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CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study


The xxxx Security and Investigation Services is located in the semi-business district of Quezon City. It
is an entity which is interactively related with different corporations which are engaged in a number of
interrelated businesses and investment activities in the Republic of the Philippines. It was envisioned
at the later part of 2001 by a combination of senior security practitioners from the military, diplomatic
agency and the private sector.
The main objective of its conception is to take over the security needs of all the offices, sites, sister
companies and properties of xxxxx Precious Metals, Inc. The other objective of the agency is to
provide professional and high-quality security guards to would-be clients through proper screening,
extensive training and thorough background investigation of guards and staff.
On 22 January 2001, the agency's License To Operate (LTO) was approved by the Director of Civil
Security Group, PNP under the business name xxxy Security & Detective Agency.
On April 1, 2001 the agency absorbed the existing guards of the previous contracting security
agencies which were then under contract by xxxy's mother company, the xxxxx Precious Metals Inc.
These guards formed the nucleus of xxxy's security force. Marketing-wise and due to the
management's desire to be more competitive nationwide, the board decided to change its business
name to XXXX Security & Investigation Services (XSIS), which has rapidly become more efficient,
productive and financially stable security agency in the Philippines operating more particularly in Metro
Manila.
The agency plans to achieve the following goals within the next five (5) years:
1. Short Term: To become the Number One security agency in the country, with the maximum
manpower of one thousand (1,000) guards for deployment as prescribed by Republic Act 5487.
2. Long Term: To serve as a model for the formation of two (2) to four (4) security agencies, each with
1,000 security personnel on its rosters, and to achieve certification to ISO 9001. The researcher as
Criminology student did this topic on security with full of attention so that experts and the
management will be aware of the problems of security personnel and to come up with corresponding
solutions to address the problems, more so that in the end, its main objectives for the next five years
will come to materialize.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:


This study strives to settle on the common problems of the security personnel of XXXX Security &
Investigation Services in the delivery of security service. It aims to collect straight and particular
answers to the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents?
2. What is the perception of the respondents on their responsibilities as part of security industry?
3. What could be the common factors contributing to high and low performance level of Security
Department?

4. What are the problems encountered by personnel and security guards of XXXX Security Services?
5. What are the effects of the identified problems to their performance?

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:
The Guard Force Organization as Private Security Service Providers is flourishing at a greater extent
not only in Metro Manila but all over the country, accentuating it's productive returns as the security
operations and proper administration smoothly run on. It's no wonder that volumes of business
entrepreneurs particularly ex-servicemen or retired military officers joined hands in the bandwagon of
this challenging but profitable business. Comparing to almost of the total number
of private security agency operators in the country in 1990, by now, there are already 1,050 licensed
security agencies in Metro Manila alone, computing to a total of 1,900 guard force organizations
nationwide, with estimated personnel strength of 230,000 security personnel.
This only show the potentials of good venture when it comes to engaging business with the security
industry. To maintain their status of good operational and administrative standing, old and new agency
owners and operators have devised and continued to devise new strategies purposely to outdo each
other in order to ensure good marketing of their services for different clients.
However, despite these constructive objectives, limitations and problems as to the delivery of best and
first class security services could be parallel to other security agencies in Metro Manila. Above
restraints could be attributed to a variety of issues that sometimes are beyond the administrative and
economic control of the agency in compliance with the options of the paying clients.
The main concern of this study therefore, is to determine the common problems encountered by the
management of the XXXX Security & Investigation Services and in the delivery of security services to
its valued clients in Metro Manila.

Definition of Terms
Area of Responsibility (AOR) - The range and extent of guards' covered assignment as specified in
guard's
Duty
detail and post order. He should not go beyond his AOR without proper
relief;otherwise he shall be charged of "Abandonment of Post" as described in General Order No. 5 of
the Code of Discipline.
Guardianship - The agency's self-imposed responsibility to the clients and its security field force; It is
an agency's system of physical protection and concern for clients and planned supervision to field
personnel and employees. One to whom anything is committed for safekeeping.
Intensely Price-competitive - A Cut-throat competition in the bidding process. Pertaining to or
characterized by competition on matters relative to lowest bid price. In this proposal, security service
marketing does not go beyond the affordability of the client to hire security guards. As usually applies
to provincialrates, the agency must first be able to determine the existing contract rate, then offer a
much lesser bid in an effort to outdothe incumbent agency and to win approval of the security
contract.

Maximum manpower - The required limit in the number of licensed guards employed by an agency
which should not exceed 1,000 guards in the Greater Manila area, and not more than 300 guards in
first class cities and municipalities.
Monotony - The state or quality of being monotonous . A feeling of boredom in the workplace as a
result of routine work, or delayed and poor compensation . It may also be an end-result of client's
cost-cutting program, wherein the company deploys less number of guards for a vast number of posts.
Private Security Service Provider - Security Service Contractor; a Private Security Agency.
Security Guard - A person who offers his services to watch or guard assets and properties, lives of
people within his area of confinement or work, in accordance with lawful orders entered into contract
by his Agency with the client whom he served.
Semi-business district - A business location near or adjacent to downtown or city center.
Strategic Plan 2006 - 2011 - The rewarding goals and objectives to be undertaken by the agency
within 5-year period.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


This study is very noteworthy and significant to Criminology in the sense that security service and
criminology are interconnected with each other. Criminology is the study of crime and criminal
behavior of an individual, while the students of Criminology themselves also study the Subject on
security management. The researcher chose this particular topic on security, purposely to track down
the common problems that affect the delivery of services by the manpower of xxxx Security and
Investigation Services. Furthermore, the results of this study may convey about the following:
1. As part of a solution, it may provide answers to general questions such as, "what factors contribute
to high and low performance level of security profession?"
2. This study may also help to understand the importance of good management for a guard force
organization, the maintenance of authority and discipline through usual chain of command, beginning
with the chief of guards and working down through the subordinate ranks.
3. As pure cue, this study may also help to emphasize the importance of efficiency to a guard force,
the adequacy and skill of its supervisors, proper training of guards and careful restriction and close
supervision of the management. Above all, better compensation and benefits as required by law must
always prevail over anything else.

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION


This study is primarily concerned with the common problems affecting delivery of services of the
security manpower of xxxx Security Services arising from the actual administration and deployment of
security field personnel and the agency's interface with its prospective and present customers. The
study is limited to young and middle aged security guards and field officers, especially those who
belonged to the rank-and-file who are considered ideal because they are the ones who render post
duties at the various posts of the clients' areas of security concern. Their ages are, 21-50 years.
Sexual category or background does not limit the scope. A minimum of 50 respondents were taken as
sample for the study. Control subjects were not matched for the degree of longevity of service; some

were newcomers in the agency, others have been guarding for several years in the other agencies and
others have been working with the xxxx security since it was established four years ago. The
researcher focused his respondents in the agency's detachments in Metro Manila, particularly those
who are deployed in Pasig City, Quezon City, Makati City, City of Manila, Cainta, Muntinlupa City and
San Juan City.
The questionnaires which were divided into five parts were the main data-gathering instruments for
this study. Simple English language was used which can be easily understood by the respondents;
catered for high school graduates to college level security guards. The researcher further explained
the contents of the questionnaires to the respondents so that they can answer all prepared questions
without difficulty. The first component drew out information about the respondents. The second part
shall dealt with the perception of the respondents on their responsibilities as part of the security
industry; the third part inquired about the common factors contributing to high and low performance
level of xxxx Security Department, the fourth part discussed the problems encountered by the security
guards of xxxx Security Services, and the fifth part traced the effects of the identified problems to the
guards' performance.
After completing distribution and collection of questionnaires from the security guard-respondents, the
results were assembled together and conclusion which was the product of discussion followed.
Recommendation borne fruit of this study.
_________________________________________________________________________________
______

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES
The materials gathered by the researcher, which consist of books, directives, memorandum circulars,
published manuscripts, unpublished studies and
research papers, are reviewed in this chapter. These are categorized as related literature and studies,
local and foreign.
RELATED LITERATURES
A. Foreign
In the review of related literature and studies, the researcher found works which are closely relevant
to the topics being undertaken. The work of five of the many contemporary behavioral scientists
appears to have the most relevance to guard functions. Three of these five behaviorists are, McGregor,
Hertzberg, and Argyris. A brief summary of their ideas is included below:
McGregor's key concept is that every executive relates to subordinates on the basis of a set of
assumptions which are divided into two different theories. The first theory is that the average worker
is by nature lazy, dislikes work, lacks ambition, avoids responsibility, is passive, easily led, gullible and
must be molded to meet the needs of the organization. This is done by exhortation, driving, punishing,
and rewarding on the assumption that the worker is indifferent to the needs of the organization and is
capable of self-discipline.
Second theory is that work is as natural as play and it can be satisfying or punishing, depending upon
the circumstances. The theory holds that not only are individuals capable of assuming greater
responsibility, but they seek it in the proper work environment. They are also able to exercise selfdirection. Motivation does not come down from the top, but exists, along with ingenuity and creativity,
among the workers themselves.
According to McGregor, most employee relations problems are a result of the way in which the workers
have been conditioned over the years, rather than because of any lack of basic abilities.
It is significant to my topic in the sense that McGregor's first theory is personified in the hard-driving

authoritarian manager who strictly implements company policies and instructions to get the job done
well, while the second theory represents involvement, contribution, and commitment by all of the
workers to get the job well-done. In relation to my topic, security guards' love of work or laziness,
lacks ambition, avoidance of responsibility, passiveness, lack of caution, guards' working condition,
ability to exercise self-direction, motivation, or assumption of responsibility, are very important ways
and means to get the satisfaction or non-satisfaction of the management and clients in the delivery of
security services.
Herzberg's major contribution is in disproving that the removal of the causes of job dissatisfaction and
low morale will automatically result in the improvement, and that motivation and lack of motivation
are merely opposite ends of the same scale.
According to Herzberg, the causes of lack of motivation and job dissatisfaction must be removed, but
this will not necessarily motivate an individual to improve job performance. Ideally, the manager
should work to provide a proper balance, while allowing for individual preferences.
This is somewhat significant in relation to my study because it discussed the fact that it is not a
surefire solution to just eliminate job dissatisfaction and low morale among workers to obtain
improvement of performance, but rather the management should also inspire and motivate its
personnel, be authoritarian in the implementation of policies, while giving them work that fits to their
preferences depending upon the circumstances.
On the other hand, Argyris' theory is that traditional organizational principles, structures, and
procedures are incompatible with the mental health of employees. Such classical ideas as task
specialization, chain of command, unity of direction, tight budgets, and controls are calculated to
make subordinate passive and submissive, allowing them little direction of their own work.
This theory is significant to this study because according to Argyris, as a result of these traditional
organizational principles, structures, and procedures, workers become unconcerned, engaged in selfprotective defense mechanisms, or fight the system. . As applied to security guards, these principles
somehow affect the delivery of security services to most potential and incumbent clients.
A study for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) by the Institute for
Social Research, University of Michigan, relates the high and low performance of workers in a high
stress job. NIOSH defined high stress job as having the following characteristics: "Low utilization of
one's abilities, low participation, low job complexity, limited opportunities for future advancement and
the lowest levels of social support."
It is significant to my study because it discussed the effects of high stress job to the workers ability to
carry out a standard level of performances that is expected of him.
B. Local:
According to Prime Chrysler Reyes Velarde, a security guard is an
individual who works in establishment. In introduction to Private Security, security guard defined those
self-employed individual and founded
business entities and group of persons providing security service to relating clients for fee, for
individual or entity that needs security or employs them, or for themselves in order to protect their
person private property or interest from many types of hazards.
Maintaining safety and security of all valuable property is not an easy
task, more often the unskilled and less educated security guards can easily get confused and cheated
by the criminals and robbers who perpetrated their planned activities and escaped freely after all.
This statement is related to my topic because it gives information about the life of security guard while
he or she is in service; that proper training is another important matter in order to deliver efficient and
responsible services to the clients.
Another topic is leadership. The study of a security organization
together with its efficiency in the operation and administration cannot help itself but to deal with one
of the major issues such as "Leadership".

According to Antonio M. Encarnacion , a Certified Security Professional, he mentioned that in some


books, leadership is defined as the "act of influencing and directing people in a way that will win their
obedience, confidence, respect and loyal cooperation in achieving a common objective".
Some say "it is the ability and readiness to inspire, direct and influence the action of others". To lead
means to guide or show the way. It follows that a guard supervisor must have the leadership ability to
carry out his assignments and functions.
It is significant to my study because leadership definitely affects business and services. Good
leadership earns respect while poor leadership produces complaints and disobedience. Lazy leaders
create lazy subordinates, and responsible leaders mold responsible followers.
According to C/Insp. Cruz, security guard is not a law enforcer like a policeman. However, during
period of emergency, the Director General of the Philippine National Police or the City or Municipal
Mayor, as Director of Civil Defense, may take direct orders from the Chief of Police in maintaining
Peace and Order, prevention of law violation and preservation of life and property for the duration of
the emergency. A deputized guard has a police authority within his assigned area of responsibility.
This statement is related to my topic because it states the duties of security guard to their assigned
area. It also emphasizes the security guards' perception that, "In our community today, security
guards are the unseen heroes of our time, that through their presence alone, crime and criminalities
are reduced, neutralized or prevented".
RELATED STUDIES
The researcher aims to develop his study in order to establish the credibility of his chosen topic and to
gather all the necessary information and evidences that will help him to prove his study, and the
researcher will exert his effort and support this topic in finding all related studies from the collections
of the undergraduate thesis.
Few studies of great philosophers described their belief that one of the most persistent problems
bothering every organization is personnel management.
On Part IV Chapter 9 of the Guard Operation Book, page 9-55, described that better compensation
and benefits are not the only solution to the high and low performance of security personnel. To
improve guard performance, an alert management must deal with each of the underlying issues ? pay,
training, supervision, and deployment. But there are sub-issues that are as important as the main
ones. In the training area for example, it is not simply a question of more information to be imparted
to the trainees or techniques practiced so that the security operations could run fairly well. Neither
only the security personnel's working environment nor increased wages and benefits would resolve the
fluctuating performance of the security operations. The morale of field personnel must also be high for
sustained effective output, and it must also be equally high for the security staff and all employees of
the organization as a whole.
According to Cachero, the efficiency of an organization is determined by the level of performance of its
personnel. Thus, maintaining a high level of morale among its personnel is significantly very
important. Satisfied and contented people work and perform better .
This statement is related to my topic because of the fact that a
uniformed security guard has a high stress job and therefore their morale must be constantly high.
Stress factors and low morale lead to behavior patterns which can adversely affect job performance
and the physical and mental health of the individual contribute to high and low performance level of
the security agency's manpower.
U.S. News Reporter Bob Henelly, NEW YORK, NY July 18, 2006, reported: "...guard and dozens of
others interviewed by WNYC complained that they go for months and longer without receiving
vacation pay, sick time and other benefits called for in their collective bargaining contract with their
agency."
One security guard interviewed said, "I secure a landmark building and I find it very aggravating to

know that at the end of the week I will bring home a paycheck that is less than 3OO dollars after
taxes. New York City is a costly city. I have to pay rent, buy food, pay bills and it is hard to do with
such less pay. To top it off the agency does not provide me with any medical insurance. I feel that my
dignity and my self-respect have been diminished you know. I have nothing to show for my children
while these guys in the office can go to the Poconos, to Great Adventure and have a great time and
still have something to show for themselves as I am still struggling waking up early in the morning
and coming over to work."
Henelly's interview with the guards is significant to my topic in the sense that it touches the neverending complaint of security guards who were deprived of modest pay and benevolent benefits,
thereby triggering low utilization of guards' abilities, and low participation in their guarding function,
which is considered one of the common problems encountered by most of the security guards
nowadays.
xxxx Security & Detective Agency has been working hand in hand with its security guards for at least
six years since it was created, initially perhaps with 30 security personnel and 3 office staff under its
employ, then it progressed to more or less 200 guard forces in 2004 and a total of 600 in the current
economic year. It is logical to imagine an upward development accumulated from the security
personnel who maintained a beneficial rapport with the agency and the clients. Security guards who
carried out their duties and responsibilities honestly and credibly have been able to help the agency to
reproduce more clients at a greater rate than those who did not perform well in their assigned tasks.
Well-trained and disciplined security guards are heritably the agency's marketing tools to keep clients
on the list and to produce more clients by "words-of-mouth" from the clients themselves. However,
vast numbers of performing security guards not only within the xxxx Security Organization but also
with the other security agencies as a whole, have their own economic needs to keep their families on
their toes; a great number of them does keep and treasure their jobs regardless of how low the salary
it is, doing overtime at their supposed rest days rather than relaxing themselves with their families.
According to Zenarosa, employees will make sacrifice for and be loyal to the organization when they
feel that their organization is committed to their welfare, morale and well-being .
The beneficial sustenance for the guards under the xxxx security administration has always been the
clamor among the rank-and-file. Of a sample of 50 security guards admitted by the agency, 34% of
them very strongly agreed that one of their main problems is the delayed salary, which ranked 1 from
the distribution of responses, (see Table 2), also turned Rank 1 with 42% of the 50 respondents is
their ineligibility to apply for government loans and benefits such as SSS/ PhilHealth, allegedly due to
agency's unremitted contributions to concerned offices, thus, affecting their morale and their
performance, while 40% of economic problems and indebtedness arising from overdue payment of
their salary, (see Table 4).
While there is a lack of solid statistical data, it can be generally stated that many performance failures
by security guards are not primarily due to a skill deficiency as such. The guard usually knew what to
do but did not perform in the desired manner for a variety of behavioral reasons. Therefore, the key to
improving the effectiveness of the guard operation is to remove or lessen such obstacles to improved
job performance such as boredom, low use of abilities, low social status, low pay and benefits , etc.
According to Salavaria , employing physically and psychologically trained security guards can give the
agency operators a great deal of confidence and productivity. In the business sector, security guards
are the "secret business partner" of the investors; for being the custodian or protectors of
businessmen's interests, assets and properties. For these, a contented security guard may unwittingly
provide valuable aid in the promotion of security services by means of his impressive performance that
is often difficult to find when he is discontented with his job. In our community today, security guards
are the "unseen heroes" of our time that through their presence alone, crime and criminalities are
reduced, neutralized or prevented.
This statement is significant to my topic since it emphasizes the importance of the guards' best
performance as well as the management's concern to the general welfare of its security personnel and
therefore, they must be given serious attention.

Guard training has sometimes been suggested as the ultimate solution to almost any security
performance in the guard operation. But in many cases training may be the wrong solution and
unnecessary expense. The conventional approach to dealing with a performance deficiency is to
assume that "more training" is necessary. The difficulty with this approach is that "more training" may
not be addressing the root cause of the performance deficiency if the stress factors of the job are
overlooked. The erring security personnel may have the necessary skills but the combination of
personal and job-related stresses provides greater rewards for nonperformance than for performance.
Performance failures may be a direct result of undesirable behavior patterns that have been
unconsciously reinforced.

CHAPTER III
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents a variety of theories that sustain the facts and conclusion of the study. During
his study, the researcher presented significant theory and assessment of the collected data, which
were considered best to attain the proper objective of answering the problems and clarification of the
result of the study.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The primary objective and goal of the XXXX security services is to provide professional and highquality security guards to present and would-be clients through proper screening, extensive training
and thorough background investigation of guards and staff. The second objective is to achieve the
following goals within the next five (5) years:
1. Short Term: To become the Number One security agency in the country, with the maximum
manpower of one thousand (1,000) guards for deployment as prescribed by Republic Act 5487.
2. Long Term: To serve as a model for the formation of two (2) to four (4) security agencies, each with
1,000 security personnel on its rosters, and to achieve certification to ISO 9001.
According to Saavedra , for such development to be successful it must begin from the top downwards;
Senior and middle management should express their commitment to XXXX's Standard of Excellence
(SoE) through active involvement in security planning and field operations and participation in value
formation efforts. This poses a bigger challenge to the present security leadership. For such
development to be successful it must begin from the top downwards; Senior and middle management
should express their commitment to XXXX's Standard of Excellence (SoE) through active involvement
in security planning, training and field operations and participation in value formation efforts.
According to Path-Goal Theory, "leaders should motivate their followers by providing clear goals and
meaningful incentives for reaching them".
Consistent with its self-imposed challenges for a short and long term goals and its defined task within
the five-year framework as embodied in the Strategic Plan 2006-2011, the present management, in
consonance with its mission and vision, shall, with strong determination, endeavor to pursue its
rewarding goals and objectives within the next five years.
According to French and Bell, Jr. , a number of training experiences aimed at individuals has utility in
the successful evolution of an Organizational Development (OD) effort. These OD interventions can be
complementary and reinforcing adjuncts to the OD process. Many different kinds of seminars and
workshops, of course, including those of a technical nature such as budgeting, statistical process
control, and long-range planning, can be of assistance to individual, depending upon by the
organizational scheme, especially those that are relevant to leadership, interpersonal and group skills,
and to career development.
According to Azanza , Human resource management has taken the concept of life-long education as
the basis for the profession of training of manpower in the private and public sector. By this concept it

is considered that workers within their active age in the labor force are focusable and can be trained
for higher level of technology provided they already have the skills of literacy and innumeracy. At the
same time it has been considered that the development of the personality and the acquisition of
desirable values is part of a long-life process. Continuing education workers have become the object of
training programs within and outside of the place of employment. After all, the company as a learning
organization is the ultimate beneficiary of all the knowledge and skills learned by its employee.
Research Methodology:
This chapter establishes different research process. The researcher carefully studied what method,
procedure, and technique to be used in conducting an effective study. The researcher used the
descriptive method of research survey that helps gathering information and data based on the
perception of respondents. This part includes the research environment, research design, sources of
data, data gathering instrument, validation of the instrument, data collection, sampling procedure,
construction of instrument, data gathering procedure, data processing and data analysis.
Research Environment
The research focused in the Metro Manila area wherein uniformed security field personnel composing
of 600 were assigned at different guard posts and security detachments as agreed upon by both the
incumbent security clients and the present security service provider, covering Manila, Makati, Quezon
City, Pasig City, Cainta, Muntinlupa City and San Juan City detachments. For that, the researcher
believes to get enough data related to the study.
Research Design
Descriptive method was used in this study. This was done so in order to determine the common
problems encountered by the Security Department of XXXX Security & Investigation Services. This
process involves information gathering or fact-finding, recording or charting of the gathered data then
the corresponding assessment and analysis of the same.
Source of Data
The sources of data are respondents of this study who were at least 50 active security personnel
augmented by XXXX Security Services in different detachments in Metro Manila. The topic of the study
and the herein respondents were particularly chosen for reason that the researcher is an officer of the
said security agency. The researcher believes that the samples are sufficient enough for the proper
analysis of the problem.
Data Gathering Instrument
The instrument used in gathering data is the questionnaire, appropriately allocated to Metro Manila
security detachments. Fifty (50) prepared questionnaires were distributed to selected posts in Cainta,
Manila, Makati, Pasig, Muntinlupa, San Juan and Quezon Cities. The questionnaire, which was
prepared in simple English language, was divided into five parts: Part One (1) is the demographic
profile of the respondent; Part Two (II) is concerned about the guards' perception on their
responsibilities as part of the security industry; Part Three (III) is aimed to find out what are the
common factors contributing to high and low performance of their Security Department; Part Four (IV)
intends to know what are the problems encountered by the security guards of xxxx Security Services,
and Part Five (V), tries to determine the effects of the identified problems to the security guards'
performance.
Validation of the Instrument
After approval of the prepared questionnaire and signing of the endorsement letter, it was the time
that the approved, validated and formulated questionnaire, which intended to collect data relating to
problem solving of the study, was distributed.
Data Collection
The researcher personally distributed the formulated questionnaires to the respondents in some
detachments in Metro Manila where the agency had existing security service contracts with the
incumbent clients. Others were turned-over to the Field Inspectors and Detachment Commanders for
further distribution to other recipients in all other remaining posts in the metropolis. After completing
the distribution with the respondents, the results were assembled together and conclusion which is the
product of discussion followed. Recommendations borne fruit of this study so that these problems in

the delivery of security services can be gradually addressed.


Sampling Procedure
The technique used by the researcher in the collection of data using the questionnaire instrument is at
random. This procedure gives equal chance to each security personnel assigned in each post to answer
questions relating to sub-problems stated in Chapter 1.
Construction of Instrument
The researcher was guided by some problems he truly believed are the most significant to tackle.
Structure of questions to be used in the questionnaire instrument is focused on answering subproblems stated in Chapter 1. Questions are constructed in English language.
Data Gathering Procedure
After the validation of the instrument, the procedure of gathering data begins with the signed
endorsement letter by the Thesis Study Adviser/Professor. Next is the distribution of questionnaires to
fifty (50) respondents divided into five groups. Lastly, the setting of time frame in distributing and
retrieving the instruments were accomplished to set forth data needed in the study.
Research Process
The researcher made a research process through thesis books, memorandum circulars and internet, to
gather data for the study.
Data Processing
After all the facts have been accumulated, the data were evaluated, coded, tallied, and reviewed by
the examiner. The statistics were then presented in graphs and tables which contain the frequency
distribution and percentage in order to facilitate the breakdown and interpretations of the gathered
data.
Statistical Design
To measure the quantity of the data collection and to determine the result of the study, statistical
usage was employed such as frequency, percentage and weighted mean.
Formula for getting percentage:
P = f x 100
N
Where: P - percentage
f - Frequency of the respondents
N - Total number of respondents
Formula for getting the weighted mean:
wm = Zfx_
N
Where: wm ? weighted mean
Z - the sum of
fx = Frequency
N = Total Respondent

The statistical design used by the researcher was the weighted mean. The rating given to the
respondents used the four and five points scale as follows:
Mean Score
Derivative Valuation
Interpretation
3.26 - 4.00 Very True
VT
2.51 - 3.25 True
T
1.76 - 2.50 Probably P
1 - 1.75 Not True NT

Mean Score
Derivative Valuation
Interpretation
4.21 ? 5.00
Very Serious
VS
3.41 ? 4.20
Serious
S
2.61 ? 3.40
Less Serious
LS
1.81 ? 2.60
Not Serious
NS
1.00 ? 1.80
Not a Problem
NP
Data Analysis
Data gathered were carefully scrutinized to give clean presentation of facts related to the study. All
statistics collected from fifty (50) respondents through answering the questionnaires will be used.

CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
The study presented the analysis and interpretation of the collected data. The chapter is divided into
five (5) parts. The first part deals with the demographic profile of the respondents rank, gender,
marital status, age source of income, number of children and years in the active service as security
personnel.
The second part deals with the perceptions of the respondents on their responsibilities as part of the
security industry.
The third part deals on the common factors that contribute to the high and low performance of the
security department.
The fourth part intends to find out the problems encountered by the security guards of the xxxx
Security services.
The last part strives to determine the effects of the identified problems to the guards' performance.
100% 90%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0% 10%
Figure 1
The distribution of respondents according to Gender.
The figure shows that 45 out of 50 respondents or 90% of security guards are male, five (5) of 50
respondents or 10% of security guards are female.
It shows that in the security profession, more male guards are deployed than that of the female,
simply because of limited number of posts required for them. Female guards are normally deployed in
the reception area, at the timekeeping section, or at the employees' entrances or mall gates where
they are needed for particular lady's work such as body frisking and inspection of lady visitors or
employees, while male guards can be assigned anywhere else at the desire of the clients.
Furthermore, standing or walking for the entire tour of duty or doing roving patrol, climbing stairs and
ladders, and sometimes do an act of self-defense are very tough job for most of the female guards.
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30% 30%
20% 22% 16% 14% 10%
10% 8% 8%
0%
Age-bracket: 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50

Figure 2
The Distribution of respondents According to Age

In this Figure 2, we can determine the number of respondents according to their age bracket. We can
see the majority of the respondents who are belonging to the age bracket of 26-30 years old or 30%,
followed by 22% from the age bracket of 21-25. Followed by 16% of the age bracket of 36-40, next
by age bracket of 41-45 or 14%, and the least which is 10% came from the age bracket of 46-50.
It shows that 30% of selected security guards are at their full-grown age that are apparently capable
of performing their duties, while 10% of selected security personnel who are in the middle age are
also capable but not similar to those at the full-grown age.
It shows further that the selected security guards are qualified in terms of age. According to
Maniwang, under Rule III, selection 2(D) of Republic Act 5487, the number of persons shall be
licensed as security guards unless he possesses the following qualification (D) at least eighteen (18)
years old but not more than fifty (50) years of age .
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
24% 66% 4% 6%
Figure 3
Distribution of Respondents According to Civil Status
In Figure 3, we can determine the civil status of the respondents, 33 or 66% of them or the majority
of them are married, followed by 12 or 24% of single respondents, by 3 or 6% of the widow/er
respondents and 4% or 2 separated respondents. The figure shows that most respondents are married
and apparently they are responsible enough to perform their duties and to support their family.
Legend:
Dependent on guard salary only
Double income family with wife working
Have other sources aside from salaries
100%
80%
60% 60%
40%
20% 20% 20%
0%
Figure 4
Distribution of Respondents According to Source of Income
In Figure 4, we can determine the source of income of the respondents, 30 or 60% of them or the
majority of them are dependent on guard salary only, followed by 10 or 20% of respondents'' double
income family with spouse working, and another 10 or 20% of the respondents who have other
sources of income aside from salaries. The figure shows that most respondents are solely dependent
on guard salary only, which means that their most important needs for their daily existence is the
timely distribution of their salaries which must be paid off without delay so that they can meet both
ends, and to continuously provide food and shelters for their families on a budgeted scale.

Legends: (%)
No Children
1-3 Children
4-6 Children
7-9 Children
100%
80%
60% 56%
40% 36%
20% 8%
0% 0%
None 1-3 4-6 7-9
Figure 5
Distribution of Respondents According to Number of Children
In Figure 5, we can determine the number of children of the respondents; i.e., 28 or 56% of the 50
respondents do not have children, followed by 15 or 36% who have 1-3 children, and 4 of them or 8%
of the respondents have 4-6 children while there is 0% for the supposed 7-9 children. The figure
shows that most respondents do not have children, while no respondent was able to sire 7-9 children.
The figure apparently means that most of the respondents are aware of the difficulty of having one big
family or simply being a family man, considering economic hardship nowadays compounded by
meager earnings derived from their salary as security guards.
100%
80%
60% 48%
40% 34%
20% 8% 10%
0%

Figure 6
Distribution of Respondents According to Number of Years in the Security Service
In Figure 6, we can determine the respondents'' number of years in the security service; i.e., 24 or
48% out of the 50 respondents have been in the security industry for the service bracket of 1-5 years,
followed by 17 respondents or 34% for the service years of 6-10, while 4 of them or 8% of the
respondents have been in the industry for period of 11-15 years and 5 or 10% of them for security
services of 16-20 years. The figure shows that most respondents have been in the industry for quite a
few years, owing to the fact that this group of respondents are in their young age or new starter and

apparently full of vigor and enthusiasm. Those within the service bracket of 6-10 years are still in their
full-grown age and still full of energy, While those within the bracket of 11-15 or 16-20 years who are
in the middle-age are apparently capable of performing their duties, but not similar to those at the
full-grown age.
Legend: SG - Security Guard
HG - Head Guard
SIC - Shift In-Charge
ADC - Asst, Detachment Commander
DC - Detachment Commander
FI - Field Inspector
SO - Security Officer
CSO - Chief Security Officer
100%
80%
60% 64%
40%
20% 12% 10% 2% 4% 4% 2% 2%
0%
SG HG SIC ADC DC FI SO CSO

Figure 7
Distribution of Respondents According to Rank
The figure shows that 32 or 64% out of 50 respondents are ordinary or plain security guards, 6 or
12% of them belong to the rank of Head Guard, 5 or 10% belong to Shift In-Charge, 1 or 2% belongs
to Asst. Detachment Commander, 2 or 4% of them are Detachment Commanders, another 2 or 4 %
are Field Inspectors, 1 or 2% has the rank of Security Officer and another 1 or 2% is the Chief
Security Officer. The ordinary guard position is the least possible rank that is under the direct guidance
of the Head Guard, who, in-turn, supervises the very least number of guards in a small post of
assignment. The Shift In-charge is responsible for the shifting schedules of all guards and any other
tasks given by his ADC or DC to whom he submits reports of accomplishment or daily activities. The
ADC and/or DC is the highest position in a detachment who perform an over-all supervision, receive
and implement orders coming from the clients where they are assigned or from the security agency
itself. The Field Inspector is the one who conducts field inspection to all posts or detachments to
ascertain that all guards are performing well. The SO is equivalent to the position of Operations Officer
and CSO as the Operations Manager or General Manager.
It shows that in the security profession, the majority of guards belongs to the rank-and-file, simply
because they are the backbone of the security industry where the success of the business depends on
the performance of the ordinary guards.
According to Salavaria, employing physically and psychologically trained security guards can give the
agency operators a great deal of confidence and productivity. In the business sector, security guards
are the "secret business partner" of the investors; for being the custodian or protectors of
businessmen''s interests, assets and properties. For these, a contented security guard may unwittingly
provide valuable aid in the promotion of security services by means of his impressive performance that
is often difficult to find when he is discontented with his job. In our community today, security guards
are the "unseen heroes" of our time that through their presence alone, crime and criminalities are
reduced, neutralized or prevented.
Table 1 aims to find out what are the perceptions of the respondents on their responsibilities as part of

the security industry.


As to the responses of the selected security personnel, respondents give their strong perception that
the guards have always provided valuable aid in the promotion of security services by way of
impressive performance that is often difficult to find when he is discontented with his job, which rank
1 with a weighted mean of 3.24. Second is that the respondents also have strong views that the
guards are the backbone of the security industry, and that they are the most important component of
the business, and therefore, the agency management''s action on general welfare of the security
personnel needs serious attention, with the same weighted mean of 3.24. Third is that respondents
strongly agree that the guards are the forefront of protection within the company premises, and for
that reason, they are totally needed in the physical protection of the business with a weighted mean of
3.22. Fourth is that the respondents strongly expressed opinion that in our community today, guards
are "the unseen heroes" of our time, that through their presence alone, crime and criminalities are
reduced, neutralized or prevented, with a weighted mean of 3.20. Fifth is that respondents believed
that well-trained and disciplined guards who carried out their duties honestly and responsibly are able
to help the industry to reproduce clients at a greater rate. They also agree that they are heritably the
agency''s marketing tools in the success of the business, with a weighted mean of 3.14.
Lastly, the respondents claim that security guards are the "secret business partners" of the investors,
for being the custodian or protectors of business interests, assets and properties, with a weighted
mean of 2.98.
Table 2 aims to find out as to what could be the common factors that contribute to high and low
performance of xxxx Security Services. As to the responses of the security guards, respondents
strongly agree that delayed collections of payment from the clients resulting to delayed salary is one
of the main factors, that ranked 1 with a weighted mean of 3.18. Second is the field inspectors seldom
visit to the deployment sites supposedly to assess the problems encountered by the guards in the
field, which ranked 2 and with a weighted mean of 2.18. The third is the expected dialogue between
the management and the guards supposedly to air their grievances which ranked 3 and with a
weighted mean of 2.04. Fourth is the adequacy or availability of pool of relievers to supply the clients''
demand for immediate deployment or to urgently provide additional manpower with a weighted mean
of 1.90. Fifth is professional jealousy among the rank and file, favoritism, nepotism, defaming one''s
reputation, employees interfering to guards function, etc. with a weighted mean of 1.76 and the least
are habitual offenders, stubborn attitude of employees, theft and pilferage factors, non-cooperation
from the officers and staff of the company in the implementation of orders, which ranked 6 and with a
weighted mean of 1.48.
Table 3 aims to find out what problems do the respondents encounter as employees of the xxxx
Security Services. As to the responses of the security guards, respondents strongly agree that their
salary and other remunerations are not received on time, and that SSS/PhilHealth, etc., were not
remitted to concerned offices. These responses ranked 1 with a weighted mean of 4.36. Second is the
extensively large guarding area with inadequate number of deployed guards with a weighted mean of
3.24. Third is that respondents agree that the security guards usually know what to do but did not
perform in the desired manner for a variety of behavioral reasons which ranked 3 and with a weighted
mean of 2.5. Fourth is those respondents concur that office personnel are not attentive to the guards''
needs with a weighted mean of 2.18. Fifth is that respondents agree that stress factors lead to
behavior patterns which adversely affect job performance, with a weighted mean of 1.92, and lastly,
lack of training, supervision and control for efficient services with a weighted mean of 1.80.
Table 4 aims to determine the effects of the identified problems to the guards'' performance. As to the
responses of the security guards, respondents strongly agree that they are unable to apply for
SSS/PagIbig loans and medical benefits due to the agency''s non-remittance of their contribution to
concerned offices, thus, affecting their morale and their performance, which ranked No. 1 with a
weighted mean of 3.46. Second is their economic problems and more indebtedness that affect their
families as a result of delayed payment of salaries with a weighted mean of 3.18. Third is that the
respondents agree that the identified problems mentioned in the preceding tables lead them to lousy
performance, lax implementation of orders, non-concern to their jobs, low morale and low use of
abilities to perform their tasks, which ranked 3 and with a weighted mean of 2.48. Fourth is that the

respondents agree that the identified problems steered them to ill-mannered attitude towards their
office personnel and officers; that they feel abandoned and neglected, with a weighted mean of 1.98.
Fifth is that the respondents believe that as a consequence of those identified problems, they have
poor rapport with the agency''s clients and officers, encountered operational failure, unsolved cases of
theft and pilferage due to negligence, and rampant violations of order due to inspector''s seldom
inspection to the deployment sites with a weighted mean of 1.82. Lastly, the respondents minimally
agree that they could sort to seek the DOLE assistance to air their grievances against their own
agency, with a weighted mean of 1.80.