MPa with CWR values between 0.81 and 0.90. Such an increase in the water resistance parameters of the TSs between the 28th and 90th day
indicates that the structure of the materials improved. The highest
CWR from both tests (0.89% and 0.90%) was obtained with composition 5.
The CWA values (Table 5) also increased as the LPW content
increased though decreased with curing time between the 28th
and 90th day. The values varied between 7.14% and 8.43% on the
28th day and decreased until 6.327.91% on the 90th day. Therefore, the highest CWA values from both tests (8.43% and 7.91%) were
obtained with composition 5 with LPW content of 30%.
This fact can be explained by two reasons: the decreasing time
of the non-hydrated quicklime quantity and the increasing density
of the TSs densities. According to the Brazilian standards [25], the
average CWA of plain hollow concrete masonry blocks with lightweight aggregates should be at most 13%.
The shrinkage values of the TSs of all compositions on the
rst day varied between 0.87% and 1.34% as the LPW content
increased, followed by essentially linearly decreasing until 0.57
1.17% on the 90th day and essentially remained unchanged until
the 365th day.

4.3. Physicochemical processes of structure formation


Interpreting the X-ray diffractograms patterns of a material at
different ages with numerous mineral components is difcult
because their peaks coincide. Therefore, it is possible to discuss
only a few of the minerals peaks that are free or almost free of
such coincidence and those in which their intensities changed during curing. Such changes in crystalline peaks intensities are practically invisible to the eyes and can be evaluated only by percent
changes of a diffractograms peak list.
By comparing two diffractogram patterns of the initial mixture
and after 365 days of hardening of composition 5 (Fig. 4A and B),
the absence of new peaks is clear on the 2h scale. Interpreting
these curves allows it to be known that on the 7th day of hydration
in open air, the peaks of the lime CaO and portlandite Ca(OH)2
became lower than the detection limit of the XRD method (approximately 5%), and therefore, their peaks disappeared from the diffractogram. However, the intensity of the peaks of such minerals
as tobermorite Ca5Si6O16(OH)2, calcite Ca(CO)3, dolomite
CaMg(CO3)2 and magnesite MgCO3 increased signicantly. These
minerals also appeared on the diffractogram patterns of the initial
mixture as the inevitable components of concretes and plasters of
CDD, though not in large quantities.
The increase in the peaks intensities is particularly visible
when comparing the maximum meanings of both intensity scales
(1600 and 3800). An increase in the intensity of the peaks indicates
an increase in the amount of these minerals and the improvement
of their crystal structures. These changes can help explain the
increase in the mechanical properties of the material during the
hydration process.

Table 4
Water resistance of developed materials at the 28th and 90th days.
N

Compositions, wt.%

Statistic parameters

Parameters of water resistance at different times (days)


28

CDD

LPW

90

10

85

15

80

20

75

25

70

30

Average
Deviations
Average
Deviations
Average
Deviations
Average
Deviations
Average
Deviations

90

RD

RSAT

CW

RD

RSAT

CW

3.5
0.3
7.4
0.4
8.1
0.7
8.7
0.6
9.3
0.5

2.6
0.2
5.8
0.4
6.6
0.4
7.3
0.6
8.3
0.4

0.75
0.03
0.78
0.05
0.82
0.05
0.84
0.07
0.89
0.05

4.3
0.3
8.9
0.6
12.4
0.7
12.3
0.8
14.4
0.7

3.3
0.2
7.0
0.5
10.3
0.6
10.7
0.5
13.0
0.5

0.77
0.05
0.81
0.06
0.83
0.04
0.87
0.03
0.90
0.02

V.A. Mymrin et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 207213


Table 5
Water absorption of developed materials at the 28th and 90th days.
N

Compositions
(w.%)
CDD

LPW

90

10

85

15

80

20

75

25

70

30

Statistic parameters

Average
Deviations
Average
Deviations
Average
Deviations
Average
Deviations
Average
Deviations

Water absorption (wt.%) after


hydration (days)
28

90

7.14
0.56
7.45
0.52
7.86
0.50
8.02
0.46
8.43
0.42

6.32
0.49
7.11
0.73
7.38
0.48
7.58
0.42
7.91
0.35

Another important explanation is the increasing amount of new


amorphous formations in the pore space of the material. This
increase is clearly visible when comparing the height of the background lines above the zero line of the XRD graphs by taking into
account the maximum line intensity of each scale. The considerably higher background noise (hum) in the XRD graph of Fig. 4B
compared with that in Fig. 4A indicates a signicantly greater
amount of amorphous material in the TSs on the 365th day compared with that of the initial mixture. This amount accumulates
in the pores due the surfaces of the solid particles dissolving in
highly alkaline uid solutions (pH = 12 or greater). This process
occurs due to the solgel transformation and solidication of the
numerous stages of gel syneresis. As a result, the non-reacted
nuclei of particles are glued together by hardened layers of
stone-like gel. The total inuence of the carbonate crystals and
gel layers between them could explain the increase in the mechanical properties of the TSs, particularly their strengthening to
7.9 MPa after 7 days, 13.4 MPa after 60 days and 17.1 MPa after
365 days.
Mymrin et al. [28] observed a similar effect of clayey soils being
strengthened by ferrous slag. The TSs attained strength of 50 MPa,
and the X-ray diffractograms patterns revealed no new crystal
structures. After using a number of research methods, Mymrin
came to the conclusion that the only explanation for such resistance was solgel strengthening of new amorphous formations.

211

Mehta and Monteiro [29] reached a similar conclusion based on


a new colloidal CSH formation of Portland cement.
After hydration of the dry mixture during the rst 3 days, there
is an increase of up to 7.17% in the free water content, followed by
a signicant decrease in this percentage from the 3rd to 180th day
and until 1.97% is reached on the 365th day. Bonded water shows
an increase of up to 2.34% after hydration, which gradually declines
between day 3 and 180 with a new increase of 1.49% after
365 days. In amorphous solgel substances, from the beginning
(dry mixture) up to 180 days, this content decreased to 2.52% in
weight; however, there is a lack of coherence in the results of
the different hydration stages. This result can be explained only
by partial crystallization of new amorphous formations in all
stages of material strengthening, particularly after 365 days. From
the dry mixture up to 365 days of hydration, the quantity of CO2 in
different forms of carbonates (amorphous and various crystalline
carbonates minerals) increase from 1.98% to 4.16%, i.e., an increase
of 2.18% in weight. The results indicate that the quantity of all
forms of carbonates during hydration in the recalculation in the
form of CaCO3 increased by 4.95%. The slight difference between
the CO2 content of the dry mixture (1.98%) and that from theoretical calculations (30% of initial 9.02% CO2 content in the LPW,
Table 1) can be explained by different sensibilities of thermo and
chemical analyses methods.
In this study, SEM analyses (Fig. 5) were used to study the following samples separately: CDD, LPW, and composition 5 from
Table 1 after 3, 60, 180 and 365 days of hydration. All CDD particles
(Fig. 5A) exhibited widely varying sizes and morphologies, which
were separated and did not have any type of binder between them.
The LPW (Fig. 5B) appears as clay balls, which also exhibit different
congurations. A different view (Fig. 5C) shows the mixture on the
3rd day of homogenization, hydration and pressing. There are
clearly visible bridges between the new formations that separate
large particles of the CDD and are responsible for the samples
strength increasing until reaching 4 MPa. On the 60th day
(Fig. 5D), the new formations appear like elds with several pores
between them, and the strength has doubled. On the 180th day
(Fig. 5E), even larger particles of the initial components are now
invisible because of the rather thick cover layer of the new formations over the particles.
It appears that the materials under study also contain a large
amount of new amorphous formations, which are binding

A Dry initial mixture of CDD and LPW.

B On the 365th day of hydration.


Fig. 4. Comparison of the X-rays diffractogram patterns of composition 5 before (A) and after 365 days (B) of hydration.

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V.A. Mymrin et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 207213

x 50

20 m

B x 3.000

5 m

C x 1,000

10 m

2+
+1

4+
+3

Area 1

Area 2

D x 1,000

10 m

E x 1,000

10 m

F x 2,000

10 m

Fig. 5. SEM imagines of initial components (A CDD and B LPW) and TSs of composition 5 at different ages of hydration (C 3 days, D 60 days, E 180 days, and F
365 days). In F are shown also the areas and points of EDS analyses (Table 6).

Table 6
Micro-chemical analyses results of crystal-like new formations and surface areas by EDS method.
Spectrum

Area 1
Area 2
Point 1
Point 2
Point 3
Point 4

Compositions, wt.%
C

Mg

Si

Ca

Na

Fe

Al

Total

34.68
25.34
15.56
12.81
49.87
31.08

7.08
15.38
2.88
9.64
7.24
0.39

23.42
21.65
7.52
35.29
9.83
11.18

0.42
0.21
9.38
11.82
5.03
0.97

31.99
26.75
44.28
28.76
23.03
40.70

1.20

3.14
0.35
2.18

1.21
1.69
5.17
0.38

14.51

8.98
12.07
0.95
2.82
1.17

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Fig. 6. LAMMA laser micro-mass analysis of new formations of composition 5 at the 365-th curing day.

aggregates of CDD and LPW. Mehta and Monteiro [29] came to


similar a conclusion after studying a new CSH colloid formation
of Portland cement. The most conclusive evidence in such cases
was also obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Finally, on the 365th day, several crystal-like forms appeared
(Fig. 5F). However, a comparison of the EDS analyses results
(Table 6) of the same crystal-like corps shows such a large difference between the chemical compositions of points 1 and 2 or
between points 3 and 4, which is impossible for a crystal body. This
result indicates that all of these crystal-like new corps are in reality,
only new amorphous formations. Most likely, the new carbonate

formations found by the XRD method (Fig. 4) have smaller dimensions and could be more visible with larger magnications.
The dates in Table 6 also demonstrate a great heterogeneity, not
only of different points but also of different areas of new formations (areas 1 and 2).
The results of Laser micro-mass analysis using a LAMMA1000 (Fig. 6) are similar to the results of the EDS analysis. All
the isotopes spectra obtained for chemical compositions of the
nearest points of new formations for the TS of composition 5 on
the 365th day show dissimilar combinations and quantities of isotopes (intensity of LAMMA peaks).

V.A. Mymrin et al. / Construction and Building Materials 79 (2015) 207213

5. Conclusions
(1) This work provides experimental conrmation of the possibility of obtaining new construction material using different
compositions of CDD and LPW as raw materials.
(2) All of the different material compositions were shown to
possess sufcient axial compressive strength, which is compatible with the criteria of Brazilian standards. However, the
best mechanical property was obtained with the composition containing 30% LPW and 70% CDD waste. The medium
compression resistance of the samples, which were cured
in air conditions for 3 days, was 4.0 MPa; on the 60th day
and 180th day, the compression resistance was 13.4 MPa
and to 15.3 MPa, respectively.
(3) The XRD and SEM analyses indicated that the hydration of
the initial compositions led to the complete transformation
of lime (CaO) and portlandite (Ca(OH)2) into different sol
gel and crystalline forms of carbonate, such as calcite
(CaCO3) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). The synthesis of these
new formations may explain the increasing mechanical
strength of the sample mixtures of CDD and LPW.
(4) A calculation of the economical efciency was not among
the research objectives. Nevertheless, the use of industrial
wastes as free-of-charge raw materials would undoubtedly
reduce the price of civil construction.
(5) The most important result of these research ndings may be
the benets they represent for the environment in view of
the aforementioned vast volume of CDD and LPW wastes
and the real possibility of substantially reducing their existing waste dumps and environment pollution.

Acknowledgements
The authors thank the Environmental Technology Laboratory
(LTA), the Laboratory of Biomass Energy, the Laboratory of Mineralogical Analysis (LAMIR) of the Federal University of Paran
UFPR, and lial of BOSCH in Curitiba, Brazil for the SEM and EDS
analysis conducted in this research work.

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