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Domain of Instructional Design

Instructional Design is defined as “the process of specifying conditions for learning”
(Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 30).
Instructional Design is focused on the systematic process of learning. According to Dick
and Carey, a systems point of view of learning is a process in which every component:
teacher, learners, materials and learning environment work symbiotically toward the
goal of successful learning. A system is simply a “set of interrelated parts, all of which
work together toward a defined goal” (Dick & Carey, 2001, p. 2-3). This view takes into
consideration that all parts of any given system work together with equal credence
toward a common goal. Each part of the system has its own role and is equally as vital
to the functioning of the system as whole. There are several models that an Instructional
Designer may follow when designing instruction. The models as well as the processes
embodied in all of the models are referred to as Instructional Systems Development or
(ISD). (Dick & Carey, 2001, p. 4)
During the Instructional Design process the designer will ask and answer the following
questions:

What are the important characteristics of the learners, learning environment and
learning context?

What are the goals and objectives that need to be taught?

What strategies are the most effective for the learners to master the objectives?

How will the learner be assessed to determine if they mastered the objectives?

What instructional delivery system will be the most effective for the objectives to
be met and are most appropriate to the design project?

Instructional Design is divided into four sub-domains or components that make up the
design processes.
The first sub-domain, Instructional System Design, is defined as “an organized
procedure that includes the systematic process of analyzing, designing, developing,
implementing and evaluating instruction” (Seels & Richey, 1998, p. 31). This step-bystep process of designing instruction can be illustrated in
the Analysis,Design Development, Implementation, and Evaluation model as seen in
the visual below. The ADDIE model provides a general framework, however, for other,
more specific, Instructional Design projects instructional designers can choose from
various models. While offering new steps and process, the majority of these models
demonstrate the systematic processes of designing instruction.

A-Analysis: the process of defining what is to be learned

D-Design: the process of specifying how it is to be learned

D-Development: the process of authoring and producing the materials

I-Implementation: the process of installing the project in the real world context

E-Evaluation: the process of determining the impact of instruction

(Seels, B. & Glasgow, Z., 1998, p. 13).
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ADDIE Model

Figure 3: ADDIE Model
Image adopted from:
www.up.ac.za/academic/soba/SAAPAM/vol36n3/clapper.htm

The Instructional design process is systematic and is a result of a comprehensive and
thorough analysis. The analysis process will guide every aspect of the design product.
Analysis is a crucial phase of the Instructional Design Processes. This phase may also
be referred to as a Needs Assessment. During the Needs Assessment or analysis
information about the learners, learning context and performance problem will be
gathered and analyzed. This analysis information will allow the designer to identify the
instructional goals. (Dick & Carey, 2001) The analysis phase consists of a
comprehensive set of process and sub-steps in and of itself. However, it is a component
of the instructional design process, therefore is a phase that is incorporated in all
instructional design models.
There are many models that a designer may utilize to guide his/her analysis. A designer
may choose a model to follow while considering: the specifics of the performance
problem, the context of problem, the learners and any other pertinent information that
may impact the development process. There are some differences evident among
various instructional design models. However, in comparing and contrasting various
phases it is apparent that the primary steps are consistent across all Instructional
analysis models.
Figures 4, 5 and 6 are examples of Instructional Design models:
Reiser & Dick ISD Model

Figure 4: Reiser & Dick ISD Model
Image adopted from Reiser and Dick:
http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/edp511/fig1_isd.gif

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Smith & Ragan ISD Model

Figure 5: Smith & Ragan ISD Model
Image adopted from Smith and Ragan:
http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~edtech/688/getstart.htm

Seels & Glasgow ISD Model

Figure 6: Seels & Glasgow ISD Model
Image adopted from Seels and Glasgow:
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Instructional_Technology/Seels_and_Glasgow_Model_II

A widely accepted and implemented Instructional Systems Design Models is the Dick
and Carey model of Instructional Design. An important part of this model is analysis
phase in which the designer identifies goals, conducts instructional analysis which
consists of learner, environmental and task analysis and generates learning or
performance objectives for the instructional design phase.
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Dick & Carey Design Model

Figure 7: Dick & Carey ISD Model
Image adopted from:
http://www.dean.usma.edu/math/activities/cape/Instructional_Models/dc_design.html

As seen in Figure 7, the Dick and Carey model demonstrates that Instructional
Designers engage in analysis prior to: designing and developing instruction, evaluating,
revising, implementing and evaluating the instruction again. Similar to other Instructional
Design models, the Dick and Carey model follows the general guidelines of the ADDIE
model. This model is comprehensive and specific in that there are sub-steps of each
phase of the ADDIE model that are more detailed.
Another Instructional Systems Design Model is the Kemp, Morrison and Ross Model
(see Figure 8) of Instructional Systems Design. As seen below the Kemp, Morrison and
Ross model presents the instructional design process as a circular process . This
implies that the design processes do not function autonomously of one another. As
evidenced by the format and organization of the model, each step is not only dependent
upon the step before it and impacts the step after it , but at the same time they are
impacted by the outer-ring processes. This model contains the steps of the design
processes that are generally outlined in the ADDIEmodel.
Kemp, Morrison & Ross ISD Model

Figure 8 : Kemp, Morrison, & Ross ISD Model
Image adopted from:
http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~baterden/Model2.htm

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Although various Instructional Design Models are available for use, the instructional
designer often follows the model that best suits the project specifications. Some
instructional designers may choose to combine elements from more than one model.
The primary concern of the designer is to use the model that will serve to solve the
performance problem and is based on needs of the learners and the conditions.
Message Design:
Message design is the format in which the instructional message is relayed to the
learner. It involves “planning for the manipulation of the physical form of the message”
(Seels and Richey, p. 31).
Message design is the impetus for conveying the content of the instructional objectives.
In essence, the message design will include the information that the learner will learn.
However, there is much more to message design than simply writing the content. During
every instructional design process some instructional messages are designed and
delivered to the learner. Message design is an extremely deliberate combination of
instructional theory paradigms and graphic design principles. Message design includes
the processes of planning what the instructional message will include as well as what it
looks like and how it is delivered: text, audio, video, and/or multimedia, etc.

In Instructional Design processes, message design is often driven by the results of the
learner, environmental and contextual analyses. Designers try to infuse the multimedia
message with the information derived from the analyses in order to produce and
develop the most effective instructional messages to include in the product.Instructional
designers often employ basic principles and theories of designing instructional
messages. For example, a designer may consider the Three Assumptions of a
Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning as described by Richard Mayer (Mayer, 2001)
(See Table 1).
Table 1: Mayer’s Three Assumptions of Multimedia Learning

Assumption

Description

Implication in ISD

Dual Channels

Learners have separate
channels for processing
visual and auditory
information

Information input, storage, and recall
is enhanced by presenting
information in both visual and verbal
form.

Limited Capacity

Learners are limited in
the

Active Processing

Learners engage in
active learning by
attending to relevant
incoming information,
organizing selected
information into coherent
representations, and
integrating mental
representations with

Images and words should be coupled
when deemed to be an effective.
They should serve to send the same
message. Designers should not
amount of information
that they can process in present too much verbal or visual
each channel at one time information to a learner. Also
designers should not present too
much information for the learner to
store in their working memory while
learning; message design can impact
this.

Designers should design instructional
messages specifically for the ease of
the learner to: select, organize and
integrate the information by
strategically using:

Font
Type, Bold,Underlined, Italiciz
ed, size & color variances, etc.

other knowledge

Graphics

Formatting-how the
information is laid out, spaced,
organized

Advanced Organizers

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Instructional Strategies:
Instructional Strategies may be considered the “how to” or the guide on the manner in
which the content will be developed, written and delivered. The strategies will be
considered and planned according to: learner characteristics, learning outcomes and
instructional goals. Therefore, the instructional strategies will vary according to each
instructional design project. Information from instructional analysis will guide decision
making in choosing instructional strategies for every instructional design project.
Additionally, a designer will use this information to choose an instructional model that
will meet the needs of the learners as well as the instructional goals.
In 1965, Robert Gagne published The Conditions of Learning which outlined the
relationship between learning objectives and appropriate instructional design
strategies . As an instructional theory, Gagne’s Conditions of Learning theory is based
on cognitive information processing theories of learning. The model assists designers in
designing instructional events particularly selection of instructional strategies. The basic
principles of Gagne’s work should be considered and utilized during the design and
development phase of Instructional Design. The general principles that are useful for
instructional designers are:

A different type of instruction is necessary for different learning outcomes.

The particular procedures that make up instructional events vary according to
each type of learning outcome.

Gagne identifies five categories of learning: Illustrates learning outcomes as well as
the instructional strategy that can be implemented to meet the outcome.
Table 2: Gagne’s Taxonomy of Learning Outcomes & Conditions of Learning

Gagne’s Taxonomy of Learning Outcomes & Conditions of Learning

Taxonomy of Learning Outcomes

Verbal Information

Intellectual Skills : Discriminations, Concrete Concepts, Defined Concepts, Rules, Higher Order Rule

Cognitive Strategies

Attitudes

Motor Skills

http://www.my-ecoach.com/idtimeline/theory/gagne.html
Information from: Driscoll, M. (1991) Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Allyn and Bacon.

There are various Instructional Design models that can be utilized in planning and
applying instructional strategies . One of the most simplistic but valuable instructional
strategies is the Select Organize Integrate (SOI) model proposed by Richard Mayer
(Mayer, 2001). Mayer’s SOI model can be implemented for any type of learning
outcome. This model includes:

S-Selecting Relevant Information

O-Organizing Incoming Information

I-Integrating Incoming Information

In pragmatic terms and from the learner’s perspective, selecting relevant information will
include-choosing to attend to clearly important information to learn. This may be
indicated by bold-faced, underlined, highlighted information or any other “indicator” that
will say to the learner-“this is important”. Organizing information will include how the
learner perceives the information that they are learning. In what fashion is the
information presented to the learner? How is the information structured? This strategy
may include an outline format or if the message is auditory, it may include a deliberate
pause. The integration of information is essentially, how the learner “puts it all together”.
This should include intentional and planned connections established by the designer. In
other words, the designer should ensure, based on analysis data, that the content not
only connects in and of itself but also that the learner connects the newly learned
information with prior knowledge. Connections may be established in a number of ways,
according to the specific design product. One example is using analogies. These
connections or integration of information will ensure learning takes place as instructional
messages with no connections are just words.

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In Instructional Design processes the ARCS Model (Keller, 1987) may also be used to
apply the basic principles and steps of making connections with the learners. The model
is designed to increase learner motivation as without learner motivation the presentation
of information is likely to be irrelevant. The ARCS Model of Learner Motivation (see
Figure 9) demonstrates the general steps or guidelines that could be followed in
considering the instructional strategies. The instructional strategies should be chosen
for an instructional design product to improve learner motivation.

A-Attention-How are you going to gain and keep the attention of the learner?

R-Relevance-How are you going to make the content relevant to the learner?

C-Confidence-How are you going to make the learner feel as if they can and will
learn the material and master the learning objective?

S-Satisfaction-How are you going to cause the learner to feel as if they have
gained something from the material and their learning? Is this material and
learning personally meaningful and/or purposeful to the learner is some way?

ARCS Model of Motivation

Figure 9: ARCS Model of Motivation
Image adopted from:
http://ausweb.scu.edu.au/aw04/papers/refereed/lund/paper.htm

Learner Characteristics:

The learner characteristics are the driving force behind all instruction. If the learner
characteristics are not accurately, thoroughly and effectively analyzed the instruction
may be irrelevant and ineffective. Learner characteristics should include any and all
information that is relevant to the instructional design project. Typically, the following
information will be utilized as a starting point for the learner analysis: age,
socioeconomic background, entry behaviors, prior knowledge, attitude toward content,
attitude toward delivery system, academic motivation for instruction, education and
ability levels, learning preference/style, and attitude toward organization. This
information may be adequate to begin an instructional design project. However, during
the instructional analysis, the designer should determine if any other learner information
would be pertinent and use that information as well. An instructional design project and
product should always include some degree of learner analysis as effective instruction
is learner centered.
Historically, Pedagogy or teaching has been content and teacher centered. However,
the paradigm shift in education has resulted in moving from a more teacher centered
approach of instruction to a more learner centered approach. Today, pedagogy is the
art, science, or profession of teaching (Merriam Webster Dictionary, 2006).
In 1973, Malcolm Knowles published the book, The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species
in which Andragogy was originally defined as "the art and science of helping adults
learn". It has since shifted to a more expansive meaning. The term now refers to
learner-focused education for people of all ages. A straightforward depiction of
Andragogy is to consider the learner at the center and the learning content surrounding
them (see Figure 10).
Visual Comparison: Andragogy & Pedagogy

Figure 10: Visual Comparison: Andragogy & Pedagogy
Image adopted from:
http://ausweb.scu.edu.au/aw04/papers/refereed/lund/paper.htm

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An instructional designer that approaches instructional design from a learner centered
point of view will consider the following general principles of Andragogy that are related
to learners and their characteristics:
Learners Need:

To know why they are learning something

To learn through experience and problem solving

To explore topics of immediate value to them-useful, pragmatic

Choices

To focus on process, including social process

Self-directedness, motivated by where the learning will get them (Knowles,
1973).

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Instructional Development

Seels and Richey (1994) define instructional development as “the process of translating
the design specifications into physical form” (p. 35). The domain of instructional
development is the process of using all of the information gathered during analysis and
the instructional design phases and actually creating a product.
Instructional development may encompass many different product development
specifications. In general, development includes the creation, use and addition of all
planned assets that are included in a product deliverable. Assets may include any
component of the instructional package that are planned and specified during the
design phase. The product deliverables will act as the apparatus or vehicle in which
effective instruction will be delivered to the learners.
Instructional Designers may choose the appropriate instructional design model that will
guide the development phases of the project as well. The product will be created as
specific to the project parameters. During instructional development a designer will
create a first draft of a product then conduct a formative evaluation. After a thorough
evaluation process, the product will be revised based on reviewing the instructional
goals and analysis information. After final revisions the product can be delivered to the
client for implementation.
Typical Instructional Development products may include, but are not limited to:

Instructional Manual

Job Aids

CD-Rom

Computer Based Instruction (CBI)

Web-Based Instruction

Face to Face Instructors guide-including end user materials

DVD

Combination of any of the above-Integrated

Instructional product deliverables that are created during the development phase may
fall into one of the four sub-domains of instructional development below.
Print Technology:
Print technology is “any medium or material produced through text, graphic or
photographic representation and reproduction…” These technologies generate
materials in hard copy form.” (Seels and Glasgow, 1998, p. 111) Print technology
materials may include written words, visuals or a combination of both. Some examples
of print technologies are: manuals, and performance job aids. Print technology does not
include interactivity but it does have advantages such as:

Easily portable and communicative-i.e. by fax

May be reproduced in mass quantity-for a relatively low cost

An unlimited capacity for volume of information

“Low tech”-do not require technology skills or equipment to utilize

Learner can pace and organize themselves in how they choose to use the
materials

Audiovisual Technology:
Audiovisual technology includes the use of technologies to deliver both auditory
messages and visual messages at the same time. The audio and visual messages may
be delivered in a variety of ways including: motion picture, films, audiotapes, DVD, VHS,
and slides. Like print technology, audiovisual technology does not generally use
interactivity. However the advantages of audiovisual technology are:

Tend to be easy to utilize and follow due to the linear nature of the instructional
delivery

With the use of motion and visuals they are dynamic to the learner

The designer can incorporate multiple learning theories in the use of audiovisual
technologies fairly easily

Instructional messages are delivered through the use of multi-modalities-which is
more likely to reach learner by utilizing both the auditory and visual channel of
information input

Computer-based Technology:

Computer-based technology is a way to produce and deliver instructional materials
using micro-processor based resources such as a personal computer or laptop.
Computer-based technologies store the information in a computer processor digitally
and use the screen to deliver the information to the learner. Some examples of
computer-based technology include: web-based training, electronic performance
support systems, and computer-based instruction. A fairly ubiquitous example of
computer-based technology is computer based instruction which may include: drill and
practice, tutorials, instructional games and instructional simulations.
One principal advantage of computer based technology is the possibilities for learner
interactivity. With the advances in technology learner interactivity with instructional
materials has become quite impressive. If utilized properly, interactivity cannot only
positively impact the effectiveness of instruction but it can also increase learner
motivation and interest. Computer Based Technologies also makes it easier for a large
quantity of people to reach the instruction across just about any geographic distance.
Utilizing computer-based technologies also allows the designer a great deal of options
in organizing the delivery of the instruction. The content can be liner in nature, nonsequential, branched or a combination of various types of instruction. Therefore, the use
of computer-based technologies allows for a great deal of flexibility in the design and
delivery of instruction.
Integrated Technology:
Integrated technology encompasses at least two primary types of delivery systems.
Integrated technologies generally utilized computers as a means to connect the learner
and the teacher as they are utilized for synchronous distance learning instruction. As
computer systems are utilized as an apparatus to make the distance “connection”
possible, other multimedia and audiovisual technologies may be utilized for instruction.
For example, DVDs, websites, multimedia presentations may all be incorporated into
the instructional design and delivery. The use of integrated technology also allows for a
great number of possibilities for an instructional designer. While often times very
expensive, there are many advantages to utilizing integrated technologies. The
advantages are:

Can be utilized in a linear, non-linear, non-sequential and/or random delivery
fashion

The learner has some control in how materials are utilized

Allows for a highly interactive, dynamic learner experience

Behavioral, Cognitive and Constructivist learning principles can all be employed
and/or combined

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Utilization

The domain of utilization has grown out of the use of audiovisual materials in instruction
throughout the twentieth century, while gaining particular popularity post World War II
(Wikipedia, 2006). After an instructional product is designed and developed the
instructional designer then ensures that the product is utilized as intended. Utilization
encompasses the systematic implementation and use of the instructional activities that
are designed and developed for the learners to consume. In simple terms, utilization
means "to put to use" (Merriam Webster Dictionary, 2006). In the context of Instructional
Technology, utilization also includes putting the instructional product into operation
within the context of the project.

Media Utilization:
Seels and Richey define Media Utilization as "the systematic use of resources for
learning" (1994, p.46). Instructional designers choose appropriate and effective medial
assets during the design and delivery phases to convey their instructional messages.
After they have done so, the designer ensures that the selected media is functioning
and is accessible to the users of the product. Media Utilization is guided by the results
of instructional analysis phase of instructional design process. During the analysis
phase, learner characteristics, environmental issues along with learning outcomes and
selected instructional strategies are used to identify media specifications. These
specifications are then used to plan the delivery of instruction. Thus, media selection
processes are not only governed by learning outcomes and the instructional design
strategies but also by the learner characteristics and environmental constraints.
Instructional designers often use different media selection models to guide them in their
decision making.
One example of a media analysis model, created by William W. Lee and Diana Owens
is a synthesis of work from the cognitive sciences, including the cognitive mapping work
of M. David Merrill (1982) and the learning capabilities work of Robert Gagne (1985),
the process engineering of Hammer and Champy (1994) and the Human Performance
Enhancement principles of Thomas Gilbert (1996).

Media Analysis Model (Lee & Owens, retrieved 2006)

Figure 13: Media Analysis Model
Image adapted from:
http://www.astd.org/NR/rdonlyres/900E19EF121E40BCBBBCCD15BD25F47F/0/WhitePaperMediaAnalysisFinal.pdf
From A Systematic Approach to Media Selection by William W. Lee and Diana Owens

Diffusion of Innovations: Diffusion of an Innovation, as depicted by Everett Rogers
(1995) is "the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain
channels over time among the members of a social system" (p.5). The goal of any
instructional design project and/or product is to bring about some change to an
organization or system. Implementing a change in any system can be challenging.
Therefore, the implementation of a change is something that needs to be managed. The
diffusion of an innovation is intended for the change to be adopted into the system.
According to Rogers, the adoption process includes five stages:

Awareness

Interest

Evaluation

Trial

Adoption

Diffusing the innovation is a necessary step in successfully implementing the change.
Specific communication modes and methods will be chosen in order to successfully
execute the diffusion of the innovation. The diffusion plan and processes will vary
depending upon the project; however the overall goal is to carefully plan awareness,
interest, trial and adoption of the innovation so that it can be seamlessly infused into the
organization. This will allow for the implementation of the innovation and without
implementation it is impossible to determine if the change is effective and has an impact
( Rogers, 1995)

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Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation Theory and model clarifies five attributes of an
innovation. Table 3 summarizes the five attributes of innovation.
Table 3: Roger's Five Attributes of the Diffusion of an Innovation

Attributes

Description

Trialability

The degree to which an innovation may be
experimented with on a limited basis

Observability

The degree to which the results of an
innovation are visible to others

Complexity

The degree to which an innovation is
perceived as difficult to understand

Compatibility

The degree to which an innovation is
perceived as consistent with the existing
values, past experiences, and needs of
learners

Relative advantage

The degree to which an innovation is
perceived as better that the previous

Rogers also states that adopters of any new innovation or idea could be categorized as:
Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority, Late Majority, and Laggards. The five
categories, a brief description and the percentage of people that fall into that category
are displayed in Table 4.
Table 4: Roger's Five Categories of Adopters

Category

Description

% of people

Innovators

Venturesome, educated,
multiple info sources, greater
propensity to take risk

2.5%

Early Adopters

Social leaders, popular,
educated

13.5%

Early Majority

Deliberate, many informal
social contacts

34%

Late Majority

Skeptical, traditional, lower
socio-economic status

34%

Laggards

Neighbors and friends are
16%
main info sources, fear of debt

Source: Diffusion of Innovations by E. Rogers, 1995. Copyright 1995 by The Free Press.

Implementation and Institutionalization:
Implementation occurs after the design process is completed and the product or
innovation is essentially put into use in the organization. The diffusion plan should be
completed and likely will continue throughout the implementation process.
Implementation processes may occur for various length of time depending on the scope
of the project. Implementation implies that not only has the innovation been adopted but
that it is actually being utilized.

"Institutionalization is the continuing, routine use of the instructional innovation in the
structure and culture of an organization" (Seels & Richey, p. 47). Institutionalization
allows for the assimilation and daily use of an innovation by the organization.
Institutionalization will occur after successful implementation of the innovation.
Institutionalization implies that the innovation has been infused into the organization at
such a level that it has become a part of the organization. Through careful planning and
effective implementation processes, an instructional designer can ensure that an
instructional innovation is integrated into the cultural norm of a system. For example,
organization leaders may choose to adopt a new software program and train their staff
to utilize it. Assuming that the product has been designed and developed and the
training has been conducted and adopted, if the product is used on a regular basis it is
"institutionalized".

Policies and Regulations:
"Policies and regulations are the rules and actions of society that affect the diffusion and
use of instructional technology" (Seels & Richey, 1995, p. 47). Any organization has
some level of policies, procedures and regulations that serve to govern the function and
inner-workings of the organization. When designing instruction and implementing any
changes into an organization it is important that policies and regulations that may
pertain to the project and organization are carefully considered. Without this
consideration and analysis an aspect of the design project could become contradictory
to a preexisting policy or regulation that would negate the effectiveness of the project.
For example, in an educational system there are specific terms of acceptable use. Prior
to adopting a web-based instruction program the decision making body of the
organization would need to review at least the acceptable use policy to ensure that the
product fits the guidelines of the policy. In terms of instructional design projects, typical
policies and regulations may include but are not limited to: copyright law, standards for
equipment and programs, creation of teams to support instructional
technology, Acceptable Use Policy, and Online Code of Conduct.

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Management

According to Seels and Richey, management is defined as "controlling Instructional
Technology through planning, organizing, coordinating, and supervising" (1994, p. 49) .
Management cannot be overlooked in Instructional Technology. It is an integral aspect
of any process requiring organization and proper execution of steps in order to complete
a project. Management of instructional design projects can encompass several activities
or subtasks (Wikipedia, 2006). Examples of management subtasks may include but are
not limited to:

Work breakdown structures

Time-lines

Budgeting

Staffing

Manage facilities

Program Evaluation

Organize access & delivery systems

As with managing any project, the broad goal is that all aspects of the project are
supervised, organized and guided to ensure successful completion of the project
activities, regardless of the scope. Management consists of four sub-domains as listed
below.
Project Management:
"Project Management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling instructional design
and development projects" (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 50). Project management, in very
simple terms, may be described as organizing, planning, coordinating and supervising a
project. Every project has a unique set of characteristics. Therefore, how a project is
specifically managed can vary a great deal. However, the general skills and knowledge
that are required for successful project management remain constant for any
instructional design project. In planning, implementing and controlling any project, a
designer should focus on ensuring that the project is: on time, completed to
specification and under budget.

Some common responsibilities for Instructional Technologists to manage may include
but are not limited to: creating and maintaining a schedule, negotiating, budgeting,
evaluating progress, managing personnel, managing facilities and instructional delivery
systems.
In addition to these specific job roles and responsibilities a project manager should have
excellent leadership and communication skills. Quite often an instructional technologist
is in charge of a team for a temporary period of time. Regardless, it is still imperative to
the successful completion of the project that the manager leads the team efficiently and
effectively. In order to do this effective leadership skills should be employed.
Based on my experience managing instructional projects, I belive that leadership skills
in project management should include but certainly are not limited to: effective verbal
and written communication, ability to achieve maximum potential out of your team,
adapting to various personnel and situations with ease, the ability to think critically and
problem solve issues as well as the ability to recognize unforeseeable risks and
obstacles in the project and adapt to any situation that may arise.
Resource Management:
According to Seels and Richey, resource management is defined as "planning,
monitoring, and controlling resource support systems and services" (1994, p.51). These
management processes may come under the roles and responsibilities of managing the
project as the resources are a part of the larger project. However, it is important to note
that typical resources for instructional design projects include: personnel, budget,
supplies, time and facilities, and instructional resources. These resources may be
likened to one’s inputs of the project or the mechanisms that actually get the job done.
Delivery System Management:
"Delivery System Management involves: planning, monitoring, and controlling the
method by which distribution of instructional materials is organized and it is also a
combination of medium and method of usage that is employed to present instructional
information to a learner" (Seels & Richey p. 51). In simple terms, Delivery System
Management may be described as the management of the tools or equipment that will
be utilized to actually deliver the instruction. A designer will need to make decisions
related to hardware/software requirements, technical support, and guidelines.
Information Management:
Allison Rossett states, in the ASTD E-Learning Handbook, that "knowledge
management (KM) is about delivering the right knowledge to the right people at the right
time" (Rossett, retrieved 2006). Knowledge includes information and any information
that is stored, transferred and processed by individuals is information that is available to
learn. The general purpose of Information Management is to make information readily
available to a user in a timely fashion. One reason information Management has

become noteworthy and will continue to grow as an influential area of Instructional
Technology is because of efficiency. As technology use becomes more integrated,
knowledge management has allowed for rapid storage, retrieval and use of information.
In pragmatic terms, Information Management can look very different depending on the
situation and the project. However, since the ubiquity of technology, knowledge is
shared so readily that individuals across the globe can literally connect in seconds. This
capability can be utilized in many ways during an instructional design project but more
importantly it needs to be managed, again to achieve maximum effectiveness and
efficiency of project completion.

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Evaluation

According to the definition, as provided in the Merriam Webster dictionary (2006),
evaluation is" to determine the significance, worth, or condition of usually by careful
appraisal and study". In Instructional Technology the purpose of evaluation is also to
determine the worth of something through systematic analysis and study. However, as
with all areas of Instructional Technology, the evaluation process is more prescribed,
systematic and specifically focused on data in order to make sound decisions .
More specifically, in the field of Instructional Technology, evaluation is defined as "the
process of determining the adequacy of instruction and learning" (Seels & Richey, 1994,
p. 54).
There are four specific sub-domains of evaluation in Instructional Technology. They are
described below.

Problem Analysis:
Best practices would dictate that instruction should only be designed, delivered and
implemented if there is some sort of performance problem to be solved, regardless of
degree or severity. In order to solve a performance problem the performance gap must
be specifically identified. The performance gap is the difference between what is
currently happening and what should be happening in any given situation. In order to
accurately and effectively identify the performance gap a thorough problem analysis
needs to be conducted at the beginning of the instructional design processes. Problem
analysis includes: needs assessment, performance analysis, and a contextual analysis
(Rossett, 1987). The needs assessment procedures are employed to specifically
determine the gaps between the current performance and the ideal performance. Needs
assessment procedures include a great deal of information gathering from a variety of
sources pertaining to the performance problem. The performance analysis is employed
to determine if the problem is an instructional problem that can be solved through
instruction. This process may also be called Training Needs Assessment or (TNA)
(Rossett, 1987). According to Allison Rossett, TNA (1987) is "the systematic study of a
problem or innovation, incorporating data and opinions from varied sources, in order to
make effective decisions or recommendations about what should happen next" (p.3).
According to Rossett (1987), in order to conduct a problem analysis a designer should
complete each of the following steps:

Assess the context of the problem

Determine purposes

Select techniques and tools

Develop a TNA Plan

Develop stage Planner(s)

Conduct the needs assessment

Communicate results

Use the results to make decisions

Common analysis techniques as described by Rossett (1987) include:

Extant Data Analysis-data describing employee performance

Needs Assessment-opinions, optimals, actuals, feeling, causes, solutions

Subject Matter Analysis-looking at the body of knowledge learners need

Task Analysis-provides a specific description of optimal performance

Common analysis tools as described by Rossett (1987) include:

Interviewing

Observing

Facilitating groups

Surveying-questionnaires

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Assessment of Learning Outcomes/Criterion Referenced Measurement:
Criterion referenced measurement are assessment items that are created specifically to
measure if the learner has mastered a predetermined criteria as stated in a learning
objective (Dick, Cary & Carey, 2001). Criterion referenced measurement will provide
information on the degree to which the learner has mastered the content or objective of

the instruction. (Seels & Richey, 1994). A predetermined mastery level or score is
established to determine if the learner has mastered the content. Unlike normreferenced measurement where learners are scored relative to the performance of other
learner, criterion referenced measurements determines each learner's mastery against
predetermined criteria (Wikipedia, 2006). Criterion-referenced measurements will allow
the learner to know how well they perform relative to a standard as opposed to
comparing learner to learner.

Formative Evaluation:
"Formative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this
information as a basis for further development" (Seels & Richey p. 57). Formative
evaluation is utilized in the early stages of product development. Formative evaluation
may be considered the "while in process" or during "formation" evaluation process.
There are several purposes of formative evaluation, which include: (Dick & Carey, 2001)

Identify errors/problems in the instructional material

Identify factors affecting learning outcomes

Diagnose students’ learning problems

Revise and improve the quality of material & learning

Confirm students’ mastery of learning

Measure the process of learning

During formative evaluation a designer will utilize the instructional materials to conduct a
one to one evaluation then a small group evaluation and finally a field test will follow
(Dick & Carey, 2001).
During these evaluation stages, the designer will observe the learners moving through
the instructional content and record any changes that need to be made to instruction.
Edits and improvements will be completed after each evaluation therefore instructional
materials are revised several times, as needed. During a formative evaluation process
both qualitative and quantitative data may be collected. The formative evaluation
information is collected, analyzed and used specifically to make revisions and
improvements. According to Dick and Carey, the formative evaluation information is not
utilized solely to make revisions to the instruction. It is also used to "reexamine the
validity of the instructional analysis and the assumptions about the entry behaviors and
characteristics of learners" (Dick & Carey, 2001, p,8). During this critical stage in the

instructional design process the designer will also reexamine the performance
objectives, assessment items, and the instructional strategies.
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Summative Evaluation:
"Summative evaluation is a method of judging the worth of a program at the end of the
program activities. The focus is on the outcome" (Bhola,1990).
A summative evaluation is conducted after implementation of an instructional product,
project, or program. As in a "summary" of the cumulative parts of the instructional
design implementation. Summative evaluation entails gathering information on
adequacy of the instructional product or program and using this information to make
decisions about the effectiveness of the instruction. During summative evaluation
processes the designer will ask and answer the question-did the instruction solve the
problem (Dick & Carey, 2001).
The purposes of a summative evaluation include:

Determining the worth and merit of a project or program

Measure instructional material acceptance

Measure instructional material effectiveness

Measure the impact of the instructional program

Measure immediate learning outcomes

Measure knowledge and skill acquisition (Dick & Carey, 2001) (Seels & Glasgow,
1998)

During the summative evaluation processes both qualitative and quantitative data
gathered. The results of a summative evaluation may yield improvements in the
instruction or program.
Donald Kirkpatrick's (1979) Four-Level Summative Evaluation Model may be utilized by
a designer for summative evaluation. The model includes the stages of: reaction,
learning, retention and results as seen in Figure 12.
Kirkpatrick's Evaluation Model

Figure 12: Kirkpatrick's Evaluation Model
Image adopted from:
http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/k4levels/index.htm

1. Reactions-did the learners "like: the instruction? This may informally be referred to
as the "smiley test".
2. Learning-did learning occur as intended? Did the learners master the performance
objectives?
3. Transfer-did the learning transfer in the performance environment/context? Did the
instruction yield a change in the learner's behavior?
4. Results-did the instructional program do what it was designed to do? What are the
long term impacts and outcomes of the instruction?
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Another model that is utilized by evaluators is the Context, Input, Process, Product
or CIPP Model of evaluation created by Daniel L. Stufflebeam (1983) (see Figure 13).
CIPP Model

Figure 13: CIPP Model
Image Adopted from:
http://wwledgebank.irri.org/cglrc/icraf/toolkit/The_CIPP_evaluation_model.htmw.know

1. Context-describes the organizational environment in which the innovation has been
implemented
2. Input-describes the contributions into the system
3. Process-describes how the innovation is being implemented
4. Product-describes the output or outcome of the innovation

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