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Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction

Chapter 3:


Instructional Theories
Designing Instruction
Web Tools
Designing Self-Instructional Materials
Distance Education
Technology Integration

Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:

Define instructional design
Compare and contrast several instructional design models
Describe the phases of the ADDIE model
Discuss the steps involved in the instructional model proposed by Dick and Carey
List the work of an instructional designer


What is instructional design?
Instructional design models
The ADDIE model
o Analysis
o Design
o Development
o Implementation
o Evaluation
Dick and Carey model
o Goals

o Analysis
o Objectives
o Tests
o Strategy
o Materials
o Evaluation
 What do instructional
designers do?
Key Terms

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction

In this Chapter, we will discuss several definitions of instructional design examine the
key words in these definitions. Emphasis will be on some of the instructional design
models. Focus will be on two well-known models: the ADDIE model and the Dick
and Carey model. While there is similarity in the two models, there also recognisable
differences which will be highlighted in the chapter.



Instructional Design is concerned with understanding, improving and
applying methods of instruction. As a professional activity done by teachers
and instructional developers, it is the process of deciding what methods of
instruction are best for bring about desired changes in student knowledge and
skills for specific content and a specific student population. It is a “blueprint”
of what the instruction should be like and a prescription as to what methods of
instruction should be used, when it should be used for a particular content and
group of students (Reigeluth, 1983).

Instructional   Design  is   a   technology   for   the   development   of   learning
experiences   and   environments   which   promote   the   acquisition   of   specific
knowledge and skill by students. It is a technology which incorporates known
and verified learning strategies into instructional experiences which make the
acquisition   of  knowledge  and   skill  more   efficient,   effective,  and  appealing
(Merrill, Drake, Lacy, Pratt, 1996). 

Instructional Design is a systematic approach for the design, development,
implementation and evaluation of instruction (Dick and Carey, 1996).

Instructional Design is the entire process of analysing learning needs and
goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It
includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and
evaluation of all instruction and learner activities (Coldevin and Mead, 2001).

Instructional Design is a systematic approach to facilitating learning by:
identifying the purposes of the learning, especially in terms of objectives,
developing the learning experiences necessary to achieve those purposes,
evaluating the effectiveness of those learning experiences in achieving the
purposes, improving the learning experiences, in the light of evaluation, so as
to better achieve the purposes. (Commonwealth of Learning, 1999).

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction

Instructional Design refers to the systematic and reflective process of
translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional
materials, activities, information resources and evaluation (Heinich, Molenda,
Russell, and Smaldino, 2001)

Instructional Design is the art and science of creating an instructional
environment and materials that will bring bridge the gap from what the student
cannot do to what you would like them to be able to do (Broderick, 2001).

If you were to examine the above definitions of instructional design you will notice
the following terminologies that are common to the statements listed:
 systematic
 design
 development
 instruction
 improve learning
 achieve objectives
 evaluation

Since the 1960s, some 100 instructional design models have been introduced.
Why are they called ‘models’? They are called ‘models’ because they present an
abstract and simplified description of the instructional process. The models are
presented as a “system” with a step-by-step process. What is a system? A system is
any set of components that work together to achieve a specified outcome or goal. An
important aspect of any system is the feedback mechanisms that ensure the goal is
achieved or maintained.
Analogy of a System
Think of the cruise control system on your car. You set the desired
speed (or goal) and the cruise control sets the gas injection to the
proper level. Using the cruise control analogy, the car does not
just lock the gas pedal in one position. If you begin to drive uphill,
the car briefly slows down until the speedometer information is fed
back to the cruise control system, which then increases the
amount of gas and the desired speed is reached once again. Just
as a systems approach with its requisite feedback makes cruise
control a viable system to maintain driving speed.

Many of the instructional design models originate mostly from industry,
education and the military. While it is acknowledged that instructional design models
are important in education, educators are confused about which model to use because

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction
of the large variety of models available. Also, several of the models are based on a
weak theoretical foundation and some do not have a theoretical base.
In this Chapter we will discuss the following TWO popular Instructional Design

The ADDIE Model
Dick and Carey’s ID Model

The ADDIE model is an acronym referring to the major processes that
comprise the generic processes: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation
and Evaluation (see Figure below). The   Model   does   not   seems   to  have   a   single
author, but rather to have evolved informally through oral tradition. The origin of the
Model is obscure, but the underlying concepts can be traced to the nodel developed
for the United States armed forces in the mid­1970s. 
The   ADDIE   model   is   a   generic,   systematic   approach   to   the   instructional
design process, which provides instructional designers with a framework in order to
make   sure   that   their   instructional   products   are   effective   and   that   their   creative
processes are as efficient as they can possibly be. In short, it aims to  ensure that
learning does not occur in a haphazard manner, but is developed using a process with
specific measurable outcomes.






Figure 3.1 The ADDIE Instructional Design Model

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction
When used as an instructional systems model, theses processes are considered
to be sequential and also iterative. The five phases are ongoing activities that continue
throughout the life of an instructional programme. After designing an instructional
programme, the other phases do not end once the instructional programme is
implemented. The five phases work like a loop. They are continually repeated on a
regular basis to see if further improvements can be made.
Your have been given the task to design an 8 week course on
“School Leadership and Management” for a group of newly
appointed primary school headmasters. As an instructional designer,
you have selected to use the ADDIE model for this purpose. The
following are the phases you would go through to undertake the
1) The ANALYSIS Phase
Let's take a look at the first phase in the ADDIE instructional design model—the
analysis phase. Good educational or training programmes require planning and
analysis. Your first task would be to find answers to the following questions:

Who is the audience?
What do they need to learn be able to do after having gone through this
What do learners already know?
What are the delivery methods currently used?
Do constraints exist?

To answer the above questions, the Instructional Designer may have to:


Consult & Discus

Check Documents

There is a tendency to skip this phase of the instructional design process and
jump straight into the design and development phase. This is not advisable and could
have grave consequences. For example carpenters use the old adage, “Measure twice;
cut once” which can be translated to mean, “Analyse Thoroughly, Design Once”.
Skipping the ‘Analyse’ phase can result in:

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction

The content may not be relevant or redundant to learners, or even inaccurate.
The content may be too easy or too hard which could bore or frustrate
You may not catch errors until it is implemented and it would be costly to fix
or redesign the course.

2) The DESIGN Phase
When you reach this phase, you are already are pretty clear about the learning
outcomes and objectives (i.e. what learners will learn), the knowledge and skills
already possessed by learners. Now you can begin the ‘Design’ phase in which you
want to plan what the course should look like when it is complete focusing on the
following questions:

How should content be organised?

How should ideas be presented to learners?

What delivery format should be used?

What types of activities and exercises will best help learners?

How should the achievement of the learning outcomes be measured?'

Your task to produce an Instructional Design Document for the course. This
document is similar to an architect's blueprint. The document describes the course
structure and its instructional strategies but it does not contain content or subjectmatter to be taught, just like a blueprint is not a house. The actual course content and
learning materials will be created during the ‘development’ phase.
The Instructional Design Document
The Instructional Design Document is an overview of the
entire instructional solution. It provides the following:

Learning outcomes and objectives
Instructional strategies, exercises
Grouping and sequencing of content
Selection of media



a) Learning Outcomes and Objectives
 You want learners to remember the concepts and
principles learned
 You want learners to be able to apply the concepts and principles to real world

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction

You want learners to solve problems when presented with case studies or

b) Instructional Strategies and Learning Activities
You have to decide how the course material will be presented to the learners.
Specifically, we're looking at the strategies and methods to deliver the course. Here
are a few examples:
 Lecture
 Group discussions
 Role playing
 Case studies
 Scenarios
 Computer laboratories
Generally, the strategies and activities selected must fit with the type of learning
people will be asked to do.
c) Grouping and Sequencing of Content
You must decide which content should be grouped because you cannot teach
everything at once, but sometimes it makes sense to put related topics together for the
learners. Once topics have been grouped together, you have to organise the content
into a course structure. The content needs to be sequenced that will facilitate learning.
Here are just a few of the many possible sequencing options:






As you can see, there are many different ways to organise and present course material.
You have to choose the structure that makes the most sense for the learners and the
course content.
d) Selection of Media
Here you will decide what media would be appropriate when presenting the content to
learners. The following the some examples:
 Powerpoint slides
 Audio clips
 Video clips
 Computer simulation

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction
e) Designing Assessments
At the end of the needs analysis phase, you have design assessment tools that
will measure the learners progress.
You should ensure that the course's assessments should measure a learner's
If you have a driver's license, you probably completed two types of tests
before you received your license. You completed a written test that measured
your understanding of street signs, laws, and procedures. You probably also
performed an on-the-road test where someone observed your driving skills. The
two tests measure different capabilities.
You could be very knowledgeable about traffic laws and procedures but a
poor driver behind the wheel. Similarly, you might be good at driving the car but
poor at recognizing street signs and safety procedures. You have to pass both
tests before you can obtain a driver's license.
progress towards each of the learning objectives. The types of assessment must fit the
learning objective.
The Instructional Design Document that has been discussed above serves as a
quality assurance checkpoint. It is much easier to adjust the design than
redevelopment later in the project. Based on the Document, you should make an
effort to:

Check that the design concepts are cohesive and complete
o Spot areas that are not clear
 Present the proposed training solution to the client
o Check with your client if they are happy with what has been designed.
o Invite feedback about the design
 Provide instructions and guideline to those who are going to work on the
development phase of the project
The Development phase involves the actual creation (production) of the
content and learning materials based on the Design phase. It involves creating or
obtaining any media mentioned in the design of the courseware. This phase sees the
creation of storyboards, graphics and programming involved in the development. It
involves the following considerations.

Designing according to storyboard specifications

Programming according to storyboard specifications

Obtain and/or create the required media.

Use technology to present information in many different multimedia formats
so that learners' preferences can be met

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction

Determine the appropriate interactions which should be creative, innovative,
and encourage learners to explore further

Plan activities that allow for student group work to help construct a supportive
social environment.

The development phase in the ADDIE model of instructional design addresses
the tools and processes used to create instructional material. This stage includes: story
boards, coding, Graphic User Interface, and creating all multimedia elements. The
development phase is the process of authoring and producing the materials needed to
meet the objectives. The development phase builds on the process performance
objectives and measurement tools constructed in the design phase. The product of this
phase is a detailed plan of action that lists step-by-step procedures for implementing
the change. The plan also needs to include who is responsible for which elements of
the project, and time schedules and deadlines.
During the development phase, all audio, video, and text materials are
collected, prepared, or created. Documentation is prepared and the product is ready to
be tested.

Possible Development Problems

Design team and development team of a project fail to
communicate with each other.

The development team is incapable of meeting the needs
of the design team.

The expectations of the design team are unrealistic
because of time constraints.

The expectations of the design team are unrealistic
because of lack of resources.

The development team may be unable to meet the
deadline because of lack of programming expertise.

Lack of consensus of which authoring tool to use.

Development team did not consider platform for different
types of machines.


Development team did not explore all available options
before development of prototype
development team can include writers, editors, graphic designers, e-learning
programmers, usability experts, and project managers. Some people may be needed

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction
for the entire course development process, while other people may be called in to
accomplish just a few specific tasks.
There are plenty of issues to address during the ADDIE implementation phase.
It is important to make sure that the course gets delivered smoothly and effectively to
the learners. Of course, these delivery issues will substantially depend on the course's
delivery format. Generally, the implementation phase contains a lot of project
management and logistics issues.
Let us take a brief look at the training delivery issues for a company that wants
to offer instructor-led courses to 2,000 employees who work at sites across a country.
During the one-day course, learners will gather in classes (ranging between 10-15
learners). Each learner will need to receive a course workbook and have access to an
internet-ready computer. Some of the client's sites have classrooms with computers,
but many sites will need to go to offsite locations for training. The following are some
implementation issues that the delivery team will need to decide.

Establish the timetable for the course rollout

Schedule the courses, enrol learners, and reserve on-site and off-site

Notify learners and their supervisors about the course

Select trainers and prepare them with a custom train-the-trainer

Arrange for the printer to deliver course workbooks to the class site

Ensure all sites will have internet-ready computers and arrange for laptops to
be shipped when necessary

Manage travel and expenses for the trainers and/or learners

The rollout of a national training programme often becomes a complex,
choreographed activity. Usually, the planning for the delivery phase starts well before
the course is ready for implementation. Once the course has been delivered, it is time
for the final phase of the ADDIE model—the evaluation phase.
The ADDIE model stresses the concept that good instructional programmes
require planning, review, and revision. Each of the five ADDIE phases provide review
checkpoints that allow the instructional designer and the client to evaluate the work
that has been produced so far.
The ADDIE evaluation phase can produce pretty graphs and tables, but that is
not its main purpose. The evaluation phase measures the course's efficacy and locates
opportunities to improve learners' on-the-job performance. The evaluation phase

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction
provides a final review checkpoint for the instructional programme developed. During
the evaluation phase, the designer measures how well the project achieved its goals.
Here are just some of the questions that might be explored during the evaluation

Do learners like the course?

Do learners achieve the learning objectives at the end of the course?

Did learners behaviours change?

Several data collection techniques can be used to obtain information about the
programme or course designed: surveys, questionnaires, interviews, observations,
tests and so forth.
What is the ADDIE model?
What do you do at the ‘analysis’ phase?
What is the purpose of the ‘instructional design document’?
Describe what you do at the ‘design phase’.
List the types of expertise at needed at the ‘development’ phase of the instructional design process.
Discuss some of the issues that may arise during the ‘implementation’ phase.
Why is the ‘evaluation’ phase necessary?

The ADDIE model is only meant to suggest the activities at each phase. It is a guide,
not a blue-print. Any given project will include some activities and not others, and
additional activities may be needed, depending on your project needs. The team
members at any given phase may also vary, depending on the scope of the project and
the skills and capabilities of your team members.


Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction
Walter Dick obtained his PhD from Penn State University in educational
psychology and presently professor at Penn State University. Lou Carey obtained her
PhD from Florida State University and studied with Robert Gagne' and Walter Dick,
and is presently with Arizona State University. Both Dick and Carey wrote the book
The Systematic Design of Instruction in 1978 in which they introduced the Dick and
Carey Instructional Design Model.

Figure 3.2 The Dick and Carey Model
Dick and Carey made a significant contribution to the instructional design field by
championing a systems view of instruction as opposed to viewing instruction as a sum
of isolated parts. The model addresses instruction as an entire system, focusing on the
interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction. According to
Dick and Carey, components such as the instructor, learners, materials, instructional
activities, delivery system, and learning and performance environments interact with
each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes
(see Figure 3.1).
The following are the steps of the model:

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction
You begin by writing what you expect your learners will be able to do at the
end of your instruction. If you say, "The learner will know about weathering", this
only tells us what he or she knows, not what they are capable of doing. The goal
needs to state behaviours that you can observe and determine to have occurred.
Hence, you have to refine what you want learners to be able to do. If a learner
demonstrates a particular behaviour, can you be certain that is what you want and can
say definitely that learning has taken place the goal achieved.
(a) Conduct Instructional Analysis
When you do an ‘instructional analysis’ you identify all knowledge and
skills that you want learners to acquire and therefore should be
included in the instruction. You visually display the specific steps the
learner would go through in performing the instructional goal as well
as identify subordinate skills and entry behaviours.
(b) Identify Entry Behaviours
Find out as much as possible about your target audience or your
learners. The more you know about them the better! Among the things
you should attend to are:

Entry Behaviours

Prior Knowledge of the topic area

Attitudes toward content and potential delivery system

Academic Motivation

Educational and ability levels

General Learning Preferences

Attitudes towards the organization giving the instruction

Group Characteristics

Focus on what is it that the learners are already capable of doing.
Asking a few questions to individuals in your target group will
certainly be better than relying on guesses or stereotypes. What
proficiencies can you assume learners to have when they come to your
instructional session. Not only do you want to make sure that they are
ready for the instruction, but you must also determine if they already
have some of the skills you have identified for the instruction

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction
In this phase, you will go through each sub-skill box of your instructional
analysis diagram and write a clear and precise statement about what behaviour the
learner will exhibit, under what conditions, and on what criteria it will be judged
Here is an example. Given a shelf of clearly labelled standard chemicals
and apparatus in the laboratory, the learner will select the right chemicals and
appropriate apparatus and produc oxygen. Let's now ask the defining question,
"Would someone be able to determine if the learner has indeed performed this skill?"
The answer is clearly yes. These performance objectives are important statements
about what demonstrable behaviour the learner should be able to do to indicate that he
or she 'knows' it.

Mixed Opinions about Objectives:
 Some see objectives as limiting
 Difficult to measure some behaviours, for example
thinking or affective domains.
 Sometimes trivial if not developed correctly.

Why Use Objectives?
1. Develop valid and reliable assessment items based on objectives.
2. Clarify what you want to teach.
3. Increases communication between instructor and student.
4. “They are the means by which the skills in the instructional analysis are
translated into complete descriptions of what students will be able to do after
completing instruction” (Dick & Carey, 1996).
Here we create our test items. "Already?" you ask. Well, why should we create
content if we don't yet know what we will expect of the learners? Using the criteria
created for each performance objective, you will create questions that would show
whether or not the learner can perform the skill. The type of test item, be it multiple
choice, fill in the blank, essay, or other, should be dictated by the verbiage of the
performance objective. Questions, such as essay types will need special evaluation
instruments such as a checklist to verify that each key element of the answer has been
addressed. The most important thing a designer does in this phase is to create a
number of clearly phrased questions that give the learner the opportunity to
demonstrate that he or she can perform a given skill. Questions that trick, confuse, or
test skills other than that of the performance objective are useless.

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction

1. Designed to measure an explicit set of objectives.
2. Used to
a. Test and evaluate student progress against a set of objectives, not
other students.
b. Provide information about the effectiveness of the instruction
c. Allow instructor to see exactly what areas of instruction are working
well and what areas need revision
d. Pre-tests and Post-test
e. Mastery rather than norm-referenced

Although you are probably very anxious to get in there and start creating the actual
instructional materials, you must first create your instructional strategy.
“The term instructional strategy is used to cover the various
aspects of sequencing and organizing the information and
deciding how to deliver it” (Dick & Carey, 1996, p. 178).
This step, along with the next, is where you should really let your creativity run loose.
This phase forces you to answer important questions about how you will implement
your learning plan. The following are FIVE components of an instructional strategy:

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction

1. Pre-instructional activities
a. Motivation
b. Objectives
c. Entry Behaviours
2. Information Presentation
a. Instructional Sequence
b. Information

c. Examples


3. Learner Participation
a. Practice
b. Feedback
4. Testing
a. Pretest
b. Posttest
5. Follow Through Activities
a. Remediation
b. Enrichment
c. Memorization and transfer
Here, you finally get to develop the materials. Because your instructional material will
certainly be revised before final production, you should construct them on paper using
text, sketches, and storyboards. The development should include a student manual, the
instruction, tests, and an instructor's manual. Choices of multimedia should be made
upon the congruence between the skill and the media type. Practice and feedback
should be as close to the real world situation as possible.
For each lesson, consider the best technology or medium
 To present the materials
 To monitor practice and feedback
 To evaluate
 To guide students to the next activity whether it is
remediation, enrichment, or the next lesson

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction

Formative Evaluation: “the collection of data and information during the
development of instruction which can be used to improve the effectiveness of the
instruction” (Dick & Carey, 1996, p. 256). Formative evaluation is the beta testing
that takes place to help you smooth out your instruction. Even with all of your tedious
and careful analysis, planning, and reviewing, you have only created instruction that
will theoretically work. It is now time to test these assumptions empirically. If done
with the instructional design itself as a framework, you will be able to pinpoint the
exact areas that will need the improvements. When evaluating instruction, look for
clarity, impact and feasibility.
Collecting data and information to make decisions about the continued use of some
instruction. Does the instruction solve the problem identified in the first stage, Assess
needs to identify goals?
The following are some evaluation techniques::
a. One to one: work with three or more learners who
are representative of your population.
b. Small Group Evaluation
c. Field Trial
d. Questionnaires
e. Surveys
f. Observations as work through instruction
g. Focus groups
h. Novice/expert comparisons

Revision of instruction is conducted at three points in the instructional design flow
and they are:

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction

After Step 4: Developing Criterion-Referenced Items – Analyse the responses
to the items to find if there are problematic test items that need to be thrown
out. The point is to focus on which objectives need revision.
After Step 7: Designing and Developing Formative Evaluation – Your
summaries from the formative evaluation will include learners' remarks,
scores on pre-tests, embedded tests, post tests, your attitude questionnaire, and
your debriefing notes.
After Step 8: Designing and Developing Summative Evaluation – The
designer will typically create a revision table that includes the instructional
component, the problem encountered, the suggested change, and the evidence
and source for the problem. Your revision could involve changing any of the
many design steps up to this point.

The Dick and Carey model has proven to be an effective in designing
instruction and is research based and empirically tested. Whether or not the instruction
is truly effective, interesting, and engaging, depends on the instructional designers
ability to put on the scientist's lab coat when analyzing the instructional goals, and
putting on the artist's smock when creating engaging and enjoyable ways to present
the information to the learner.
It does require a level of rigor and time that many people are not willing to
expend. Although it takes into account all the necessary items needed to create
effective instruction, it should not be followed so strictly that it impedes your creative
expression, which in the end, draws the learner into the material.

What is meant by ‘instructional analysis’ in the Dick and Carey model?
Why do you need to determine ‘entry behaviours’?
What do you do when you are ‘developing the instructional
Explain the purpose of ‘formative’ and ‘summative’
e) Describe how you would use the Dick and Carey Model in designing instruction for the subject you teach.


Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction
An instructional designers is somewhat like an engineer. Both plan their work
based upon principles; the engineer on the laws of physics and the designer in basic
principles of instruction and learning. Both to design solution that are not only
functional but also attractive or appealing to the end user. Both the engineer and the
instructional designer have established problem-solving procedures that use to guide
them in making decision about their designs
The widespread use of computers as teaching tools has created a need for
instructional software. College courses, job training programs, how-to projects, and
other types of instruction are now offered through software programs. Instructional
designers carefully plan each program so it meets users' needs.
When working on a project for a client, instructional designers assume the role
of a teacher. They plan the overall instructional flow of the program and see that
content is both appropriate and clearly communicated. Instructional designers must be
familiar not only with the content to be learned and the level of the learner, but also
with a computer's means of presenting information and interacting with users.
Instructional programmes may be very specific and geared toward a fairly
small audience, as in the case of a training program in basic office procedures for new
employees of a company. Another program may be designed to instruct a larger
audience on a topic of general interest such as car repairs or money management. The
design may be simple, mainly requiring the user to read the information as it appears
on the computer screen. Other designs are more intricate, requiring different branches,
or courses of instruction, to appear after the user has responded to key questions,
taken a test, or interacted in some other way with the computer.
Instructional designers work for software publishers, software development
and design firms, and courseware developers. Most often they are part of a software
development team, responsible primarily for planning and outlining the programs.
Other team members might include a writer and an artist who create what will be seen
on each screen, a programmer who translates the design and content into computer
code, and a manager who coordinates production of the entire program. Therefore, the
ability to work well with others and to communicate ideas clearly is very important.


Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction

Instructional design
ADDIE model

Dick and Carey model
Instructional analysis
Entry behaviours
Instructional strategy
Instructional materials
Formative evaluation
Summative evaluation


Instructional Design is concerned with understanding, improving and applying
methods of instruction.

Instructional   Design   is   a   technology   for   the   development   of   learning
experiences   and   environments   which   promote   the   acquisition   of   specific
knowledge and skill by students.

Instructional Design is the art and science of creating an instructional
environment and materials that will bring bridge the gap from what the student
cannot do to what you would like them to be able to do.

The   ADDIE   model   is   a   generic,   systematic   approach   to   the   instructional
design process.

Good educational or training programmes require planning and analysis.

The design phase in which you want to plan what the course should look like
when it is complete.

The Instructional Design Document is an overview of the entire instructional

The Development phase involves the actual creation (production) of the
content and learning materials based on the design phase.

Dick and Carey made a significant contribution to the instructional design
field by championing a systems view of instruction as opposed to viewing
instruction as a sum of isolated parts.

Instructional goals: You begin by writing what you expect your learners will
be able to do at the end of your instruction.

Chapter 3: The Design of Instruction

When you do an instructional analysis you identify all knowledge and skills
that you want learners to acquire and therefore should be included in the

The term instructional strategy is used to cover the various aspects of
sequencing and organizing the information and deciding how to deliver it.

Formative evaluation is the collection of data and information during the
development of instruction which can be used to improve the effectiveness of
the instruction/

Briggs, L. J., Gustafson, K. L. & Tellman, M. H., Eds. (1991), Instructional Design:
Principles and Applications, Second Edition, Educational Technology Publications,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
Broderick, C. (2001). Instructional Systems Design: What it's all about. Boston:
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