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CornellUniversityGoldwin Smith ProfessorOf Classical Languages
And Literature(1941-67)

May 11, 1968

Richard Leo Enos (TexasChristianUniversity)
Mark James (TexasChristianUniversity)
Harold Barrett (CaliforniaState University,Hayward,Emeritus)
Lois Agnew (TexasChristianUniversity)
Edward P. J. Corbett (Ohio State University,Emeritus)


least two facets of the documentprintedherefor the firsttime areremarkable. The firstremarkablefacet is how the text, which was originallydelivered orally to a listening audience,was convertedinto an edited, annotatedtext
that a literateaudiencecould read almost thirtyyears afterit was originally delivered.The second remarkablefacet is the enormousscope andinformativeness
of this history of rhetoricand oratorythat covers a period of nearly 2500 years.
Whatis so remarkable,you may be asking, abouta speech being finally convertedinto a printedtext thathundredsof literatepeople could read many years
later?Almost any educated person today could designate at least one spoken
text that was eventuallyconvertedinto a writtentext, in some cases many hundreds of years later.Perhapsthe most notableexample of such a conversionare
the many spoken words of Jesus that were transcribedby the Evangelists into
koine Greek and published in primitive manuscriptsand later translatedinto
hundredsof modem languagesthatarepreservedin printedtexts. I do not mean
to equate the words that HarryCaplan spoke at CaliforniaState University on
May 11, 1968 with the portentouswordsof Christ.I just wantto remindyou that
manytexts originallydeliveredorallywere latertranslatedandpublishedin written form.Well, then, whatis so remarkableaboutHarryCaplan'sspoken lecture
being later convertedinto a printedtext? When you read RichardLeo Enos's
account (in the Introductionthat follows) of what he and HaroldBarrett,Mark
James and Lois Agnew had to go throughto recover and edit and annotatethe
original speech in order to get it into print, you will agree with me that it is
amazingthat we now have a printedversion of that speech.

RSQ: Rhetoric Society Quarterly
Volume 27, Number 2 Spring 1997

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You will really understandwhat I mean when I referto the remarkablerange
and informativenessof HarryCaplan'slectureafteryou finish readingit. But at
this point, I can at least prepareyou for what you are about to read. Harry
Caplanpresents a history of rhetoricand oratoryfrom the time of the ancient
Greeksto the end of the 19thcentury.I would divide the body of his lectureinto
these nine segments:
The origins of rhetoric,first in Sicily and then in Greece


The period of the Second Sophistic, beginningwith the first Christian


Romanrhetoricand oratory


The fight between rhetoricand philosophy
The strugglebetweenrhetoricand sacredstudiesduringthe first Christian Century


Rhetoricin the MiddleAges


Rhetoricin the RenaissancePeriod


Rhetoricin the 18th and 19th centuries
Some of the greatoratorsof the Westernworld, primarilythose of the
19th and 20th centuries

George Kennedy devoted an entire book to cover the same span of history,
Classical Rhetoricand Its Christianand Secular TraditionfromAncientto Modern Times.
The reconstructionand edited text of HarryCaplan'slecturetook up forty-six
double-spacedtypedpages. One would expect such a speech to take at least two
hoursto deliver.(Remarkably,the recordingtime of the speech is seventy minutes, which is a sign of Caplan'srate of delivery.)Even those membersof the
listening audience at CaliforniaState University who were passionately interested in the historyof rhetoricwould have struggledto keep up. The writtentext
published here is much more audience-friendly.The great service that the four
editorsof this text have done for teachersand studentsof rhetoricthis late in the
twentiethcenturyis to make availablethe full text of thatilluminatinglecturein
a printedtext thatcan be absorbedand savoredby readersat their leisure.
EdwardP. J. Corbett
If it is not alreadyknown to readers,it will soon become apparentin the "Introduction"thatHarryCaplanwas one of this century'sgreat scholarsof rhetoric. Caplan'sinternationalrespectas a scholardid much to add credibilityto the
historical study of rhetoric,and his impact-personally and academically-is
difficultto measure.Perhapsthe best index of his impactis thatthe qualityof his

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pathbreakingresearchis undiminishedafterdecades of subsequentscholarship
on rhetoric'shistory.Some of Caplan'smore ardentadmirersmay even point to
him as one of the sources of inspirationthat initiatedthe amountand quality of
excellent scholarshipin the history of rhetoricthat we have witnessed in the
latterdecades of the twentiethcentury.While we are mindfulof the great gains
that have been made since the achievementsof individualssuch as Caplanand
his colleagues, we also recognize their worth and our indebtedness.
In this sense, Caplan'saddressis a primarysource for our present history of
rhetoric.Thatis, our reconstructionof Caplan'saddressshouldbe seen in three
respects.First,as a statementof importancein its own right,offeringa wealth of
insight gainedthrougha careerof productivescholarship.Second, as a sourceof
evidence for historianswho wish to engage in the task of chroniclingrhetoricin
the twentieth century.Without reconstruction,this manuscriptcould have remained buried in storage at Cornell. Now we have the opportunityto offer
Caplan'sinsights and opinions to historiansfor their examinationand analysis.
Thirdandfinally, as valuableas this contributionof HarryCaplan'sis in its own
right,we hope thatthis projectis also a paradigm,an illustrationof the need for
historiansof rhetoricto engage in primaryresearchand bring to light the artifacts of our own currenthistory.
HarryCaplanwas the Goldwin Smith Professorof Classical Languages and
Literatureat Cornell University from 1941 to 1967. Caplan's tenure as the
Goldwin Smith Professor parallels and is commensuratewith a period of humanisticscholarshipin rhetoricat Cornellthatis unparalleledin ourfield. While
the researchin historical rhetoric at Cornell was wide-ranging,the standards
were so uniformandidentifiablethatthey collectively came to be known as The
Cornell School of Rhetoric.This traditionof humanisticscholarshipin rhetoric
was forgedby some of the foundingluminariesof ourdiscipline:HoytH. Hudson,
JamesA. Winans,LaneCooper,AlexanderDrummond,EverettLee Hunt,Herbert
A. Wichelns,WilburSamuel Howell, HarryCaplan,and CarrollC. Arnold.
The scholarshipproducedby these and othermembersof The Cornell School
of Rhetoric is lucidly accounted for in Edward P. J. Corbett's "The Cornell
School of Rhetoric"(1989) as well as other readings suggested at the back of
this monograph.In the headnoteto his essay Corbettexpressed his belief that
many-particularly those in English-were not "awareof the contributionsthat
the Cornell School of Rhetoric had made to the revival of rhetoric"(289) and
went on to state his belief that that essay was "thebest article I've ever written
in my professional career."Corbetthoped that his statementwould make others aware of not only our classical tradition"butwho broughtit back" (289).
For many, including I am sure EdwardP. J. Corbett,HarryCaplan is the embodiment of that classical tradition.In keeping with the sentimentsof Corbett,
we wish to heighten sensitivity to our traditionby "bringingback" a lost address of HarryCaplan'sthatranksamong his most importantstatementsabout
rhetoricand oratory.

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The addresspresentedhereis one veryimportantillustrationof HarryCaplan's post-retirementlectures."Those who were This content downloaded from 157. Speech Communicationand English. Caplan gave many of these public addressesafter his retirement. Medieval Studies.In 1968. a collection of Caplan'sown essays rangingfrom articlesin the 1920's to a publicaddresspresentedin 1964.RHETORICSOCIETYQUARTERLY 10 HarryCaplanis best knownfor his 1964 Loeb ClassicalLibraryedition of the Rhetoricaad Herennium. formercolleagues and studentsmaintain thattheir source of inspirationcame from knowing Caplandirectly.colleaguesandfriendsto honorhis achievements: The Classical Tradition:Literary and Historical Studies in Honor of Harry Caplan (ed. a model for historical research and a body of scholarshipfor continuedreading.which is significantin two respects.TwiceCaplanwas acknowledgedby volumes thatcame fromthe desireof students.his accompanying "Introduction" and"Bibliography" to the Rhetoricaad Herenniumprovidedreaders with an historical context for the treatise by presentinga lucid account of Romanrhetoricanda list of sourcesfor continuedreading.informalconversations. Each claimed him as their own. was directorof the CaliforniaState UniversityConferencein RhetoricalCriticism at Hayward.This publicrecognitionwas morethanmatched by decadesof appreciativestudents. LuitpoldWallach.His publicationsbegan in 1921 and continuedinto 1967. a Fellow of the MedievalAcademyof Americaandan assistanteditorof TheQuarterly Journal of Speech.HarryCaplan was a Visiting Professor at nearby Stanford University at the time and was invited to present the KeynoteAddress for this conference.50.his translation gave readersof English access to one of the most importantdocumentsin the history of rhetoric. Caplan'sachievementsin historicalrhetoricwerewell recognizedby such prestigious organizationsas the JohnSimon GuggenheimFoundationandthe American Councilof LearnedSocieties. 1970). Caplan's studentsfar outnumberthose who were physically presentin his classrooms at Cornell from 1919 to 1967. Caplan was Presidentof the American Philological Association.253.thereby presentingmuch of his accumulatedwisdom directly to a wide rangeof "students" throughhis oral presentationsand subsequent.51 on Fri. More importantthanthe remarkableachievementof maintaining an active researchagenda that spannedfive decades is the quality and inclusivenessof his scholarship. HaroldBarrett.Thereis little wonderthatCaplan'sscholarly effort became a paradigmthat would influence historians of rhetoric for the remainingdecades of this century. "The Classical Tradition:Rhetoric and Oratory.Caplan'sresearchin ancientandmedievalrhetoric found eager and appreciativereadersin the disciplines of Classical of the editorsof thisproject. In one respect.First. and of shared importance. a collection of thirty-eightessays. and Of Eloquence: Studies inAncient and Medieval Rhetoric by Harry Caplan (eds. Caplanwas a visiting professor at eleven universities and lectured at over thirty-eight institutions. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .As brilliant as his scholarlyachievementswere. HarryCaplan'scontributionsto historicalrhetoricprecededand followed his publicationof the Rhetoricaad Herennium. Anne King and Helen North.Caplan gave readers a primarysource.1965). Second.In one volume.

Fortunately. Second. he and Lois Agnew were able to compareand contrastthe originaldocumentwith the tape anduse thatrecordingas a way of verifying textualchanges.HaroldBarrettspokeof the excellentaddressCaplangave on thatnight andlamentedthatits impactwould only be momentary. RadfordResearchAssistant. while noting (andappreciating)Caplan'swishes.Anne King andHelen North.two technological aids gave us an advantagein reconstructingthe manuscript.51 on Fri.CLASSICAL TRADITIONS/RHETORIC ANDORATORY 11 present to hear the address hailed it as a scholarly tour-de-force.50.a shadowyand fadingmemoryfor the relativelyfew who gatheredon thatnight. KrochLibraryat CornellUniversity. to that the thirtyyears since his address.the sort of statementthat offers insights that come only aftera lifetime of scholarship.253. It became immediatelyclear why Caplanhad wished to do furtherwork on the manuscript. in fact.makingmy own reconstructionof the text while doing backgroundresearchfor commentaryandbibliographythatwould providea context for Caplan's address.Haywardon that springevening in May 1968. I can still recallhis concernover the loss of such a scholarlytreasure.ever the perfectionist.After James had "cleaned"the text for the computer. For severalyears. after his death.Certainly.At the time. In much the same respect. Caplan. Barrettwas able to secureandreproducethe originaltext of Caplan'saddress. As a result.Barrett's audio tape of Caplan's addressprovideda way to check modificationsboth orally andvisually.Even thoughit has been almost thirty years since I was an undergraduate in Barrett'srhetoric classes.cited Caplan'sdesireto revise"completely" some of his earlier essays that appearedin that volume (ix). Barretttape-recordedCaplan'spresentationon that day and afterwardsasked Caplan for permission to publish the address. King and North.The literaryexecutorof HarryCaplan'sestate.was kind enoughto grantus permissionto publishthe text of the addressand. this text is complementedby notes.At that stage I was workingindependentlyon anothercomputer.Barrettand I plannedfor a way to reconstructthis important document.SophieCaplan.thatprovidereaderswith informationhelpfulto understanding the contextof HarryCaplan'sremarks. BarrettsearchedthroughHarryCaplan'spapersattheRareandManuscriptCollections at the CarlA. As indicatedabove. Caplan remained unsatisfied with the text of this oral presentationdelivered at California State University. MarkE. as well as suggested backgroundreading. Caplan wished to have a better version of the paper and declined. helped in having the manuscript scannedby computeratTexasChristianUniversityso thatwe could have a document constructedin a way to make changes clearly and efficiently. was constantly trying to "improve"his work. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . his editors for Of Eloquence. James.These versions then were preparedin a mannerthat enabledus to compareand contrastour autonomousefforts and create a final synthesis for reconstructingthe address.there has been a significantamountof revisionaryresearchon the his- This content downloaded from 157. buried among the volumes of his otherpapersat CornellUniversity.For the last threeyears. the manuscriptremained unrevised and fallow. nonethelessdecided to present his works in their original form.Caplan had made numeroushand-writtenchanges and modifications on the typed manuscript.

The documentthatyou see hereis the productof a collaborativeeffortin many respects.12 RHETORICSOCIETYQUARTERLY tory of rhetoric.what we cannot capturein printis the lucidity of Caplan'soral delivery.The expertisenecessaryfor the reconstruction of this manuscriptrequiredproficiency both in computertechnologies and in rhetoricaltheory and history.helped studentsto realizethe best of a liberalartseducation.a greaterawarenessof women's contributionsto that history. and a greatersensitivityto genderreferences.In some instances. In addition. in some instances.What is also fascinatingaboutthis effort is how varioustechnologies can assist us in not only transformingoral discourseto literateform but. Despite our effortsandthe advantagesof currenttechnologies. as a consequence.however.What HarryCaplanhad to say to his audienceback in 1968 will resonate today for its continuedrelevanceto our historiesof both ancient and modern rhetoric. While many readerswill have extensive backgroundin the history of rhetoric.51 on Fri. RichardLeo Enos This content downloaded from 157. othersmay not. however.50. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . appendedto Caplan's addressare suggested readingsfor works alluded to by Caplanas well current scholarshipthatprovides a more recentperspectiveon the topics raised.every effort has been made to cite works that would have been availableat the time of ProfessorCaplan'saddress.can stabilizethatact of momentarycommunicationso thatHarry Caplanwill continueto "speak"to generationsof studentsyet to come.Some of the works are collections of HarryCaplan'sscholarship. laterworks actuallyprovidea more thoroughbackgroundfor the points that are being discussed. Caplan'sseventy-minuteaddressillustratesthe classical value of unitingwisdom with eloquence. All such materialis presented with the intent to enrich an understandingand appreciationof the remarksoffered by HarryCaplanin this raredocument. in turn. To this end.As a practiced lecturerand formerinstructorof speech. works are cited thatwill familiarizethe lattergroup of readerswith the informationandtopics thatProfessorCaplanalludedto in his address.The "knowledge"necessary to edit this work requiredbothinterpersonalexperiencesacquiredover severalyearsof contactwith HarryCaplanand years of study of his scholarship.this was not possible. Last.Wheneverpossible.the audience for this reconstructedtext is differentin other ways.Withoutsupportingmaterialreaders would have little contextwithin which to understandthe salience of the remarks and observationsmade by ProfessorCaplanon thatday almost thirtyyears ago.To this end.The Cornell School of Rhetoricmaintainedthatclassical rhetoricfacilitatedpublic speakingwhich.The end productis a consequence of how our technologies can move a piece of discourse from orality to literacy. a list of suggested readingsis providedat the end of the address.253.the manuscriptof ProfessorCaplan'saddresscontained no explanatorynotes or citationreferences.The creationof this publishedtext literallyinvolved efforts from coast (California)to coast (New York). A Note on the Commentary As mentionedearlier. In othercases.others are by his colleagues and formerstudentsfrom Cornell and still others are recommendedscholarshipabout Caplan and his era in rhetoricalscholarship. generalbackgroundworks are referenced. the actualcitationof a mentionedworkis given.

"' The Greek was a zoon politik6n.and those figures of speech which producebalance and rhythm. When disputesarose over confiscatedproperty. The sophistGorgias(5th-4thCenturyB.The earliesttreatiseswere those of Coraxand Tisias.THE CLASSICALTRADITION: RHETORICAND ORATORY A Public Address Given By Harry Caplan (Cornell University) at California State University at Hayward May 11. the right of the citizen to speak his mind. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . believing thatdiscussion does not constitutea stumbling-blockto action."possessed of a strong civic feeling.50. These sophistsPlato. and so the artof advocacywas methodicallystudied.5In the Republic he exiles both poetry and rhetoricfrom the 13 RSQ: Rhetoric Society Quarterly Volume 27.andparrhesia.2 He believed that the only kind of agreement desirableamongrationalmen is thatachievedby free discussion. * Thrasymachusstudiedappealto the emotions. dazzlingthe Athenianswith a new type of artisticprose.C) emphasizedthe correctchoice of words. * Theodorusof Byzantiumclassified the divisions of a discourse.andthereunderwenta richdevelopment.51 on Fri.a class of trainedspeakers was found useful. It is fitting and properthat an eloquent expressionof this pride should appearin a speech-the funeral orationwhich Thucydidesputs into the mouth of Pericles: "WeAthenians decide. scathinglyindictedfor theirunscrupulousoratory.C. was staunchlyprized. "fromwhose mouthflowed speech sweeterthan honey. but ratherthat it is a mistakenot to be instructedby discussion before enteringupon action.253."Odysseus "fertilein counsel. FromSicily rhetoricpassedto Greece.C. C.]: * Empedocles inventedliterarydevices such as metaphor. or reflect rightly upon. Let me indicatesome of the maincontributions."3 After a historyof naturaleloquence-for Thucydidesand otherwriterstell us about early Greek orators of power and persuasiveness-the art of rhetoric emerged with the emergence of democracy.The Sophiststraveledfrom city to city collectinghuge sums frompupilswho wishedto learnargumentation. 1968 icero and other ancientrhetoriciansrepeat a commonplacethat oratoryis one of the earliestneeds of society.4Despots were thereoverthrownandpopulargovernmentsestablished.).in the 4th CenturyB.. in the Greek cities of the year 465 B.In the 5th Century[B. "a political animal. in the dialogueentitledGorgias.And Prodicus(5th CenturyB. who first saw the uses of argumentationfrom probabilities.And indeednaturalspeakersareprominent alreadyin Homer:Nestor.. initiatedepideictic(the oratoryof praiseand censure)."andAchilles "a speakerof words as well as doer of deeds.C. public questions for ourselves. Number 2 Spring 1997 This content downloaded from 157.for makingthe worse appear the better reason.

developed a theory of delivery-a function of the artwhich was not philosophicalenough to interest his master-and exerteda stronginfluence throughhis treatmentof the four chief qualitiesof Style-purity. Dionysius of Halicarnassuswrote systematicstudies of the great Greekorators. rhetoricis a discipline by itself.the addressof welcome. the Inventionof ideas holds first place. and between oral and writtenstyle. Of the kinds of competencespeakersmust master. and that by its means he could form statesmen. He made rhetoriconce againprominentby buildingthe doctrineof Issues which determinethe kinds of case. and the ethical."he said.) rhetoricis the noblestof the sciences. Theophrastus(4th-3rdcenturyB. jurisprudence.obscureterminology.whose art. clarity. and taking the form of the funeraloration. by developingrhythmicprose. though it has many virtues.and epideictic-whose end is virtue. which should not merely delight them but should improve them morally.and ornamentation."Nothing. commemoratingpersons.253.seeing re- This content downloaded from 157.C.C.50. The kinds of oratoryarethree:legal-whose end is justice. sets clarity and proprietyin the foreground. Aristotle convertedthe practical approachof his predecessorsinto a philosophical system. or the after-dinnerspeech. when.At about 50 B. A new phase beganin the thirdcenturyB. and scholastic. on Style. deliberativewhose end is expediency (he favorsthis branch).greatspeakinghad ceased. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .7 Though differentfrom the special sciences. To Isocrates(5th-4thCenturyB. but it has relations also with psychology. is the artof critical examinationinto the truthof an opinion. Only Hermagoras.appropriateness. this doctrine became a staple of theoryin most of the the second century. places.andconsidersthe distinctionsbetweenprose andpoetic diction.).The treatmentof the emotions in Book II of his Rhetoricdisplays an extraordinarilyshrewdknowledge of humannature. for rhetoricis the artof discovering all the possible means of persuasion.and Book III.C. he gave the Attic languagegrace and dignity.14 RHETORICSOCIETYQUARTERLY ideal State.the invective. and we can take as representativeHermogenes (Second Century). phase.and literarycriticism. the emotional. is featured also by subtleties.C. "contributesso much to the practiceof virtue as does the studyof political wisdom and eloquence. but in the Phaedrus gives the blueprintof a rhetoricwhich should lead men to justice.and excessive refinements. chiefly because of political conditions. Aristotle's disciple.8which began in the first Christiancentury.represents the last..51 on Fri. and days. Rhetoricis now a counterpartof dialectic.deserves special mentionhere. ethical persuasionbeing that achieved throughthe speaker'scharacteras artisticallyevinced in his discourse.9 Rhetoricis of course interwovenwith criticism. With scientific skill Aristotledevelops the threekinds of proof-the logical. Its matteris largely ethics and politics."On the technical side. And in that same dialogue he sets down the invaluableprinciple that a speech should be a living organism.6 He believed that it provides a general education. The Second Sophistic. all membersbeing adaptedto the whole.

perfect in his control of language. Many who were not equal to this task thereforehired speech-writers.50. Hyperides.Dinarchus. It is safe to say thatthe Philippics and Olynthiacspeeches of Demosthenes. So much for the theory.butwe have very muchwith us todaythe ghostwritersof campaignand otherkinds of speeches. powerfulin his effect on the ancientstermedthe or "Small-BeerDemosthenes.Longinus. The honest and patrioticLycurgus. At this junctureI shouldremindyou thatin a legal trialin Greece the accused conductedhis own case. and the intermediate.C. The intellectualIsaeus. interestingfor his lucidity.but loose in style. good in narrative. and spokesmanof the highest sincerityfor the ideals of democracy. Lysias.51 on Fri.Isocrates.10At times he is mechanical and fails to contemplatethe oratoras a whole."1 Near the beginning of artisticargumentation.canonized as a group in the second or thirdcenturyB. and the exciting debate between Demosthenes and Aeschines on the awardof the crownto Demosthenes.Demosthenes.The high period of Attic oratorywas the fifth and fourthcenturiesB. His criticism wrought a salutarycheck on the florid and bombastic style of the Asianic orators.with his exaggeratedinvectives.Antiphon.These last came at a time when theoryhad also developed.six especially-Antiphon. Hyperides. Isaeus. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . moderateness.clever in his wit.Aeschines. Isocrates. I mentionthis logographybecause in other forms it often recursin history. Demosthenes.for Asianism flourishedin both East andWest after the deathof Demosthenes.perhapsas a body. andDinarchus. of good taste.a less carefulIsocrates."and representingthe beginnings "Gingerbread.andHyperideshave been called the perfectors.relying on a priori probabilities. and manualsof the arthad multiplied..'3Of the oratorsI have named. unequalledoratoricalliterature. but in generalhis judgment and taste are excellent.observes the humanspirit-elevated thoughtand inspiredpassion-at work in great speakingand writing. A centurylater(as some of us still think). Thatthe philosopherSeneca wrote speeches for the emperorNero was a scandal. and skill in character-delineation.who best blendedall threetypes of style.rankwith the greatspeechesof all time. andIsaeusbrokenew paths. with their ten speakers.andwith greatestskill Lysias-often wrote speeches for their clients to deliver.CLASSICALTRADITIONs/RETORICAND ORATORY 15 rations among them. the grand." of his golden book On the Sublime.C.the simple. highly regardedin antiquityfor his smoothness and persuasiveness. Demosthenes. and tracing the historical progress. model of the simple style. This content downloaded from 157.253. Here you have a splendid. most elaborateof all in his attention to expression. The unconventionalAndocides.'2 Aeschines.and with a crudebut vigorous style. Lysias.exemplarof the Middle Style. and his treatmentis often enlivened by personal reactions.precision.

with their often sterilemethods."5This kind of mnemonic trainingwas to bear fruit in extraordinaryfeats duringthe Second Sophistic. which persiststo the presentday (even in the paperthe night before last. andLatintreatiseson the subjectwere soon in circulation. the product of a time of leisure and wealth. both in the East and in the West.. Yet some of the moral. underabsolutemonarchy.written by Lucian in the second Christiancentury-himself a rhetoricianand pleader. in answer. In the East indeed they ruledthroughoutall of Byzantine history. as I have said.16 RHETORIC SOCIETYQUARTERLY practicedfor its own sake.Memory came in as a fifth division.tractsreworkingtheir principles.too.C.These latersophists were professional speakerswho would appearwith eclat before large and enthusiastic audiences.proliferated. belonging to the second decade of the first centuryB. their arrangement.14The chief additionwas in the form of Christianmotives.and tremendoustalent was spent on achieving what was at times indeed witty and graceful. The speakersdid returnto Classical models. was largelyepideictic. and display great feats of improvisation and verbal memory. But their aim was often only virtuosity. beganin the firstChristiancentury. too..Epideicticis the mainoccupation.51 on Fri. and a history of the method.I recommendto you the witty satireon this kind of oratoryentitled TheProfessor of Public Speaking. a word on the last ancientrevivalof eloquence. Hermogenes.. but their art was of the schools.50.oratorywas divorced from practicalaffairs. These treatises-by Menander.but frequently also empty andpuerile. But the decline of Greekoratoryreally dates from the deathof Alexanderthe Greatin 323 B.Dio Chrysostomwrote a eulogy of hair. an encomium of baldness. based on a visual scheme of backgrounds. but also of a time when free speech was restricted. though Greek in substance.It remainednow for expandingRome to enjoy a careerof splendorin oratoryand fruitfulactivity in an elaboratetreatmentof natural and artificial memory.yet show signs. In the declamatorykind of talk the speaker might representsome figure of history-Philip of Macedonmight well take anotherverbalbeatingfrom a feigned Demosthenes. The Roman treatise addressed to Herennius. The Greek art of rhetoricwas first naturalizedat Rome in the middle of the second centuryB. We had from Aristotle and Theophrastusfour divisions of rhetoric-the invention of ideas.andthe scholastictreatises. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Aphthonius-are to be entrenchedfor many centuries.C. Cato Major and the elder MarcusAntonius wrote such texts-we don't have them-and the two oldest extant. and even sophisticalspeeches make interesting reading.Photiusin the ninthcentury standingout as the most successful in returningto old models. in largepartremovedfrom come into use.253.political.the Second Sophistic-which. afterwhich. of a traditionof Latin teachingbehindthem. and delivery. the memory of facts and of words.but without substantialalterations.and Synesius. in the time after Alexander. Byzantineoratory. which This content downloaded from 157.

Here is noble language handled with such vivacity. Most public men at Rome spoke effectively.serve as an example of sophistic virtuosity: When his enemies-these were studentsof anotherteacher---challenged Prohaeresiusto speak. We have57 of his orations.-orators of the preceding century.51 on Fri. and the coldness and stiffness of extremeAttic simplicity. great theorist and great oratorboth.Quintilianaimed to revive the Ciceronianprinciples in his twelve books on the training of an orator-rhetoric is the centerof a broadliteraryeducation.253.andits ideal is one of moral virtue.andfor the inspirationof lofty ideas.declaringhim to be the very model of Hermes. The aim is humanitas-a wide and noble cultureembracinga knowledge of history.CLASSICAL TRADITIONS/RHETORIC AND ORATORY 17 I read on the plane) would require several volumes. clearness.Prohaeresius.on a difficult theme.duringthe Empire. of Caelius. With large vision he sets up for the oratoran ideal of humanexcellence-he wants much more than professional skill.23Political oratorywas now restrictedvirtually to the emperor.and literature. Roman oratoryexisted long before the elder Cato. but as a literaryartit may be saidto havebegunwith him. and music that it became the model for centuries-lucid.'9 Cicero indeed thoughtthat CrassusandAntoniusrivaledthe best speakersof Greece.'6 By Cicero's time the five-fold division of the rhetoricalfunctions is fully developed.C. but for the height of excellence we must read the speeches of Cicero.the SecondPhilippic. At the end of the first Christiancentury. ornate. the Defense ofArchias.22 Withthe deathof Cicero and of the RomanRepublicthe great traditioncame to an end. the Verrines.with perfect periods and rhythms.philosophy. but then also deliveredthe speech verbatima second time. In one of our oldest extantRomantreatiseson rhetoric-86 B. unprepared. the Defense of Milo. eatenup with envy.while his enemies lay in the a long list.who This content downloaded from 157. His faithfulpupil Eunapiustells us that some of the audiencekissed his feet andhands. jurisprudence. Cicero opposed both the affectation and bombast of Asianism.God of Eloquence. and of the Manilian Law in my opinion stand out from most of the rest. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .20 Of their speeches we have only fragments. bringingto bearalso the wisdom gainedby his own richpracticeas leaderof the State and advocatein many trials.21but we have also Cicero's observation thatin the previoushistoryof Romanoratorytherewas a progressivedevelopmentfrom untaughtspeakingto a polished style which was the productof the conscious study of the art. already serve as models for style. at the beginningof the 2nd centurybefore Christ." With sanity and judicious practicalitythis experienced schoolmastersummarizesvirtuallyall of the ancient art.17 Cicero as theoristcombines the doctrinesof Aristotle and Isocrates. Let a speaker of the 4th Christiancentury.50. he not only extemporizedwith a flood of eloquence.

and suppressingthe accidental. and the manifestationsare not dissimilar. and emphasis was placed on ingenuity. the decadence was a subject of lively consideration. disinheritedchildren.mannerism.andwhen he addressedthe Senatehis aim was rather to impose his will thanto persuade. Some attributedthe decline to the growthof wealth and luxury-"wealth accumulates and men decay"-some to the bad elements I have describedin education.and transient. andwhereit prevailstherespreadsabroadthe zeal of mutualrivalryand the ambitiousstrugglefor pre-eminence. where declamation predominated.believed in the operation of a naturallaw of reaction-that which has reachedits acme mustperforce recede." We can profitablycomparethe decline of Athens afterthe deathof Alexander.trivial.That arthad been popular. During the first Christiancentury at Rome. and dazzling ornament. The Greek Second Sophistic and the decline in the West merge.RHETORICSOCIETYQUARTERLY 18 wielded absoluteauthority. Says Longinus:"Must we really believe that oft-repeated observationthatdemocracyis the kind foster-motherof of the most worthlessbequestsof antiquity.the pleasuresof the ear.poisonings. but Pliny and Tacitusand Longinus were sure that the chief cause was the loss of freedom. and Domitian occupied the throne. like Seneca the ElderandVelleius Paterculus.andmen lived apart from the city. pirates. Thereis no lasting securityfor truthin artisticcreationexcept an intelligent public.the popularassemblies had no power. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .the Senate'sduties were largely administrative. ProfessorJebb accepts the political explanationfor the decay of deliberativeand legal oratory.andthatliterary excellence may be said to flourish only with democracy. Cicero said thathe acceptedthe Romanpublic as the finaljudge of This content downloaded from 157.but for the decline in epideictic he assigns anothercause. when the city lost its oratory was confinedto the petty courts.abundance. The aims of this oratorywere entertainment and display. some.and with democracy to die? For freedomhas the power to nourishthe imaginationof the highmindedandto kindle hope.trivial fare (too often)-tyrants. melodramatic. Unreal.Cassius Severus.51 on Fri.Whenthe moralunityof the city-statewas broken. fixing its attentionon the essential andtypical."24 With respect to Greece. and caste and coterie make capricious judges.andseductionwerethe themestoo oftentreated. the artistworkedfor a few. It was an activity shuntedaway from life.25The decay of citizen-life in the Greekrepublicsbrought about a change in the natureof Greek art. cries: "These declaimers are like hothouse plants that cannotstandup in the open air. and speech was not really free-especially when Caligula. perhapstoo harshly. Oratoryis for the most partnow confined to the schools.andI presentthe chief theoriesthen advancedto explain it. Nero. And a contemporary.50.bizarreextravagance.253.for theirservile flatteryof the emperorsto whom they were addressed.with the decline at Rome.andepideicticspeakingstartedon a course of progressivedegenerationthatreachedbottomin the panegyricsof the 3rd and 4th centuries-these have been termed.

Aristotletakesthisprincipleas a meansindexof megalopsykhia. ric arousingthem.even as Horaceadoptedcharacter-sketchingand otherelements of the artof rhetoricin his Art of Poetry. I come now to the strugglebetween rhetoricandphilosophyfor supremacyin education:there have always. maintaining also a connectionwith linguistic and literarystudies. character studies. is one of the divisions of a speech. Grammarand rhetoricdominatededucation. the speeches. as in the speeches delivered in tragedies.C. andtheorizingupon it was in the period afterAlexanderbound up with the theory of writing history.The narratio. so it seems. educational. The study of poetry was consideredessential in the training of the speaker. This content downloaded from 157. The traditionof rhetoricalteachingwas in the main constantduringthe Greek and Roman periods.50.and so corruptsthe young.or in Lucan the passion for point.51 on Fri. the analysis of model speeches. commonplaces. Antiphonwas convicted of treasonupon the failureof the revolutionof the antidemocratic400." In the EudemianEthics.while Pliny.paraphrases.The opposition-whether philosophical.even as epideictic theory was linked with the theory of biography. The Greeks and Romansdid not studyprose apartfrom poetry.ANDORATORY CLASSICAL TRADITIONS/RETORIC 19 his speaking. he delivered what Thucydidescalled the best speech of defense he had ever known. however-in the first and second centuriesof the Christian era-to observe how the contemporarytrainingin rhetoricwas a formative factorin variousbranchesof literature.We laterfind many recurrencesof this close is devoid of sincerity. greatnessof soul.26When afterAntiphon'scondemnation.27Much time was given to narrative.rhetostyle.253. Poetry.In TacitusandSuetoniuswe see the search for epigram.28We go to the period of Silver Latin.ethical themes.religious. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . character-delineation.was indifferentto public approval and was satisfied if only his friend Tacitusthought his speeches Seneca's tragedies. Recall thatwhen in 411 B. Homeris the suprememodel not only for poetic powerbut also for oratorical. Agathonpraisedhis speech. Antiphonsaid he "wouldratherhave satisfied one man of virtue throughguile than any numberof ordinarypeople.and the two artssharedin common the field of andemotion-poetry portrayingthe emotions.essay-writings. The study of rhetorichad an effect also on historiography. been those who distrustrhetoric. underthe Empire.As Quintilian says.or political-has at one time or other mostly takenthese forms: Rhetoric-public speaking-has no regardfor instructionor truth. in Valerius Maximus and Silius Italicus sententious reflections. and speech-makingof all the three kinds. and the stock the work of Velleius Paterculusan altogetherrhetoricalkind of history. supplied the student of rhetoricwith illustrativematter.but seeks only deception. the statementof facts.and conversely. rhetoricalprinciples were carried over to the studyof poetry.

it needs only experienceandpractice-but many successful speakersnever studied rules.20 RHETORICSOCIETYQUARTERLY it is immoral.The Stoics distrusted ornamentallanguageand appealsto the emotions. It is unphilosophical. (Here I have-in effect.)29Othercritics continue:unlike philosophy.the foster-childof a Rhetoricdoes not grow in such an order. In the ancient period the fight between rhetoric and philosophy continued from the time of Plato up to the second Christiancentury. and his head and severed handsexposed at the Rostra.along with poetics.30 Further.50.The philosophical opinionnevercompletelydies: the RenaissancePlatonist[Francesco]Patrizi takes up the fight against rhetoricand once more contendsthat it is not an art.dealing not with universalsbut with particulars.every care centers on the apparatusof words and the nimblenessof tongue.and ErmolaoBarbaro.32And by the fourthChristiancenturythe EmperorJulian complainsthattalentedmen of the Westdelight only in rhetoric.the Epicureansadmittedthatrhetoricwas useful for political activity (to which they were indifferent)but did not accept the doctrine of Cato and Quintilianthat the oratorwas necessarily a good man.51 on Fri. though not in his own wordsgiven you argumentsof the early aims at appearances-its sphereis that of opinion and conjecture.even the authorof the treatiseon rhetoricaddressedto Herenniusbelieved philosophy to be a better studythanrhetoric. It is an art of flattery. pre-ChristiancenturyCritolauswas opposedto the is a waste of time. ingloriouslydid Ciceropay for his fame in oratoryby the kind of deathhe died-sacrificed by Octavianto the animosity of Marc Antony. was the sole errorof the Greeks. like selling merchandise.GiovanniPico della Mirandola. again debate the subjectin a very lively way. an ally of tranquillity. Thoughit worshipssuccess.34 This content downloaded from 157.3"arguing thatmanyoratorsare able but in characterdepraved.253.teachingthatthe only moralityis thatestablishedby public opinion-truth becomes thatwhich the audiencebelieves. but made contributionsto the artin the field of composition. futile and trivial. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It is not an artbut a knack.Stateswith well-regulatedcivic order.pleasing the crowd and conforming to its standards-the harlotof the arts. And also does notproducestatesmenor conferpower.rhetoricdoes not conduce to a happylife. The political attackis especially enlightening:Cicero is wrong in saying that eloquence is an associate of peace.33And in the 19th centuryRenan alleged thatrhetoric.but in the second.or like thievery.the Peripateticscontinued the AristotelianandTheophrastianconcernwith rhetoric.

Augustine.andthe only significant change was thatin the MiddleAges rhetoricbecame subordinateto sacredstudies.made an appealto banish the Greek oratorfrom the schools of Germany. andproclaimsits value for Theology. JohnJewel.253.the conflict became one also of conflicting literarycultures. Finally." And not so long ago (in my own memory).wordy and redundant.St.worldly success is no worthyaim of a Christian. the point is made that the books of the pagans never knew the humilitywhich the New Testamentpreaches. but one man-and he the all-wisest!"35 Muchlater. the 1916.a very good student of Isocrates.50. I yet showed traces of faith in Thee. the scholarDrerup. St."And the headingof this section in an American edition reads (believe me): "WhenI taughtrhetoric. that"it is no sin to despoil paganthought This content downloaded from 157.Spartacondemneda citizen who had studiedrhetoricabroad. Maternusin Tacitus'Dialogue on Oratorsexclaims: "Whatneed of a long succession of speeches before the public assembly when now (underthe Empire) it is not the ignorantmultitudethat deliberateson the public welfare. Jeromeundergoesa conversion from Ciceronianto Christian. The grammariansknew this not.have filled the air with empty wind. the geometriciansknew this not."The point often made is thatrhetoricis useless in man'sendeavorto save his soul. 0 Lord. This Plato knew the Confessionslooks back with misgivings upon the days when he "sold the talkativenessthatemphasizesvictory.for when sacred literaturewas set againstsecular. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . who had the effronteryto defend his mean little State against efficient Macedonand to resistthe wave of the future. aim of deliberativeoratoryis unChristian.and kept a mistress.51 on Fri.Augustine in his work. Cicero knew not. the the death of Demosthenes Athens was destroyed.In justification he writes.and democraticheedlessness.andthe praiseworthy. which foolish men call liberty."37 But the rhetoricaltraditionwas too strongto go under.dependsheavilyon Cicero. joins eloquenceto religion. TheNew Yorklimes reportedthatthe presentGreek governmenthas condemnedthe readingof Pericles'funeralorationin Thucydides because of its democraticspokesmanship. Demosthenes knew not. on the Day of Judgmentthe sinnerwon't help himself with epideictic oratory.profit.On ChristianDoctrine. former teacher of rhetoric.St.36 The Christianopposition was differentfrom the philosophical. and othersrepeatafterhim. with scorn for that provincial lawyer-talker Demosthenes.Furthermore.a few monthsago.appertainingas it does to vainglory.andrhetoricwas unknownin totalitarianMacedoniaand appealsnot to the 1548. but to the scum of the populace.TakePaulusAlbarusof the 9th centuryas typical: "In the beginning was the Word. It is a foster-childof license. Praelectorin Humanitiesat Oxford:"Rhetoric is devised for associate of sedition.ANDORATORY TRADITIONs/RHETORIC CLASSICAL 21 a vigorous militaristicconstitutionlike Cretebanishedrhetoricians. It destroys commonwealths.

it leads insensiblyto God."For the motion: 297. The subject:"Resolvedthat this House has the highest regard for rhetoric.Rhetoric is a good. defend themselves.andGregoryof Nazianzuswrites:"Ihaveretainednothingfor myself but eloquence."Cassiodorussees himself as the ideal Christian with the Sophists. declaredthatrhetoricwas one of humanity'sgreatestneeds.51 on Fri.50. the true and the just are by their nature easier to prove and to believe in. conscious of the innateGermandistrustof rhetoric. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .in times even when political conditionsprovidedno urgency for great speaking. taughtthat the aim of eloquence was to persuademen to truthand virtue. it is the possession I have most cherished.]38 So also the Frenchpreacherand scholarFenelon. It is my guide on my heavenwardpath. and attackothers.22 RHETORICSOCIETYQUARTERLY of the gold of wisdom or the silver of eloquence.39 In 1815. [It continues to be a useful study so long as men discuss statementsand maintainthem. andteachesus to know Him moreclearly. and empty style. but a plain. After the duties of religion. believe it or not. 297! I hope you will be relievedto hearthatthe Chairmansaved the day by his affirmative the year 1679." Finally (and perhapswith too muchjustice to the other side). The defenders of rhetoric have also based their argumentson a variety of grounds. But John Morley dealt with the subjectin one shortsentence: "Todisparage eloquence is to depreciatemankind. who began: "I am no speakeras Brutusis.Aristotlein his Rhetoricand Quintilianamplyvindicatedthe artagainst Plato's charges.We presenttwo sides of a case in orderto see whatthe facts are.253." As we leave the ancientswe may ask: why the exceptionalfavor accordedto rhetoricin Greece and Rome? The underlyingidea which persistedthroughout the ancientperiod.The persuasionof the multitudeis not a vulgartask. Eloquence had a trulyhumanvalue transcending This content downloaded from 157. I cannot forebearto tell you of the debatethattook place in the CambridgeUniversityUnion on March 11. Rhetoricis the artof makingtrutheffectivenot the speaker. blunt man"thus using the oldest trick in the trade. as by God's preceptthe Hebrews despoiled the Egyptians. 1924. nor do I regret any of the labor I have expended on sea or land in search of it. The chief speaker in opposition? Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin. and to which I cling the most.andpreserves and strengthensthat knowledge in us. false emotions. But you are not to take the charming flippancy of the BritishUniversityUnions seriously. Paul Shoreymaintainedthata knowledgeof rhetoricrendersthe citizen proof againsttrickylogic.Rhetoricis useful because truthandjustice have a naturaltendency to prevail over their opposites.was thatto learnto speak well was at the same time to learn to think well and to live well. given the imperfectionsof humannatureand the requirementsof populargovernment. but a necessary partof educationand governmentin a stable society. andseeing thatGermanylackedthe conditionswhich madethe Romancepeoples the heirs of Rome. the poet Goethe.All good things except virtueitself can be abused. against the motion.

there arose a group of works like the Ecclesiastical Rhetoric of the twelfth century. To the ancients.rendersthe mute articulate. developed by Aristotle.50. sublime and radiantbeauty and regal poise. bronze vessels. tapestry. these three disciplines formingthe trivium of the liberal arts. manuscriptsof some of the chief classical authors themselves were plentifulin the libraries.And it was included in the curriculumof the religious orders.40and Cicero is almost always her attendant. It developed a concernfor form and schools.andall threebecame branchesof logic."Furthermore. her robe embroideredwith a multitudeof figures. there were special tractson rhetoricalcolors.and the handiworkoften of famous artists.tablerals. and for the Middle Ages by Boethius in the early sixth century.the ornamentation tops. preservedthe principles of ancient rhetoric.and gravestones. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . From Carolingiantimes-the 8th and 9th centuries-well into the Renaissance.43These were designed to preparestudentsfor positions in the ecclesiastical and statechanceries.muof libraryrooms. and maintainingthe alliance of rhetoricand law in the schools.became of special importancewith the increasedinterestin dialectic thatafterthe year 1100 attendedthe growthof scholasticism.altars. there grew up from Carolingiantimes well into the later period a huge and tremendouslyimportantmass of treatises. following the compendiousfashion of an encyclopedia.41 Consistently throughoutthe Middle Ages rhetoricplayed a cardinalrole in education. as the figures of speech were called.miniatures. The rhetoricaleducation. in the traditionthat rhetoricis fundamentallythe art of speaking well on civil questions. their poetry and their art. rhetoricas one of the liberal arts was figuredin church sculptures.the artassumedthe name of rhetoric. andteaches one to avoid every lingualineptitude.In the first place. helmeted. It was the conveyorof the culturalpatrimonywhich distinguishedman from savage and made him truly man.Almost universallythese tractsborrowedthe This content downloaded from 157. devoted to letter-writingand legal administration.virtuallya forensic rhetoricof canon law.therewere the works of the minor rhetoriciansof later date who.Secondly. monasteries. windows.makes the blind to see.and by the twelfth centuryin the cathedralschools. and later in the universities.Thirdly.And finally.there were commentarieson severalof the classical works. and deeply influenced their literature.At times she holds a pose perhapsintendedto be faithfulto MartianusCapella's(5th century)striking portraitof her as omnipotentqueen.253.rhetoricwas bound up intimately with their life of order and beauty. Rhetoricappearsusually in female form.An anonymousrhetoricianof the fifteenthcenturycan boast that "rhetoric is the science which refreshesthe hungry. Rhetoricwas in close kinship with grammarand dialectic. Also in this tradition.42Dialectic infiltratedboth I have many places of Europe.ANDORATORY TRADITIONsIRmETORIC CLASSICAL 23 the practicalapplicationswhich historicalcircumstancescould confer upon it.The rhetoricaluse of the topics of dialectic. flourishedin the schools of Europe.andthe teacherscalled themselvesrhetors.51 on Fri.manuscripts. artes dictaminis.held the interestof theirbest men of action.

Some of these tractsobviously substitutemechanicaloperations in the place of individualinvention-in these instances one sees the third stage in the naturalhistory of an art:first we have a period of inspiration. the more it moves and edifies. set the thematicform of preaching.51 on Fri. The questionindeed still comes up today:do we want Cicerosin our pulpits? But the others favored"coloration.253. with William of Auvergne. and rhetorical colors and rhythmsagain receive special attention. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .for example.are often treatedin these handbooks. vain.and the capturingof good will. The modulationof the voice. Cicero and Quintilian. But the great field of persuasionin the Middle Ages was in preaching. One can gain some notion of the esteem in which these handbookswere held from the bargain made by the usuriouswardrobeclerk of the 14thcentury.thatthe more simple andunadorneda sermonis. as Israel Bethan put it uniquely. The manuscriptswere scatteredplentifully over the librariesof Europe.its divisions fulfill the aim of teaching(docere)."as embellishmentwas sometimes called. squarelyupon the basis of Ciceronian rhetoric.was hopeless.the winning of souls to God. andgestures.addingfrom epistolographythe Salutation and the Appeal. and the modes of expanding the material.but these rhythmicalcolors shouldnot be used to excess.the unique contributionof medieval theory. and Cicero is quotedon the virtue of timely humor-to be used when the hearers begin to sleep.Now the artof preachinggrew out of its own functions and in its developmentbenefited also from the doctrineof logic. theory arises. should write a Divine Rhetoric.You taught only how to move This content downloaded from 157. frequentlyused the principlesof Invention. and is followed by a period of artistic composition. Severalauthors. in the 13th century.Arrangement. and treacherous.We know of perhaps200 manualsthat were composed from the twelfth centuryon. But we find evidence of considerable influence.50."4In its origin.The introductorypoem reads as follows: "Yourwisdom. and its expansions the aim of moving to action (flectere). ThomasWaleysin 1300 sees no harmin food thus delicately served. and finally may come over-elaboratetheoryresultingin automaticprocesses. a catalogueof the year 1500 of the libraryof TegernseeAbbey lists over 50 manuscriptson rhetoricand twelve on preaching. "the creationof the Jewish spirit. we cannot say that in it classical rhetoricbloomed in full again. as by those preacherswho fill the entire sermonwith words endingin -ilis and -trilis and -osus and -bosus.RHETORICSOCIETYQUARTERLY 24 partsof the discourse from rhetoric. a rhetoric of prayer.the Dominicans and Franciscans. the colors (or figures of speech).its distinctionsthe aim of delighting (delectare). who lent the manuscriptsof two arts of dictamen to a friend at a charge of a goose per week.Christianpreaching floweredin practiceand theory.Nor is it surprisingthat William of Auvergne.secondly.46 Amplification is again a primary method. Roger Bacon saw the value of rhetoricin moral philosophy.""4Withthe spreadof scholasticismand the rise of the great preachingorders.For example. The theological environmentis significant. and discussed rhythmicalcadences.Some authorswould say.Johnof Ockham. Rhetorica Divina.

and dictamen.prayers. spreadingand elevating the hands.biographies. In the artsof poetry of the 12th and 13th centuriespoetics is narrowedto Style. in prayerit is the strongest. include the Introduction. while anotherconsiders seven vocal aids to prayer-wailing. but also in chronicles. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .50.CLASSICAL TRADITIONS/RHmTORIC ANDORATORY 25 the heartof a humanjudge.And Professor McKeon has shown how it contributedalso to the canons of scripturalinterpretation-Cassiodoruswrote on the eloquence of the whole divine law-and to the developmentof the Scholastic method.Statementof Facts. Sifre. and like those of dictamen. and prayerhas its own kind of pleading-the Plea for Mercy.apartfromHorace'sArtof Poetry. whereasour lofty artteaches us to mollify the wrath of that GreatJudge. the parts of a prayer. The ancient artcontributedto the medieval artsof speaking and writing. Thus the Middle Ages received."Even Memoriahas a place in this prayerin the RhetoricaDivina-the memory of divine benefits.and transmittedthe classical art of rhetoric. Lastly.andeven treatises on music. sobbing.has demonstratedthatthis book enjoyedan influenceuninterruptedfor well over ten centuries. even God.letters. how its function came to be to statethe truthscertifiedby theology.the acknowledgmentof the child.50One of my prostrationof the body. One chapteris devotedto the gesturesof prayer. comes to mind: "Nothingis more beautiful than prayer. an Appeal. This content downloaded from 157.Miss Dorothy Grosser. sighing. and not only in the fields of rhetoric. how much betterwith words to placate the puissantandeternalFather!"The passagefromthe HebrewMidrashiccommentary."In William's Divine Rhetoric.The main sourcesof doctrine. and a corroborationof the Appeal.47But Ekkehardof St.He told members of the congregationthattheir heads should not be buriedin their armsduring prayers. is more beautiful even than good works.philosophicalandreligiousworks. to preaching. and poetry.253.poetics.48 These two ancientbooks dominatedthe traditionof the MiddleAges. and amplification andornamentationthroughthe figuresof speech arethe chief concern. there was in the Middle Ages the usual interactionbetween rhetoric and poetics-I might say a virtualidentificationof the two. subheadof the concessio. Ah. adaptedfromthe ancienttheory of the juridicalissue. adapted. the deprecatio. to the composition of letters and legal documents. And I have here somethingfrom TheNew Yorklimes that appearedlast month.The Archbishopof Yorkis criticizingthe presenceof-the way prayersaretakenin his church-the gesturesof the audience. if you rememberthe old Latinrhetoric. and raising the eyes to heaven.He addedthatsuch sloppinessinduces sleep thatleads to a muttered "Amen. Gall had two centuriesearliersaid thatthe plea of the confessionaltranscendedthatof the law-courts:In the courts of law confession is the weakest plea.51 on Fri. and the like.and our claims to a continuity of traditionare best illustratedby the careerof Cicero's treatiseof Invention.49They appearwith greatfrequencyin extant catalogues of medieval libraries.51 Classical rhetoric takes us deep into the cultureof the MiddleAges. and Conclusion.arethe anonymousRhetoric addressedto Herenniusand Cicero's book On those of a speech.

Cicero's book On Inventionand the Rhetorica ad Herenniumwere. but now not with Machiavelli.26 RHETORIC SOCIETY QUARTERLY The Renaissancewelcomed ancientrhetoricwith enthusiasm. who continued "to hold the crown. diadem.delight.has persuasionas its aim.for the writers in these tongues-Bembo with greater zeal-strove to give their prose the power.51 on Fri. and the intermediate-are a serviceable classification.For its followers there was only one model. and the Greekorators. andhis workis full of rhetoricalmaxims.50. andmove to action. above all the rest. how the instrumentof this freedomwas foundin the ancient literatures."He was still "tobe imitatedwith utmostzeal. as its leader.Francois This content downloaded from 157.the speeches of Cicero.still important.But it is significantthat even the rebels sharedthe enthusiasmfor Cicero. and Erasmus'satiredealt the movementits coup-de-grace.which spread over WesternEurope and flourishedfor over a century. that the three styles of the Rhetorica ad Herennium-the grand.The principle of amplificationwas of course emphasizedin treatiseslike Erasmus'De Copia. with Petrarch. The Courtierof Castiglione is in partbased on Cicero's De Oratore. as were the speeches of Cicero andDemosthenes.Partenio. Rhetoricalexempla aboundin Jean Bodin's treatiseon historicalmethod. Cicero.253. We now meet that interesting movement.Peletier.An extremeCiceronianlike Longeuil was proudthathe read nothingbut Cicero for five years. the Renaissancesaw in Cicero the greatexemplarof virtue and civic consciousness.and were translatedinto the vernaculartongues."Severalrecentscholarshavetaught us how the ideal of the Renaissance humanist was the educated man free in thoughtand action. Politian attackedthe slavish imitationof a single model. nor totally.Sir Philip Sydney employs for poetics the three-fold functionof a Ciceronianspeech-to teach. and was used in the new text-books-by [Bartolomeo]Cavalcanti. as with Bembo."I do not fear being thoughta bad Christianby avowing myself so much a Ciceronian. but also Fracastoro. and throne of eloquence."Rhetoricpenetratedthe literaturesof Europe."And even Erasmusexpressed "venerationfor that divine soul.In the arts of poetry the fusion of rhetoricand poetics is almost everywhereaccepted-see Minturno'sDe Poeta. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a widely known treasure-houseof aids for speakersand writers.We find that Cicero's De Oratorecontains instructionsuseful for poetry. and in his eloquentiathe union of good letters with virtue. JohnLyly makesthe Gorgianicfigures-antithesis andisocolon-and rhetorical expansion the chief features of his curious euphuism.Of all the writers of all the ages and of all the racesthe one authorI most admireis Cicero.not only the Latin but also the vernacularliteratures. however. the simple.The best and full tradition was now available.and even Tasso in his Discourses on the Art of Poetry.attractedby perfection of form. and. ease. History.LonginusOn the Sublime.52The revivalof learningbroughtback the majorrhetoricaltreatises-think now of the works of Cicero'smaturity.[Cyprian]Soarez.Georgeof Trebizond-and afterthe inventionof printingenjoyed unheard-ofpopularity. and beauty of Latin style. Ciceronianism. The revivalbegan as a revivalof Cicero.of Aristotle'sRhetoric. nor always.

and that all inspirationis to be drawn from Aristotle. theirmost distinctivetraitwas a delight in languagefor its own sakepuns. theirverses. and a successive group throughHawes.and were proud of their title as the "GreatRhetoricians. Basil and St. a rhetoricalacademy.55The rhetoricwhich dealt only with style.andeven to the Americancolonies.betrayingthe influence of the current trainingin rhetoricandits absorptionin style. Cox. It was naturalthat Cicero should cast a spell on this age of splendor and richnessof art. with its five parts.253.were courtentertainment by poets who thoughtof themselves at the same time as orators.Hoskins. Paul.except for subject-matter.emphasizingverbal cleverness-and in the form of panegyrics.public addressesto popes and ambassadors.judicial.Baldwin's Small Latinand Less Greekto learnhow the persistentdevices of ancientrhetoricprovidedShakespearewith patterns.53On the otherhand. for this was also an active period for oratory.54And as for the writers in prose.51 on Fri. dramawas.andreformations. and epideictic. and Demosthenestogetherwith St.lackinghigh purpose-declamatory.CLASSICAL TRADITIONs/RiETORIC ANDORATORY 27 Rabelais consciously reproducesCiceronianperiods.and rhetoricalquestions.restatements. and Surgantalreadyin 1502 draws on Aristotle's Rhetoric. thatpreachinghas been treatedas a fourthkind of oratory. Symondscalls the 15thcenturythe golden age of speechification.thatthe preceptsand methods arethe same in both. and Wilson up to the 17th century. balance.I believe.At the end of the sixteenthcenturyandlastingfor a hundredyears. Chytraeus studies Cicero.W." In England. climaxes. But we must wait until the 18th centuryfor the view expressedby Morhof that there is no distinctionbetween civil and sacred oratory. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and marriageand funeralorations.ReuchlinconvertsCato's dictum that an oratoris a good man skilled in speaking into a definition of the preacheras a religious man skilled in speaking. neologisms. antitheses. Peter Ramus and Omer Talon-their system growing out of ideas developed in the This content downloaded from 157. and Day up to the same century. And it is only in recent theory. deeming this the most importantof the departments. as one critic has put it. full of tricksof rhymeand wordytrifling. especially for the variationsin emphasis. The Renaissancealso achieveda complete synthesis of homiletics and classical England. conjoined with deliberative. full of quotations. Pericles. Herethe Greekscholasticrhetoric played a part.also had a continuoushistorythroughSherry.The classical authorswere fully searchedand carefully excerpted for the specific use of preachers.Melanchthondevises a system of sacred rhetoricfirmly based on classical rules.the GrandsRhetoriqueursof the 15th and 16thcenturiesin spiritbelong ratherto the rhetoricof the late MiddleAges. The continuityof the rhetoricaltraditionin Englandfrom the time of Bede in the 7th and 8th centuriesto the 19th centuryis fascinatingto study. invention enjoying primacy. and rhythm.But it was mostly epideictic oratory.had representativesin Alcuin and Geoffrey of Vinsauf in the Middle Ages. there took place an interestingreformationin the philosophy of educationthat spreadthroughoutEurope.Peacham.The full classical system.Read T.

Cicero. andrhetoricmust properlybe confined to style.253.28 RHETORIC SOCIETYQUARTERLY Middle Ages-taught that inventionand arrangementwere not the province of rhetoric.ProfessorHowell of Princetonexplainsthe popularityof Ramism in England in political terms-here again a rhetoricof style flourishedduringa periodin which persuasiveoratorywas not a vital part of politicallife.andall through our country the university instructionwas classical-naturally in the courses given in the originaltongues.andso a greatdeal of modernwriting.Englishclergymenwanted trainingin delivery-in what came to be called elocution.but of dialectic. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Consistentlyto the end of the nineteenthcenturythe influentialbooks were classical in inspiration-for example. Virtuallyall of the criticallanguagein the Englishneo-classicalperiodhad its originsin Cicero. andeven pulpitoratorywas largelyornamental.57 RogerAscham criticizedRamism. This content downloaded from 157.helpedbringits vogue to an end. leaving to these the provinceof writtencomposition. andcorrectlyexpressedby developed some great speakerslike Wendell Phillips. As the seventeenthcenturycultivatedstyle. divorced from rhetoricproper-which now joined in partnershipwith Belles-lettres or with Composition.Blair.58 Bacon addedto Ciceronianrhetoricthe principlesof Aristotle-now restoredto power.andWard.Whately.studiedCicero'sDe Oratore in the freshmanyear.0 In the firstquarterof the century.for example.Sydney.merely providingornamentationfor the ideas suppliedby logic. although the word elocutio is of course best renderedin English by the word "style.59 The first professor of rhetoricand oratoryat the Ramist John Hoskins' Directions for Speech and Style shaped the prose of Ben Jonsonand SirWalterRaleigh.andthe new movementtowardsa sententiousstyle. and to delivery. in which rules of acting played a formativerole.andQuintilian.Quintilian. In the third quarterof the century departmentsof English took over instructionin Rhetoricand Belles-lettres.FrancisBacon. I should add here that the ancientGreek scholastic rhetoricalso had its representatives. but also in the special courses in rhetoric.This developmentbeganin the previouscentury. andthrowslight uponArcadianism.61By 1828 it was a special discipline.51 on Fri. which included the tropes and figures.embracingvoice and gesture.which was Ciceronianin nature.The Ramistslike Fraunce. The storyof the influence of the rhetoricaltexts-even the lesser ones-upon literature(in its widest sense) would take long to set forth:for one instance.Butler.56 Ramismindeed had a certainkinshipwith stylistic rhetoric.andHorace'sArtof Poetryenlargedthroughadditions from Aristotle's Poetics and Rhetoric.John Quincy Adams. andthe influentialFrenchPort-RoyalSchool of Speaking.but in the last decade of the centuryspecial departmentsof Public Speakingbrokeoff from the departments of English.and Barton-believed thatrhetoricwas the least important of the trivium. was very popularin America. and a whole class of professional readers. in his lecturesin 1805 drewheavilyon Aristotle.Campbell. euphuism."This art of elocution. and from Longinus' On the Sublime. so the nineteenthfavoreddelivery.butthis last had not come to its specializationon the basis of philosophicalinquiry. or how the Greek scholastictreatisesinfluencedLa in RichardRainolde.

"Since Longinus was. a factorin bringingthis change about. I have talkedmore aboutrhetoricthan collaborationwith Sir John Cheke.62It is a pity thatI haven'ttime to deal with famousspeakersof moderntimes-Savonarola.that Gladstone used not only Blair.the educationwas classical.Burke. and a statesman. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the French preacher Massillon is now being studied as a modernDemosthenes.who in that day of the cult of antiquitymodeledtheir speeches andpamphletson Cicero and Demosthenes. Nor can I morethanmentionthe oratorsof the FrenchRevolution. imitated the periods of Cicero and Demosthenes with special care and great success. or any otherof the greatspokesmenagainstdespotismor ecclesiastical corruptionor the oppressionof kings.Manuel.50. Augustine. and set the exampleto others as a warning. Burkethe most brilliantexample. or in defense of equal rights and liberty under the law. Vergniaud. And today. or of the good life. had translated. presentsus with a reminderthat the traditionis still alive. And Desmoulins. O'Connell. Gnadet.Fox.the preoccupationof the new critics with verbal structureand the figures.Massillon.Aristotle's Rhetoric. John Knox. Well. and Campbell.that EdwardEverettwas a trainedrhetoricianin the classical tradition.the English Quintilian. with the lyric form esteemed as representativeof this idea in its purest form (one thinksof Wordsworthand Coleridge). Bourdaloue. Calhoun. and for practicehad recourseto the speeches of Cicero and Demosthenes. Again and again were these ancient oratorscited and historical parallels drawn-by Brissot.but also Cicero's De Oratore. as it were-upon the literarytypes.So John StuartMill: "A speech is meantto be heard. I can only remind you that Chathamread Demosthenesto acquirea forcible style. with its backgroundof rhetoricalideas.even as in 1570 ThomasWilson.Louvet. their best stylist. that the Elder Pitt made the YoungerPitt read the ancient orators. Quintilian.that Charles Sumner's speeches are full of echoes of Cicero and Demosthenes. and their cult of Elizabethanand 18th century poetry. and nearestto the classical in type. "it is necessaryin these perilous times to recall defendersof libertyto mind.too. as he wrote.a poem overheard. productsof Horatian-Ciceronian rhetoric(I amthinking of Dryden and Pope) to an emphasis upon the poet and his expression of himself.CLASSICAL ANDORATORY TRADITIONs/RFETORIC 29 Literarycriticismin Englandsince the Renaissancehas moved away from the emphasis upon the reader-the audience. anduponthe kindsof style. andthe classical This content downloaded from 157. and that if Lactantiuswas proud to be called the ChristianCicero.63It was a time when society was aristocratic. Bossuet. Samuel Adams. Webster.and St. Again and again is Cicero invokedagainstCatiline. Sheridan. we can fairly say that ancientrhetorichas continuedas a pervadinginfluence in English criticism.51 on Fri. andBurke. Condorcet."For Philip of Spain was anotherPhilip of Macedon.Wendell Phillips. Whately. Luther. among others. The golden age of Britishoratorywas the latterhalf of the eighteenthcentury. Mirabeau. Clay. Patrick Henry. that Fox read Demosthenes with the same ease as he read English.Cicero (whom he resembled in magnificence and copiousness).253. the speeches of Demosthenes-because.

3) A lesser point.which developed in a society in which oral communicationso much exceeded the written.Thatis one reason. social. and psychological conditionsin which a speech was deliveredare so hardto reconstruct.and delivery. and perhapsalso of television. And the student of ancient oratory.and so-called "literary"criticism of speeches.more democraticsociety there is yet no reason why. and evincing an exceptionalconcernfor beauty.To us it is more of a practicalart. with the prophet. and the French Revolution. composition. on delivery: Max Eastmanargues that the use of the microphonenarrowsthe effectiveness of action.As This content downloaded from 157. In our present.surveyingthe proud style was sometimestouchedwith grandeur.perhaps. requiringdisciplined attentionto form. but can indirectlyin a substantialway. It will be interestingin the next years to see how speakinginto a microphonewill affect the conversationalquality which in the past the speakerbefore large audiences stroveto attaindespite his need to increasethe volume of voice. too.51 on Fri.the AmericanRevolution. partlybecause the political.66 To the ancients oratorywas more of a fine art.whose LordCurzon. andthoughwe live in a periodof taste in which highly adornedlanguage seems to be suspect.and emphasizeinspirationratherthan methodandcarefulpreparation. yet gives the palm to anAmericanto AbrahamLincoln. but not very much first-raterhetoricalcriticism. biographical. And severalrecent studies have made clear how Lincoln used stylistic devices which precedingoratorshad takenover from ancientmodels.We havepersonal."65 Churchill'sdebt to classical theory andpracticecannotbe traceddirectly. arrangement. speaking should not flourish on a high plane-more business-likethoughour speakinggenerallyis.50.And the oratorywas inspiredby greatevents-wars on the Continent. How does the presentday oratorcomparewith the ancient? Of the many points made by differentscholars. for the "GettysburgAddress" and the "Second Inaugural. diction. 2) While the ancients comparedthe speakerwith the poet. so to speak. I consider these sound and suggestive: 1) As Jebb says.why we like extemporespeaking. we are less solicitous for total symmetry. Certainly great issues uniting with great spokesmanshipbroughtus Winston Churchill. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . with great issues confrontingus. India.64 recordof BritishParliamentaryeloquence. throughthe influence wroughtupon him by eighteenth-centuryEnglish speakerswho were in the direct line of the tradition.This is no longer a day in which speeches-other thanthe greatest-are regardedas literature.253. we compare him. A brief word on the criticism of oratory. will watch for changes that may ensue in our speaking as a result of radio.30 RHETORICSOCIETYQUARTERLY grandstyle ruledthe day.

and courses areoffered in most of the graduate Franceandin Scotlandin the nineteenth. though never less studiedthannow. and some new contributionshave been made to the art. and later Speech and Drama.goes back to 1891.AND ORATORY CLASSICALTRADITIONs/fRETORIC 31 Professor WicheIns has written.69 This content downloaded from 157. and the structure. The chair (at Cornell University) of Oratory.and rhetoric. One effect of this revivalhas been a commendableinterestin modernizingthe ancienttheory of invention."Here you have the ancient trivium-dialectic.the history of rhetoricand its role in education. on a sounder basis. that a goodly numberof these young men have doubtlessreadthe classical oratorsand theoristsin the originaltongues. but also the adaptationof form and style to audience. grammar.aboutconversationalquality in delivery. of writing correctly." Withthe exception of four of the greaterGermanuniversitieswhere the discipline of Vortragskunst(Delivery)yet does not enjoy complete dignity. psychology of persuasion.thereafterPublic Speaking.philosophy of rhetoric. for public speaking.In the last half-centurythere has been a praiseworthyincrease in the studyof classical rhetoric. and in the arts of reasoningexactly.some good studies have been made in the field of mass-opinion. And delivery is.than in some of the rules we have from the ancient authors. though to be sure not as often as I would wish by teachers who know the classical authorsin the originaltongues. the technical managementof the ideas. I would venture to say. For one example.the events that called the speech forth. the supremeaccomplishmentof the educatedman.67 In England. 1754 read as follows: "It is furtherthe design of the College to instruct and perfect the youth in the learnedlanguages. with the best teachers.Elocution died out during the 19th century. where theory is concerned.But the practiceis keptup in a most lively fashion in the debatingclubs. modem psychology has taughtus somethingaboutattention.too. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .oratoryceased in the 18thcenturyto be formallytaughtand studied as an art.Harvarddroppedthe subjectfrom its curriculumas long ago as 1873. and gift. The announcementof the openingof Columbia(I should say King's) College on June 3. America alone gives instructionin special departmentsof (whatI call) public speaking. and the public opinion and attitudesof the time.51 on Fri.the criticism of oratory-especially on the side of theory. We have gone farfrom the days when rhetoricwas firstof the arts.50.for a lector and not a professor directs the course. the rhetoricalcritic must study not only the speaker. Remember.The traditionis now a very old one with us.his message.The title "Professorof Rhetoric"which still persistsat the Universityof Edinburghis a vestigial survivor. andthe subjectis taughtin most of the colleges anduniversities.and speakingeloquently. and of the actual audience. But LordCurzona generationago said:"Never was the power of moving men by speech more potent than now. We English never dreamof teachingstudentshow to make a speech-on such an iron time has the artfallen. and a visit to the Oxford or CambridgeUnion would convince you that the British will never lose their love.68 The discipline of public speakingas now taughtis on a very soundbasis.

salesmen.70 That in our present world of journalists.50.althoughoften undergoingrestatementsandadaptations. advertisers. Professor Laughtonsees echoes of Ciceronianstyle in the speeches of EdmundBurkeand Winston Churchill. did Cicero.253.I have no doubtthatit has raised substantiallythe generallevel of speaking. public relations. and Longinus are still excellent guides for modernliterarycomposition.rhythm. But Cicero is after all the chief creator of modern prose style.reformers. if I may use the wordsutteredby Saintsburyin anotherconnection. No one has so enrichedthe subject as did Aristotle. Now what can I say in conclusion? Thatrhetoricwas a valuablecreationof the ancients.and preoccupationwith externalsthatsometimescharacterizedinferiorspeakersandwriters who followed the classical rules.good form." This content downloaded from 157."themodern withoutthe ancientis foolishness utterand irremediable. and are still of primaryworth. under despotism.or Longinus.elegance. That the writerson style like Aristotle. and all of us who write in English are his tendsto limit itself to epideicticandoccupy itself merely with style.preachers.Educationalpracticehas againandagainfoundthatit cannotdo withoutsuch guides. That oratoryis a naturalgrowthfrom free political institutionsand flourishes best in free states and underpopulargovernment.Here certainly.and that when.the more brilliantinsights of the ancienttheoristsand critics have.editorialwriters. and thateven in times where the best of the traditionwas unavailable.studentsof the techniquesof formingpublicopinionthrough mass media.appropriateness.slavish imitation.andbeautylearnedfromthe traditionandachieved by the writersand speakersof greaterinsight and power.32 RHETORICSOCIETYQUARTERLY Has instructionin public speakingimprovedthe qualityof our oratory?That is hardto assess. and formed a living connection.perhaps. Quintilian. Though I cannot maintainthat it has consistently engendered brilliantoratory.popularizers."whose function is to establish relationsof understandingamong men-in this presentworld. rhetoricis a majorforce and public speakinga majoractivity. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . That though some of the over-elaboraterules have not proved of universal application. propagandists. aremore thancounterbalancedby the standardsof rationality. have providedthe Westernworld with a permanentbasis for the judgment of taste.educators. I say.51 on Fri. Teachersof Greek and Latin rightly remindus that the fluency with which we write today is the product of the rich tradition of classical style. Cicero.lecturers. it has no reality. The pedantry. for we still need what they taught about purity.the lesser books yet exerteda good influence.and euphony. and promotion--also the students of what the philosophersand sociologists call the "artsof communication.politicians.have enjoyed a continuousinfluence down to our day.and we shall continueto study the unsurpassedcontributionswhich the ancientsmade to the art. in my opinion.andthatthe principlesof classical rhetoric. and no moderntheorist.publicists.

Greek RhetoricBeforeAristotle (ProspectHeights IL: WavelandPress. 1962). 1996). 110-128. Berquist (Dubuque IA: Kendall/HuntPublishing Company. Wooten (ChapelHill: Universityof North CarolinaPress. Notes 'Epithetsused in Homer's Iliad. 8Forgood backgroundreadingon the SecondSophisticsee ThomasConley.James L. "TheRhetoricof Isocratesand Its CulturalIdeal"Essays on the Rhetoricof the WesternWorld. 4Foran historicalaccountingof this period see RichardLeo Enos. "IThe classic study of the ten Attic Oratorsis R. 1990).Law & Society in Classical Athens (New York:St.. RaymondF. Attic Oratorsfrom Antiphonto Isaeos. Studies in ByzantineRhetoric (Thessalonike: PatriarchalInstitutefor PatristicStudies.C.Two good sourcesavailablenow are:George Kennedy. Martin'sPress. 1995). and Goodwin F. 358-63. 'In the opening passage of his Politics. 'For a thoroughexplanationof thisissue see EverettLee Hunt. Harrisoffers a less sympatheticview of Demosthenes in his work Aeschines and Athenian Politics (New York and London: Oxford University Press. have been an importantpartof this heritage. Kustas.253.ed.eds. George L.trans. 'This is a paraphraseof the famous statementmade by Aristotle in the opening lines of his Rhetoric."Historical Studiesof Rhetoricand Rhetoricians. KathleenE. EdwardP. 6 The most popular statementon Isocrates' view of rhetoricis WernerJaeger. "OAcollection of the writings of Dionysius of Halicarnassusis availablein the Loeb Classical LibrarySeries of HarvardUniversityPress. 14 Most historiansof rhetoricagreethatmuch more scholarshipneeds to be done on this importantperiod.TRADITIONS/RHIETORIC ANDORATORY CLASSICAL 33 It has been said that "what distinguishesWesternman is his uninterrupted assimilationto the ancient world. Jebb. 19-70. two volumes (New York:Russell and Russell. This content downloaded from 157.Inc. J.51 on Fri. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . An informativediscussion of the backgroundof this process is providedin RichardGarner. 1987). TheresaEnos (New Yorkand London: GarlandPublishing. Howes (IthacaNY: CornellUniversityPress. Cecil W.50."PlatoandAristotle on Rhetoricand Rhetoricians. 1' In ancient Greece speechwriterswere called "logographers"and were often hired to compose forensic argumentsfor clients. IFor the full text of Pericles' funeralorationsee Thucydides2. "2EdwardM. 41-90. 40-46. Welch providesa very thoroughoverview of Isocratesin the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition. 1961). Corbett. 1993). 1983). ed.1990). 1973)."Rhetoricand oratory.Rhetoric in the EuropeanTradition(NewYorkandLondon:Longman. GreekRhetoric UnderChristianEmperors(PrincetonNJ: PrincetonUniversity Press.centralin ancient culture. 9Fora thoroughstudyof Hermogenessee Hermogenes' On Typesof Style. Golden. 53-71. 1987).

was characterizedas grandand excessive by traditionallyreserved Romans.. 17Eunapius. the canons of rhetoric:invention. 23 Cicero engaged in a debate among his contemporaries over the issue of style. arrangement. 18 That is.50."Introductionto the Rhetoricaad Herennium. 1967). The Attic style was noted for its directness and simplicity.On the Sublime44. 1956. are efforts to arguefor a rangeof style beyond the Attic simplicity thatwas popular in Cicero's day. 32Thisis the famous closing passage of Plutarch'saccountof the life of Cicero: VitaeParallelae: StanleyF. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Institutiooratoria 12. eds. ed. B. especially the Orator and Brutus. 21 Cicero's discussion of the merits of CrassusandAntonius is the main topic of his De Oratore. 16Caplanprovidesa detaileddiscussionof memoryin "Memoria:Treasure-House of Eloquence. 24. 1. 26Longinus. I. ch.51 on Fri. 68. 25 See S.Lives of the Philosophers488-90. 22 Fragments of Roman orations are collected in: Oratorvm Romanorvm Fragmenta:LiberaeRei Pvblicae. 2. HenricaMalcovati(Torino:G. Marrou. 1969). 29Forexcellent overviewsof the studyof grammarandrhetoricsee H.34 RHETORICSOCIETYQUARTERLY to his Loeb Clas15Caplan providesa detailedexplanationin the "Introduction" sical Libraryedition of the Rhetoricaad Herennium.RomanDeclamation in the Late Republicand Early Empire (Liverpool:LiverpoolUniversityPress. 1. Institutiooratoria. vol.TheAttic Oratorsfrom Antiphonto Isaeos. 23-40. viii-xl. 69. 1977). 30Enos. 1-25. 31 Plato makes this argumentin his Gorgias. 33 Quintilian. 28Thucydides8. 1995). Asianism. 34Rhetoricaad Herennium4. Bonner. 433-37. George Lamb (Madision WI: The Universityof WisconsinPress)reprint.trans. 27Jebb."Of Eloquence: Studies of Ancient and Medieval Rhetoric. A History of Education in Antiquity. F. Paravia.originallypublishedin Englishby Sheed and Ward.Educationin AncientRome (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Universityof CaliforniaPress. Bonner. 1970). 19Quintilian's 20Caplanis referringhere to the Rhetoricaad Herennium. This introduction also appearsin Caplan." Of Eloquence: Studies in Ancient and Medieval Rhetoric by Harry Caplan. 196246.GreekRhetoricBeforeAristotle. on the other hand.Inc. Anne King and Helen North (IthacaNY:CornellUniversityPress. memory and delivery. 24Forbackgroundreading on this tumultuousperiod see: RichardLeo Enos. This content downloaded from 157.pp.253. Roman Rhetoric: Revolution and the Greek Influence (Prospect Heights IL: WavelandPress. Many of Cicero's later works.

46 Caplan. James J.51 on Fri. "Memoria:TreasureHouse of Eloquence. 196-246. ed. 36Cicero.Los Angeles. 41 Cicero. 3.Rhetoric in the MiddleAges: A History of Rhetorical Theoryfrom St.5. 47Fora relateddiscussionon interpretationof sacredtexts see Caplan. 3-24. "Oratory andPoetry in Fenelon's LiteraryTheory."Of Eloquence. 1971). 1978). esp. 242-256.ThomasW. and implications. 1988).50.Los Angeles. Prosser.Los Angeles. The Literate Mode of Cicero's Legal Rhetoric (Carbondale IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Readers may also wish to consult: FrancesA. Excerpts of Capella's work are translatedin Readings in Medieval Rhetoric. Joseph Miller. 41 For elaborationsof this theme see WilburSamuelHowell. 1974). 43-88. 1-5. Orator 69. 43 See the fifth book of MartianusCapella. Yates. 1994). 45Foran illustrationof ars dictaminis see ThreeMedieval RhetoricalArts. 49Fora more detailed statementon memory see Caplan. eds."Of Eloquence. De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii.democracywas reinstatedin Greecein the summerof 1974. JamesJ."Readings in Rhetoric. Carmack(SpringfieldIL: CharlesC.CLASSICALTRADITIONs/RETORICANDORATORY 35 "For an insightful discussion of this topic see Brian Vickers. Thomas. 1-25. AndreaLunsfordet al. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . London:Universityof CaliforniaPress.of rhetoricas a feminine gender see Reclaiming Rhetorica. Michael H. London:University of CaliforniaPress. 42 On the theme. 33-45. 105-34. London:Universityof CaliforniaPress. 93-104. Leff. 184-96. 1988). 39Fora well-respectedaccountingof St. Book IV. Augustineto the Renaissance (Berkeley. 4"Thissentence appearsin Caplan'stext but was not spoken in the address. "ClassicalRhetoric and the Medieval Theory of Preaching. "The Logician's Rhetoric:Boethius' De differentiistopicis.253. 1966). 1993). Barbara Warnick." 38 At the time that Professor Caplanwas giving this address Greece was under militarydictatorship. Benson (Bloomington and London:IndianaUniversityPress. ed. De Inventione 1. Murphy(Berkeley."TheFour Senses of ScripturalInterpretationand the Medieval Theory of Preaching. "TerritorialDisputes:PhilosophyversusRhetoric. 1965)."MedievalEloquence:Studies in the Theoryand Practice of Medieval Rhetoric. 4-4. eds. This content downloaded from 157. Murphy(Berkeley.The Sixth Canon:BelletristicRhetoricalTheoryand Its FrenchAntecedents (Columbia:Universityof South CarolinaPress. Richard Leo Enos."Of Eloquence. "4MichaelC."In Defence of Rhetoric(Oxford:Clarendon Press. 37 Caplanleaves the text and uttersa Latin phrasethat cannotbe understoodon the recordingbut seems to reinforcehis point about one person being the "allwisest. Murphy.eds. (Pittsburgh:Universityof Pittsburgh Press. 1973). Augustineandthe place of rhetoricin a Christianculturesee JamesJ. TheArt of Memory(Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press. Lionel Crockerand PaulA.

Berlin provides a fine statementof the impact of Campbell. Baldwin"in the manuscript. one and two." Rhetoric in the MiddleAges."TheProvince of Rhetoric. Blair. "TheTeachingof Rhetoricin the United StatesDuringthe ClassicalPeriod of Education. 86 B. one (New York:Russell & Russell."TheFourAncientTraditions. 1988). Baldwin. 226-55.S. 53RichardMcKeon."In Defence of Rhetoric (Oxford:ClarendonPress.and Notes (New York:Russell & Russell.36 RHETORICSOCIETYQUARTERLY 50Rhetoricaad Herenniumand Cicero's De Inventione." The Province of Rhetoric.C. Ong.51 on Fri. 119-32. 1984). 206-381. 65 See Goodrich'srhetoricalcriticismof EdmundBurke. A History and Criticismof American Public Address.253. 5IReadersmay also wish to see JamesJ. In Defence of Rhetoric."NewHorizonsin Logic andRhetoric.50. 62Forvery helpfulinsightsto Adams'contributionssee J."QuarterlyJournalof Speech.British andAmerican."Logic & Rhetoricin England: 1500-1700.274. 342-397. 60Howell. "RamisticRhetoric.(c.De Inventionebecame one of the most importantrhetoricaltreatises of the Latin West and the foundationfor much of medievalrhetoric.vol.C. 57 See the respective contributionsof Wilbur Samuel Howell: The Rhetoric of Alcuin & Charlemagne:A Translationwith an Introduction. ed.Two volumes (UrbanaIL: Universityof Illinois "EdmundBurke. 61 James A. Murphy. 1944)."Logic & Rhetoric in England: 1500-1700. 56T. Caplanmistakenlyrefers to the authoras "T. vols. "Rhetoricin the Middle Ages.Logic & Rhetoricin England:15001700 (New York:Russell & Russell. Rycenga(New York:The RonaldPress."RenaissanceReintegration. 3-42. William Norwood Brigance. "The Genesis of John Quincy Adams' Lectures on Rhetoric and Oratory. Despite his request. 58See WalterJ.were available at the time of Caplan's address:Select British Eloquence. De Inventionewas Cicero's first rhetoricaltreatise and in his later De Oratore (55 B.especially on Americanrhetoricin the nineteenthcentury:Writing Instruction in Nineteen-Century American Colleges (Carbondale and EdwardsvilleIL: SouthernIllinois UniversityPress. JefferyAuer andJerald L. Banninga. 59Howell. and Marie KathrynHochmuth [Nichols].ed. William Norwood Brigance. 44 (April 1963)."Select BritishEloquence. 254-93."A Historyand CriticismofAmericanPublicAddress. 1961). 54Fora very good overviewof this periodsee BrianVickers.W. WilliamShakspere'sSmall Latine and Lesse Greeke. 19-34.along with examples of his orations. Chauncey Allen Goodrich (IndianapolisIN: Bobbs-Merrill. eds. vol. JosephSchwartzandJohnA. 64Well-knowncollections of famous orators. 52Caplanis referringto Cicero'sDe Inventione. This content downloaded from 157.the Latin Text. andWhately.) Cicero asked readersto ignore his earlierwork.rept. three (New York: Russell & Russell.). 63For backgroundon the teaching of elocution in the United States see OtaThomas. 146-281. 202-07. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1965). 1960). 1965)."The English Ramists. 1960). 172-212. eds. "Vickers. 1963).

69ee HerbertWichelns. Corbett. 67 See also GarryWills.EdwardP. 1984). Loeb Classical Li- brarySeries. RichardLeo. Eds. 66An Suggested Readings Arnold.1993). esp. Benson. ed. Harry Caplan."Rhetoricin America since 1900. Rhetorica ad Herennium. Connors.Philosophy. Linsley (DubuqueIA: Wm." Speech Communication in the 20th Century. Don M. "TheDecay of Eloquence at Rome in the First Century. Ede. 7-38. Landmark Essays on Rhetorical Criticism (Davis. JohnFrederickReynolds for ContemporaryCompositionand Communication.The SpeechAssociation of the EasternStates.Dallas TX: SouthernMethodist UniversityPress. Burks(WestLafayetteIN: PurdueUniversity Press. 1993). WilliamA. This content downloaded from 157.and Literature:An Exploration. 1989). 70For backgroundinformationon the traditionof rhetoricalstudies at Cornell Universitysee EdwardP. 289-304. CA: HermagorasPress." Literatureand Politics. RobertJ."Rhetoric. 1989. Brown: 1968). Corbett. lxxix.ANDORATORY CLASSICAL TRADITIONs/RHEToRIc 37 excellent discussion of the relationshipamong rhetoric.253. Oliver and Marvin G. 1986).literature. J. Ethos: New Essays in Rhetoricaland Critical Theory. 1. Baumlin and Tita French Baumlin (Dallas TX: SouthernMethodistUniversityPress. Connors. Bauer. [Cicero]. September1959. Ed. with treatmentof WinstonChurchillas an illustration."TheCornell School of Rhetoric.Carroll. Thomas W."Re-Establishingthe Speech Profession: The First Fifty Years."Selected Essays of Edward P.. 1994)."in Of Eloquence: Studies in Ancientand MedievalRhetoricby Harry Caplan. Trans. "The LiteraryCriticism of Oratory"Speech Criticism: Methods and Materials. eds. Corbett. Corbett. James S. "TheCornellSchool of Rhetoric.50. 1964. for found in Donald Cross Bryant. J. This essay has been widely reprinted.See also. 1985.oratory. Thomas Benson. 1978). ed. Rhetorical Memory and Delivery: Classical Concepts ed.C. Lunsford(Carbondaleand EdwardsvilleIL: SouthernIllinois UniversityPress. Robert T. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . C. Connors (Dallas TX: Southern MethodistUniversityPress. 95-107. ed. vol. andAndreaA. Lincolnat Gettysburg:The Words thatRemadeAmerica. "TheHistoryof Rhetoric:The Reconstructionof Progress.: Catholic University of America Press. RobertJ. ed.51 on Fri. Rhetoricand Praxis: The Contributionsof Classical Rhetoric to Practical Reasoning. 72Caplan'sthoughtson this topic are presentedin more detail in his essay.eds.1992).Ed. Robert J. 71Currentexamples of this modernizationtrendare:Essays on Classical Rhetoric and ModernDiscourse. CarbondaleandEdwardsville:SouthernIllinois UniversityPress. (Hillsdale NJ: LawrenceErlbaum.Lisa S. Enos. (New York:Touchstone/Simon& Schuster.ed. Jean Dietz Moss (WashingtonD. London and CambridgeMA: HarvardUniversity Press. 68Jebbprovides his views on ancient and "modem"(Victorian)oratoryin his "Introduction"to Attic Oratorsfrom Antiphonto Isaeos. and politics."Selected Essays of Edward P J. J.

AndreaA. Windt. 1975."EverettLee Hunton Rhetoric. ed. Columbiaand London:The Universityof MissouriPress. Welch.Revised edition. Donald Cross Bryant. ThePresent State of Scholarshipin Historical and ContemporaryRhetoric."TheRhetoricalIdiom:Essays in Rhetoric. Of Eloquence: Studies in Ancient and Medieval Rhetoric. IthacaNY: CornellUniversityPress. 1970. 186-200.RiversideCA: privatelyprinted.WaylandMaxfield. WilburSamuel.ed.Poetics. "AnIntroductionto Classical Rhetoric.Oratory. Hudson. Raymond.Oxford:ClarendonPress. 1961.1976.Ithaca NY: CornellUniversityPress. Hunt.ed.Luitpold. . Helen. 275-79. Howell.In Defence of Rhetoric. Pittsburghand London:Universityof PittsburghPress. 177-92."TheSpeech Teacher [now CommunicationEducation]21: September1972.ed. Howes. ed."QuarterlyJournalof Speech 35: October 1949.ed. Parrish.ed. Brian.253. 13 Mar 2015 12:42:54 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "RhetoricandGeneralEducation. Anne and North. Studiesin theBasic Disciplines of Criticism. "HerbertA. "TheField of Rhetoric.IthacaNY: CornellUniversityPress. WicheInsand the Cornell Traditionof Rhetoric as a Humane Subject.1990. HillsdaleNJ:LawrenceErlbaumAssociates. Encyclopediaof Rhetoric:Communication fromAncientTimes to the InformationAge. 1995. KathleenE.. Publishers. 1990."QuarterlyJournal of Speech 33: December 1947. Notes on the Cornell School of Rhetoric. 201-04. Lunsford. -. New York and London: GarlandPublishers. EverettLee. TheContemporaryReceptionof Classical Rhetoric:Appropriations ofAncientDiscourse. Vickers. 167-80. Historical Studies of Rhetoricand Rhetoricians.51 on Fri. 1988.464-67. ReclaimingRhetorica:Womenin the RhetoricalTradition.WinifredBryan. 1958. Raymond. Inc.50.Theresa. -.. 1966. The Classical Tradition:Literaryand Historical Studies in Honor of Harry Caplan."QuarterlyJournalof Speech 9: April 1923.38 RHETORICSOCIETYQUARTERLY Enos.Language and Drama Presented to HerbertAugust Wichlens. Rhetoricand Logic.Hoyt H. 1996.TheodoreOtto.Ed."QuarterlyJournal of Speech 12: June 1926. Jr. "HoytH. "TheTraditionof Rhetoric. This content downloaded from 157. Wallach.IthacaNY: CornellUniversityPress.Quarterly Journal of Speech 68: May 1982. Howes. Hudson:Spokesmanfor the CornellSchool of Rhetoric. Homer. King.IthacaNY: CornellUniversityPress.