You are on page 1of 5

Maxsurf Training

Tutorial 2: Fairing
Open your design from the previous exercise (with a design
window topmost, go to File | Open Design), if you already have a
design open, you will need to close this first (File | Close Design).
We now want to manipulate the design to increase the overall
fairness of the hull shape. The easiest way to ensure a fair surface is
to keep the control net as fair as possible, since this will effectively
amplify any unfairness in the surface. Try to keep control point rows
smooth, and in keeping with the shape of the buttocks and waterlines,
and keep columns as straight and evenly spaced as possible. This
should ensure that the surface remains relatively fair, and reduce the
need for further manipulation. Check your design in all views after
any major design changes.

Use smooth and straighten controls (Controls | Smooth
Controls) to aid in fairing the net. Smooth Controls Stiff will force
the selected control points into a fairer curve, Flexible and Medium
will allow the original shape more dominance. Use this to fair rows in
the plan and profile views, and columns in the body plan view.
Straighten controls will force the control points into a straight line.
This can be conducted in the Current Plane Only, or in Three
Dimensions. Only Straighten in Three Dimensions if you want to
create a flat plate, e.g. the transom. Straighten in the Current Plane
Only to straighten columns in the profile view.


Maxsurf Training

Surface Properties Transverse flexibility should be fairly
low (i.e. more flexible) probably 3 or 4 for this design, longitudinal
flexibility should be higher (5 or 6).
Turn on the outside arrows toggle (from the Display | Outside
Arrows menu), and check that the surface arrow is pointing outward.
If it is not, click in the circle at the head of the arrow to reverse its
direction. If you do not, Hydromax and Workshop will not be able to
read the design properly.

Have as few control points along each spline as is necessary to form

your required shape. Review your design, and see if any rows or
columns can be removed without adversely affecting the shape of the
hull. If they can, then remove them now, using the Controls | Delete
Row (or Column) command. Place the Pac-Man over the end point of
the row or column you wish to delete and click the left mouse button.
Now we will look at the various visual fairing aids available within
We will start with the compressed view, since this is the
simplest and most powerful fairing aid within the programme. First,
turn on the contours you wish to view, either the waterlines in the
plan view, or the buttocks in the profile view. Then turn on the
compressed view using the toolbar button ; this compresses the
vessel longitudinally by a factor of 4. This will highlight any
unfairness in the lines longitudinally, particularly any bumps and
points of inflection that were not obvious before. It is particularly
useful for long, slender hulls.


Maxsurf Training

We will now look at curvature. In the body plan view, turn off
the sections so that just one section at a time is highlighted (or
alternatively leave all the sections on, but highlight one section at a
time with the half view turned on), then click on the curvature button
in the toolbar or go to Display | Curvature. This will bring up a
porcupine plot for that section.
When you choose Show Curvature, "Porcupines" are displayed
perpendicular to the curve, and their lengths are inversely
proportional to the square root of the radius of curvature at that point
on the curve. Therefore the longer the porcupine line, the tighter the
Curvature may be displayed on all surface contours except
intersection lines.
To select a contour, click on it. It will be highlighted with a different
line thickness and colour. To select more than one contour, shift-click
on other contours.

Note: The value of the smallest radius (tightest bend) on a given

curve is displayed numerically at the end of the porcupine located at
the corresponding position on the curve.
Where the porcupines swap from one side of the line to the other (as
in the picture below), there is a point of inflection in the line; if the
shape of the porcupine is unfair (distinct, sharp changes in length, not
smooth and gradual), it is highlighting sharp changes in curvature
over the surface. A fair plot will generally guarantee smooth
graduation of curvature over the surface.


Maxsurf Training

To hide the display of curvature porcupines, choose Hide Curvature

from the Display menu.
If the porcupines are off the screen, making it difficult to view them
all at once with a sensible scale, then you can scale their relative size
by going to View | Preferences | Curvature Porcupine Size. If they are
too small, and you wish to see the variation more clearly, increase
their relative size.
Shaded rendering is another good method of visualising
fairness of the surface. Check that the outside arrows are pointing in
the correct direction, then select Display | Render. Choose Gaussian
Curvature, and set the brightness level to 5. The hull will be displayed
through a spectrum from blue (convex), through green (neutral) to red
(concave). All changes should be gradual, and in general, most of the
hull should be blue or green. If you want a concave area on your hull
surface, then ensure that it graduates smoothly back to the convex
sections. This is a measure of developability, rather than a direct
measure of fairness, but still a useful tool.

Longitudinal and transverse curvature will highlight
irregularities in the longitudinal and transverse directions,
If there are creases in your curvature plot, this is most likely because
the splines are too flexible, so increase the stiffness by one degree,
and see what affect this has. If you have compacted points in your


Maxsurf Training

design, it could be because too many points have been compacted

together (should be one less than the stiffness of the spline).
The curve of areas (Window | Curve of Areas) can be used to
display the variation of underwater section area along the length of
the design. Check that your design has a smooth curve; the maximum
point would be expected to be somewhere between the aft
perpendicular and amidships. The curve should slope down to zero at
the bow, but may have a cut off at the stern if you have a partially
submerged transom stern.

Now check the hydrostatics again (Data | Calculate
Hydrostatics), to ensure that any changes youve made have not
altered the overall dimensions too much.