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• Definition:

Traversing

– A traverse is a series of consecutive lines whose lengths
and directions have been measured.

• Why?
– The purpose of establishing a traverse is to extend the
horizontal control. A survey usually begins with one
given vertical control and two ( or one and direction)
given in horizontal
– You need more than two points to control the project,
have enough known points to map any point, and set-out
any object any where in a large project.

• Definition:

Traversing

– A traverse is a series of consecutive lines whose lengths
and directions have been measured.

• Why?
– The purpose of establishing a traverse is to extend the
horizontal control. A survey usually begins with one
given vertical control and two ( or one and direction)
given in horizontal
– You need more than two points to control the project,
have enough known points to map any point, and set-out
any object any where in a large project.

trees. you are given points A and B only. cannot measure angle and distance to corner F or the trees!! A E F B Grass C • You need to construct new control points “points of known precise coordinates” such as C. and the fence in the drawing.Procedure Assume that you wanted to map “calculate coordinates of the building. and E to measure from. D. • You do that with a traverse D .

Construct the points. 3. re-do the work 6. Walk around and decide which are the best locations to have A new control points 2. nails on asphalt. E D Grass C . etc. adjust the errors and compute coordinates. Check if the angles and lengths are accepted 5.Procedure 1. concrete and bolts. If rejected. Measure all the angles and all B the lengths of the traverse 4. If accepted.

• Using the given azimuth of AB and all angles. we computed the azimuth of all the sides. and the coordinates of one point (A).Coordinate Computations • Assume that we were given a site to map. and the azimuth of the line (AB). we get the following table: . • We then measured all the internal angles and the length of all the sides (lines). the four points make rectangle (or a square). we need more known (control stations) • We marked three more points around the site.

00 C CD N 100.10 0° 00' 00'' 0.30 200.00 -100.00 D DA 200.70 399.00 0.00 180°00'00" 0.10 300.00 100.00 100.70 270°00'00” .00 90° 00' 00" 100.10 200.99.10 300.00 350.10 .00 450.00 450.00 A Sum 350.Coordinate Computations Point Line Length Azimuth ) E = d sin( ) N = d cos( ) A AB 100.10 B BC E 0.10 0.30 350.00 99.80 0.

what you notice in our measurements. How do you explain that? Assume that the traverse was a perfect square of 100 m side length and oriented towards the north. Also note the relationship between that error and the sum of Northings and Eastings. and how can you relate that to the error in A? . are not the same as given coordinates.Questions Note that the coordinates of A when computed at the bottom of the table.

of the first point (A) ΔN=0.1 D A ΔE=0.3 . the value of the errors will Appear when you recompute the coordinates .32m Notice that if the corrections are ignored.The concept of Linear Closing Error B c Closing error = 0.

When measured all lengths were correct.The concept of Angular Closing Error • Now let us assume the same perfect square of 90° angles and 100 m sides. What happens? B c Here is the perfect traverse that we are trying to measure: A D . while the angle at B was in error by 10° when measured. the surveyor reported 100°.

The concept of Angle Misclosure • Here is how the measured traverse will look: Line AB was correct B c Line BC was correct. but angle A was wrong The rest of the lines and angles are correct A ’A D .

we always assume that we have errors in angles and distances. • The problem is that we do not know where the errors are and how much each error? • Measurements are never exact.The concept of Closing Error • Error in angles OR error in distances will result in a closing error: last point will not be at the first point. let us learn some issues with traverse . • Before we learn how to compute the errors and how to adjust for them.

Closed and Open Traverses • A closed traverse is the one that starts and ends at known points and directions. whether the shape is closed or not • A closed traverse can be a polygon {closed shape} or Link {closed geometry-open shape .

Closed (polygon or link) traverses Link Polygon .

∆Y=YB-YA True Location .Open TRAVERSE L2 L3 L4 L5 B ∑∆XObserved XY MX M L1 ∆X=XB-XA MY ∑∆YObserved A Observed Location •Open Traverses are not used in engineering control applications. you will have to accept whatever coordinates computed. why? •The problem: there is no way to check the for the errors.

Traverse Notations • We will only cover the closed Traverse with interior angles measured. .

the traverse gets distorted as shown below. easy to access places.Traverse Stations • Successive stations should be inter visible. T1 A T3 T2 B T4 . • Lines should be as long as possible – To reduce the number of lines – Short lines will produce less accurate angles. • Stations are chosen in safe.

We produce a “descriptive card” for each point Descriptive card for a traverse point . Why? • Stations must be referenced to retrieve them if lost.Traverse Stations • Angles should be as equal as possible and better be 30 to 150°. why???? • Lines should be and as equal as possible.

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what is a line with known direction? • If the line of known direction is not a member of the traverse. the angle to a traverse member should be measured. • A line of known direction should either be given or assumed. Why? . • Each angle is observed at least three times.Traversing by Interior Angles • All internal angles and all horizontal distances are measured • Each angle is measured in direct and reverse.

we get angle misclosure and linear misclosure ( closing error). we need a way to separate the error of angles from the error in distances to check and adjust them separately .Closing Error In Traverses • We measure two values: angles and distances • Because of errors in both measurements. • Both types of errors result in error in closure.

but angle A was wrong The rest of the lines and angles are correct A ’A D .The concept of Angle Misclosure • Here is how the measured traverse will look: Line AB was correct B c Line BC was correct.

and should be done at the beginning of the adjustment. .Computations and Adjustments of Angle Misclosure • The sum of internal angles of a polygon of (n) points = (n . • The misclosure is divided equally among the readings keeping in mind the measuring accuracy.2) * 180o • Angle misclosure = difference between the sum of the measured angles and the geometrically correct total for the polygon.

correct by dividing the error equally among the angles • For example: The Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee: 1. third-order class II . and 12” for first-order. second-order class II. third-order class I. 3.Judging The Angle Misclosure • Usually the standards give an equation of the form: • Max allowed angle misclosure c = k * n where (n) is the number of points and K is a constant defined according to which standards used • If angles are accepted. 10. second-order class I.5. 4.7.

The concept of Linear Closing Error B c Assume that the traverse in reallity was a perfect square. ’A ΔN A ΔE ’. all D other lengths and angles were correct .A will close at AAA’ is the linear closingerror Assume that there was an error in measuring the length AB only.

then ΔE = 0 ΔN = 0 and EAB EBC ve+ ve+ E .N EDA ECD ve- ve- D C A B If the traverse is closed.

then ΔE = 0 ’A A and B ΔN = 0 .If the traverse is not closed Then ΔE = Ec EAB EBC ve+ ve+ and ΔN = Nc E .N EDA ECD ve- ve- D ΔN C ΔE If the traverse is closed.

W = length of closing error =  Ew2 + Nw2 Fractional Closing error = traverse precision = W / L Direction of the error = Azimuth = tan-1 (Ew / Nw) = tan-1 (ΔE / ΔN) .Computations of Linear Closing Error • If he closing error is (W) then Ew = ΔE and Nw = ΔN.

use the Compass (Bowditch) rule to adjust: . – Compute the linear misclosure – If accepted.Adjustment of Linear Misclosure • Compute and adjust the angle misclosure • Compute the linear misclosure: – Compute the azimuth of a traverse side – Compute the azimuth of all the sides – Compute the departure and latitude of all the sides – Compute the Misclosure in (E) direction = sum of the departures. – Compute the Misclosure in (N) direction = sum of the latitudes.

and ( L) is the perimeter.Compass (Bowditch) Rule Correction in departure for AB = - ( Correction in latitude for AB = - (  ΔE L ) (L )  ΔN L ) (L ) AB AB Where: L is the length of a line.• method . Advantages and disadvantages of this .

Computations of Coordinates • Add the corrections to the departure or the latitude of each line to get the adjusted departure or latitude (maintain signs) • Compute the adjusted point coordinates using the corrected departure or latitude: Ei = E i-1 + ΔE Ni = N i-1 + ΔN • Check that the misclosure is zero. .

000 0.04√∑L 0.40√∑L or.80√∑L or.000 .000 0.000 0.5”√n 10. 1/100. 1/20.Example of Standards Horizontal Control Accuracy Standards For Traverse )By The Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee (FGCS) ( 1st 2 nd 3 rd Order Class Angular Closure Linear Closure (after angul. or.0”√n 12. 1/10.0”√n 0. adj.0”√n 4.) 1.000 1/50.08√∑L or.20√∑L or. 1/5.7”√n I II I II 3.

1’ -192.56 -694.0’ 125.point Length L Azimuth AZ Departure L sin (Az) Latitude L cos (Az) Correction Departure (WN/L)* L A 285.05 Latitude (WE/ L)* L Balanced Departure E Latitude N E N .5’ -5.72 255.40 388.1’ -517.45 104 35.02 306 54.74 720.99 202.48 195 30.72 B C D E A Sum P=2466.2’ 590.00 358 18.54 WN =-0.27 203.88 610.10 26 10.77 -153.5 WE =+0.91 747.

88 104 35’ 590.06)x285.74 0.54 9611.060.66 255.45 10000.00 0. Length Azimuth Departure = L sin (AZ) Latitude = L cos (AZ) Correction Departure (WE/ L)* L L Latitude Balanced Dep.1 E W =+0.00 (WN/ L)* L AZ 26 10’ N Lat.16- 0.96 694.18 590.56 .72 0.04- 0.Pnt.19 -517.14- 0. A 285.03 306 54.91 0.72- 358 18.5.77 -153.54/2466.21 192.54 0.40 10523.5’ .27 0.48 10000.00 388.31 10000.02 10255.08 125.97 E 647.58 9408.1 -517.192.05 10716.1 0.4 388.64 195 30.99 202. 125.1’ .13- 0.5 0.66 153.56- C 720.1 =(0.72 255.06 -6.69 check =L24 66.34 10517.72 -0.54E WN=0.29 202.00 =(0.96 B 610.06- D 203 10125.00 10000.694.72/2466.06)x285.54 A Sum 10102.00 .

Other Methods There are several methods that are used to adjust or balance traverses. Least-Squares method . 1. Arbitrary method 2. Transit rule 3.

. half the sum is the area •The formula will work for traverses lettered in a clockwise direction.Traverse Area D E C B A Traverse area = 1  { Ei (Ni+1 . •The formula should work if you switch the N and the E.Ni-1)} 2 •Multiply the X coordinate of each point by the difference in Y between the following and the preceding points. but it will give a correct area with a negative sign.

(300.Example • Calculate the area of a traverse whose corners are (100.300). .100).100 ). (300.300). (100.