6 views

Uploaded by Widya Meiriska

fluid

- Relative Density
- Science
- Chapter 1 Fluid Properties
- Mecanica de Suelos (Problemas Resueltos) Ataraxiainc (Edicions Upc)
- Oil Dispers
- ASTM D473-07 (Metodo de Prueba Estandar Para Sedimento en Aceites Crudo y Aceites Combustibles Por Metodo de Extracción)
- BME 516 (1)
- SK Lolos Screening PP LKMM I FV
- 3.1
- D473-Sediment-by-extraction.pdf
- Experiment 1
- ASTM D 2937-00 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-cylinder Method
- lab 1 - measuring density lab
- D473-Sediment-by-extraction.pdf
- Lab Report Jc
- Formula_Sheet_Mechanics_2300
- C1162
- Fluid Mechanics
- Unit Weight of Aggregates
- 7. Bulk Density

You are on page 1of 5

Synopsis:

K = 1 = dP = dP

d

dV/V

where is compressibility, P is pressure, and V is volume. For small

pressure variations (typical for wave propagation), the pressure

variation is related to the density variation through the acoustic

velocity c o (which is 1500 m/s for water at room conditions):

dP = c 2o d.

Therefore,

K = c 2o.

B = w + S{0.668 + 0.44S + 10 6[300P 2400PS

+ T(80 + 3T 3300S 13P + 47PS)]}

where the density of pure water ( w ) is

w = 1 + 10 6( 80T 3.3T 2 + 0.00175T 3

+ 489P 2TP + 0.016T 2P 1.310 5T 3P

0.333P 2 0.002TP 2)

Centigrade, salinity Sis in fractions of one (parts per million divided

by 106 ), and density ( B and w ) is in g/cm3.

The acoustic velocity in brine VB in m/s is

VB = Vw + S(1170 9.6T + 0.055 T 2

8.510 5T 3 + 2.6P 0.0029TP

0.0476P 2) + S 1.5(780 10P + 0.16P 2) 1820S 2

4

Vw=

wijT iP j

i=0 j=0

w02 = 3.437x10-3

w12 = 1.739x10- 4

w22 = - 2.135x10-6

w32 = - 1.455x10-8

w42 = 5.230x10-11

w00 = 1402.85

w10 = 4.871

w20 = - 0.04783

w30 = 1.487x10-4

w40 = - 2.197x10-7

233

w03 = - 1.197x10-5

w13 = - 1.628x10-6

w23 = 1.237x10-8

w33 = 1.327x10-10

w 43 = - 4.614x10-13

w01 = 1.524

w11 = - 0.0111

w21 = 2.747x10-4

w31 = - 6.503x10-7

w41 = 7.987x10-10

gas at standard conditions to the volume of brine. Then for

temperatures below 250oC, the maximum amount of methane that can

go into solution in brine is

Log 10(R G) = Log 10{0.712P T 76.71 1.5 + 3676P 0.64}

4 7.786S(T + 17.78) 0.306

If K B is the bulk modulus of the gas-free brine, and K G is that of brine

with gas-water ratio R G , then

KB

= 1 + 0.0494R G

KG

i.e., bulk modulus decreases linearly with increasing gas content. As

far as the density of the brine is concerned, experimental data is sparse,

but the consensus is that it is almost independent of the amount of

dissolved gas.

The viscosity of brine in cPs for temperatures below 250oC is

= 0.1 + 0.333S + (1.65 + 91.9S 3)e [0.42(S

0.8

0.17)2 + 0.045]T0.8

gas density to air density at 15.6 o C and atmospheric pressure. The

gravity of methane is 0.56. It may be as large as 1.8 for heavier

natural gases. Algorithms for calculating gas density and bulk

modulus follow.

Step 1: Calculate absolute temperature Ta as

Ta = T + 273.15

where T is in degrees Centigrade.

Step 2: Calculate pseudo pressure Pr and pseudo temperature Tr as

Ta

P

Pr =

, Tr =

4.892 0.4048G

94.72 + 170.75G

where pressure is in MPa.

Step 3: Calculate density G in g/cm3 as

G 28.8GP

ZRTa

Z = aPr + b + E , E = cd

1.2

2 P

d = exp{ [0.45 + 8(0.56 1 ) ] r }

Tr

Tr

234

R = 8.31441 J/gmole deg (gas constant)

P

27.1

KG

, = 0.85 + 5.6 +

8.7e 0.65(Pr + 1)

Pr + 2 (Pr + 3.5) 2

Pr

1 f

Z

0.2

2 P

f = cdm + a , m = 1.2 [0.45 + 8(0.56 1 ) ] r

Tr

Tr

Pr and Tr are not both within 0.1 of unity.

Oil. Oil density under room conditions may vary from under 0.5 to 1

g/cm3 , with most produced oils in the 0.7 to 0.8 g/cm3 range. A

reference (standard) density that can be used to characterize an oil 0

is measured at 15.6o C and atmospheric pressure. A widely used

classification of crude oil is the American Petroleum Institute oil

gravity (API gravity). It is defined as

API = 141.5

0 131.5

where density is in g/cm3. API gravity may be about 5 for very heavy

oils and about 100 for light condensates.

Acoustic velocity in oil VP may generally vary with temperature T and

molecular weight M:

VP (T, M) = V0 b T a m ( 1 1 )

M M0

b = 0.306 7.6 / M

In this formula, V0 is the velocity of oil of molecular weight M 0 at

temperature T0 ; a m is a positive function of temperature and so oil

velocity increases with molecular weight. When components are

mixed, velocity can be approximately calculated as a fractional

average of the end components.

For dead oil (oil with no dissolved gas), the effects of pressure and

temperature on density are largely independent. The pressure

dependence is

P = 0 + (0.00277P 1.7110 7P 3)( 0 1.15) 2 + 3.4910 4 P

where P is the density in g/cm 3 at pressure P in MPa. Temperature

dependence of density at given pressure P is

= P / [0.972 + 3.81 10 4 (T + 17.78) 1.175]

where temperature is in degrees Centigrade.

235

1/2

0

) 3.7 T + 4.64 P

2.6 0

1/2

1] T P

+ 0.0115 [4.12 (1.08 1

0 1)

VP (m/s) = 2096 (

VP (ft/s) = 15450 (77.1 + API) 1/2 3.7 T + 4.64 P

+ 0.0115 [0.36 API 1/2 1] T P

original fluid in situ is usually characterized by RG, the volume ratio of

liberated gas to remaining oil at atmospheric pressure and 15.6 o C.

The maximum amount of gas that can be dissolved in an oil is a

function of pressure, temperature, and composition of both the gas and

the oil:

1.205

R (max)

= 0.02123 G [P exp 4.072

G

0 0.00377 T ]

R (max)

= 2.03 G [P exp 0.02878 API 0.00377 T ] 1.205

G

gravity. Temperature is in degrees Centigrade, and pressure is in MPa.

Velocities in oils with dissolved gas can still be calculated versus

pressure and temperature using the above formulas with a pseudo

density used instead of 0 :

= 0 (1 + 0.001 R G) 1

B0

1.175

1/2

B 0 = 0.972 + 0.00038 [2.4 R G ( G ) + T + 1.78]

0

The true density of oil with gas (in g/cm3) can be calculated as

G = ( 0 + 0.0012 G R G) / B 0

temperature. At room pressure for a gas-free oil we have

log 10 + 1 = 0.505 y (17.8 + T) 1.163

log 10 y = 5.693 2.863/ 0

Pressure has a smaller influence on viscosity. It can be estimated

independent of the temperature influence if oil viscosity is 0 at a

given temperature and room pressure, its viscosity at pressure P and

the same temperature is

236

= 0 + 0.145 PI

log 10 I = 18.6 [0.1 log 10 0

+ (log 10 0 + 2) 0.1 0.985]

Centigrade, and pressure in MPa.

Uses:

Assumptions/

Limitations: Mostly, the formulas are based on empirical measurements,

summarized by Batzle and Wang, 1992.

References:

Geophysics, 57, 1396 - 1408.

237

- Relative DensityUploaded byShubhrajit Maitra
- ScienceUploaded byApurva Shrotriya
- Chapter 1 Fluid PropertiesUploaded byKhaled Md Saiful Islam
- Mecanica de Suelos (Problemas Resueltos) Ataraxiainc (Edicions Upc)Uploaded byLuis Ramos Espinoza
- Oil DispersUploaded byjnmanivannanmech
- ASTM D473-07 (Metodo de Prueba Estandar Para Sedimento en Aceites Crudo y Aceites Combustibles Por Metodo de Extracción)Uploaded byAnonymous gBMz178
- BME 516 (1)Uploaded byJoseph Sebastian
- SK Lolos Screening PP LKMM I FVUploaded byWulan M
- 3.1Uploaded byAndres Sanchez
- D473-Sediment-by-extraction.pdfUploaded byEmmanuel Byensita
- Experiment 1Uploaded byNurhidayah
- ASTM D 2937-00 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-cylinder MethodUploaded byPablo Antonio Valcárcel Vargas
- lab 1 - measuring density labUploaded byapi-405202753
- D473-Sediment-by-extraction.pdfUploaded bywaldysjimenez10
- Lab Report JcUploaded byAdz
- Formula_Sheet_Mechanics_2300Uploaded byKevin Huynh
- C1162Uploaded byreefreef
- Fluid MechanicsUploaded byNaveenKumar
- Unit Weight of AggregatesUploaded byMayolites
- 7. Bulk DensityUploaded byHoney Grace Tre-inta Perez
- Density TesterUploaded byanamulk-1
- pvt-viscometer.txtUploaded byNGuyen Manh Hung
- Flare KO Drum Rev 2Uploaded byRian Intan Saputra
- 21DensityProcedureV1Uploaded byJellie Alliana Escandon
- Steam Condensates and LossUploaded byMubarik Ali
- Metodos de Analisis de Leches_EngUploaded bycesar_bolivar5488
- Density - Chemistry _ SocraticUploaded by4685752
- 300s FeaturesUploaded byAbyatar Hugo Baskoro
- Heat ExchangeUploaded bySamuel Gaétan
- Conversion of density units rho = kg cubic meter unit - psi = pounds per cubic inch - rho = m _ V SI unit 1000 kg_m^3 - sengpielaudio Sengpiel BerlinUploaded byLeonardo Costa

- Cv InstructionsUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- Laporan Survey Project Stair JpoUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- UTS GANJIL KALKULUS 1 (2013-2014).pdfUploaded byDeryTryW
- Lce Kantor Dsh Pt BapUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- gmi34beyUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- TOR for M&EUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- LCE Fasilitas Nursery DPSUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- LCE Fasilitas Nursery DSPUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- LCE Fasilitas Nursery DSPUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- Brosur Penawaran Training Budgeting and Project Cost ControlUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- Billing Rate 2014 Final RevUploaded byRonald Ortisan Sianipar
- Billing Rate 2014 Final RevUploaded byRonald Ortisan Sianipar
- RAB LCE Fasilitas Nursery DSBUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- RAB LCE Fasilitas Nursery DSBUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- PIPE-STRESS-Intensive Class (4 Days 4 Jt)Uploaded byWidya Meiriska
- Exponential FunctionUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- PEMBAHASAN UAS KALKULUSUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- BudgetingUploaded byLulus Seven N
- Ecatalog Mei 2014Uploaded bync_hidayat
- A4 Map Your Future Roadshow UmumUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- Cek Penampang Baja Kolom GableUploaded bykukuhcadiputra
- 178933806 Peraturan Pembebanan Indonesia Untuk Gedung DocxUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- PublicationUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- PublicationUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- Hyperbolic FungtionUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- GraphUploaded byWidya Meiriska
- Boq Ok Power HouseUploaded byMultazam Zam
- Kalkulus II - Tria Dewi Ratnasari-11312165Uploaded byWidya Meiriska
- Step by Step Perancangan Soldier Pile Penahan TanahUploaded byAfret Nobel

- BoeingUploaded byTryj1
- 5aa62d88e4b0604c8b1a781c.pdfUploaded byAman
- EXP 01Uploaded byZharlene Sasot
- EatonUploaded bydejanbb
- Applied Termodynamics 04Uploaded byMuthuvel M
- Biomechanical analisys of military bootsUploaded byBogdan Ungureanu
- Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis IIUploaded byYUEALVIN17
- BCEE 452-ENGR 6511-Ch 3Uploaded byDaniel
- Control Valve ICSUploaded byrrebollar
- MCB 102 - 1st ExamUploaded byMarlyn Amante
- Rapaport_Multi-million Particle MDUploaded byPrasad Uday Bandodkar
- A Tutorial on Hidden Markov Models.pdfUploaded byNicky Muscat
- Form 2 Chapter 7Uploaded bynaza9775
- P1 5 Waves Foundation QuestionsUploaded byjesudassaj
- Deterministic MethodsUploaded byDomter
- bul33Uploaded byAnonymous HaGVwW
- RiverSurveyorLive Quickstart2Uploaded byClaudiu Pricop
- ME_BTechUploaded byAbhijeet Mishra
- Suggested+Solution+FyBCh20 21NVC05+Magnetic+Induction+&+AC+CircuitsUploaded byEpic Win
- Lect2.pdfUploaded byMohammad Aiman
- 175879098 ME3122 Tutorial 1 Conduction Solutions DocUploaded byakuoxai
- Airframes Chap 1 Airframe DesignUploaded byPriya Reddy
- AGUILAR, Guadalupe. La Interacción, La Interpretación y La Implicación Como Estrategias ParticipaUploaded byR.e. Miendo
- Co-Ordination of Overcurrent Relay for Chemical Industrial Plant Using ETAPUploaded byEléctrico Ingeniería
- trig function graphs lesson planUploaded byapi-204970231
- Statics and Mechnics of StructuresUploaded byPrabu Rengarajan
- 0-5 Intro to Tapping World Summit - Bruce LiptonUploaded byNgoc Luzardo
- 5 Laws of NatureUploaded byMark J. Burton II
- Assignment 2 - JavaUploaded bysunnyxm
- Comparison of Various Testing Methods To Determine Vacuum Pressure In The Vacuum Interrupter BottleUploaded byIRJET Journal