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# Step To Success Tutorials

B – 118, Basement, Kalkaji, N.D-19 Sanjay Kumar (9899199876)
www.ststutorials.com

1

Class – X Mathematics Formulae & some basic concepts
Compound Interest
 S.I = PRT/100
 Amt = P ( 1 + Rate/100 )Time i.e. A = P ( 1 + R/100 )n (where Time or n is
no. of years)
 Note : If you are asked to compute the interest semi-annually ( Half
yearly) the above formula is to
be modified, by taking time × 2, and (rate/2) , A = P ( 1 + R/200 )²n
(where n is no. of years)
 If the rates are given differently for the consecutive years, then
For example if the rates are 8 % , 12 % and 15 % respectively, then
 Amt = P ( 1 + 8/100 ) ( 1 + 12/100 ) ( 1 +15/100 ) (Here, you need not
mention time as exponent.)
 Depreciation Certain item’s value get diminished as time passes, then it
is known as depreciation.
For example the value of a car, refrigerator, machinery etc. in that case:
Final Value of machine = Initial value ( 1 – Rate/100 )Time
 In population growth problems, If present population is given and
i) The population ‘n’ yrs ago, then take Amount as ‘Present population’,
and find ‘Principal’
ii) The population after ‘n’ yrs, then take Principal as ‘Present population’,
and find ‘Amount’
Sales Tax & VAT
 Selling price = Marked price + x % of sales tax. OR S.P. = M.P.( 1+ST% /
100 )
 Selling price = Marked price – x % Discount . OR S.P.= M.P. ( 1- D% /
100 )
 Selling price = M.P. ( 1- D% / 100 ). ( 1+ST% / 100 ) ( when sales tax
and discount both are given
)
 Tax % =( Tax / M.P.) x 100
 Discount % = ( Discount / MP.) x 100
While computing VAT
In step1 : Take manufacturing cost and Calculate VAT on Manufacturing
Cost
In step2 : Take Profit 1, and Calculate VAT on Profit 1 only
In step3 : Take Profit 2, and Calculate VAT on Profit 2 only
In step4 : Take Profit 3, and Calculate VAT on Profit 3 only .
( + ) Add all to get Total VAT
Selling price = Manufacturing cost +Profit 1 +Profit 2 + Profit 3 etc., +
Total VAT
Banking
Savings Bank account :
 While taking the entries you have to bear in mind that

irrespective of the total number of months given. Basement. a) Either by splitting the terms. Quadratic Equations Note: To find the value of ‘x’ you may adopt either ‘splitting the middle term’ or ‘formula method’. unless specified the method.D-19 Sanjay Kumar (9899199876) . the HCF value which gives you the value of LCM. take time as 1/12. instead of total no of months.D-19 Sanjay Kumar (9899199876) www. then you have to take the last entry of the previous month (Here at times there is chance of making mistake. N.com 2  If entry of a particular month is not given. In step3 : Take the product of All the terms . it may be factorized by using ‘Trial & Error” method. Product of LCM x HCF = Product of the two polynomials. While computing the interest always take time as 1/12.e in PRT / 100. Market Value of one share  ‘Income’ of a person may be taken as the ‘Dividend’ given by the company.ststutorials. Step To Success Tutorials (…Widen your knowledge horizons…) . B – 118. Kalkaji.= (a2 + b2 ) (a2 – b2 ) = (a2 + b2 ) (a – b ) (a + b ) (v) (a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab (a +b) (vi) a3 + b3 = (a + b)( a2 + ab + b2) (vii) (a – b)3 = a3 – b3 – 3ab (a – b ) (viii) a3 – b3 = (a – b)( a2 + ab + b2) OR use Trial & Error method. i. choose the value from the question. Step To Success Tutorials (…Widen your knowledge horizons…) . B – 118. N. (OR) b) Using these formulae (i) (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 (ii) (a – b)2 = a2 – 2ab + b2 (iii) a2 – b2 = (a + b)(a – b) (iv) a4 – b4 = (a2 ) 2 – (b2 ) 2. Omit. therefore Income % = Income × 100 Or Income % = Dividend Received × 100 Investment Total Investment HCF & LCM of polynomials In step1 : Factorize the given polynomials. Basement. Note: If cubical expression is given.)  I f you are asked to find the amount that will be obtained on closing the account Then take last entry(of the month in which account has been closed) + Interest obtained ( But DO NOT take the Total principal ) Recurring Deposits : Shares & Dividends  Dividend = [x % of Face Value] × No of shares ( where x is dividend% )  No of shares = Total Investment . In step2 : Take the product of ‘Common terms’ as their HCF. Kalkaji.

(putting these values equation can be solved) Remainder theorem If (x – 2 ) is a factor of the given expression.x + (product of the roots) = 0 If Discriminant > 0. then take x-2 = 0. then the roots are Real & equal. Discriminant < 0. If a/b = c/d = e/f are given. Discriminant = 0. then Componendo & Dividendo is Note : “ Where to take “K” method ?” You may adopt it in the following situations. a = bk.k. or  In Y-axis ( y-co ordinate remains same but x-co ordinate changes in sign).k. c = d. lines are coincident. is given. then substitute this value in p(x) = 5x² + 3x – 6 as p(2) : 5(2)² + 3(2) – 6 = 0 ( Here taking =0 is very important. If not taken answer can’t be found. then the roots are Real & unequal or unique.therefore x = 2.0) (x-co ordinate & y-co ordinate both changes in sign )  Invariant point : Any point is invariant with respect to a given line if and only if it lies on the line. or  In origin (0. Incase of continued proportion : a/b = b/c = k hence. parallel lines Reflection  After plotting the points. Continued Proportion a : b = b : c. lines are intersecting. Note: when x = y.www. then you may assume as a/b = c/d = e/f = k Therefore a = b.com 3  If roots of an equation are given. e = f. then substitute the values of ‘a’ ‘b’ and ‘c’ in the given problem. then : Quadratic Equation : x² – (sum of the roots).) If (x-2) leaves a remainder of 4 p(2) : 5(2)² + 3(2) – 6 = 4 ( Here taking =4 is very important.ststutorials. b = ck therefore putting the value of b we can get a = ck² & b = ck. and then take the same distance on the other side to obtain it’s reflection. (Middle value is repeated) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th proportionals 1st 2nd 2nd 3rd proportionals  Product of ‘Means’(Middle values) = Product of ‘Extremes’(Either end values)  If is given.k.) . If not taken answer can’t be found. For eg if a point is invariant on x-axis then it must lie on x-axis. assume that there is a “mirror” and the point is to be reflected either :  In X-axis ( x-co ordinate remains same but y-co ordinate changes in sign). then the roots are Imaginary (not real). then use ruler to measure the vertical distance of the point from the line. Ratio & Proportion  Duplicate ratio of a : b is a2 : b2 ( Incase of Sub-duplicate ratio you have to take ‘Square root’)  Triplicate ratio of a : b is a3 : b3 ( Incase of Sub-triplicate ratio you have to take ‘Cube root’)  Proportion a : b = c : d.

ststutorials. Distance & Section Formulae  Distance = \/ (x2 – x1) 2 + (y2 – y1) 2 . and the rest are ‘Zero’. and slope are given. You have to find length of AB. 3. then Slope (m) = y2 – y1 x 2 – x1  If a point. Basement. i. where ‘c’ is the y-intercept. you may be asked to find A2 + AB + 7 is given. i.)  To prove co-linearity of the given three points A. B – 118. square. Kalkaji. An angle has One line of symmetry. sides of a triangle.  If Δ ABC ~ Δ PQR then Area of Δ ABC = Side2 = AB2 = BC2 = AC2 Area of Δ PQR Side2 PQ2 QR2 PR2 Symmetry A line which divides the given figure into two identical parts is known as line of ‘Symmetry’ 1.e m1 × m2 = – 1  Depending upon the question You may have to use equation od straight line as a) y = mx + c. Here. ratio of their sides are equal. BC.D-19 Sanjay Kumar (9899199876) www.Matrices Step To Success Tutorials (…Widen your knowledge horizons…) . OR use this condition to solve the question easily : Area of triangle formed by these points : x1(y2 – y3) + x2(y3 . . A Square has 4 lines of symmetry. 4. N. OR b) (y – y1) = m. 2.com 4 Some times. AC then use the condition AB + BC = AC. y) =  Mid point =  Equation of a line  If two points are given.(x – x1) Similarity  If two triangles are similar then. A Parallelogram has No lines of symmetry. parallelogram etc.B. rectangle.e m1 = m2  If two lines are ‘Perpendicular’ to each other then product of their slopes is – 1. you have to assume it as A2 + AB + 7 I. I is the Identity matrix. A Rectangle has 2 lines of symmetry.{} in which all the principal diagonal values are 1.e if Δ ABC ~ Δ PQR then AB = BC = AC PQ QR PR.y1) + x3(y1 – y2) =0  Section formula: point (x. ( The same formula is to be used to find the length of line segment. then Slope (m) = y – y1 x – x1  If two lines are ‘Parallel’ to each other then their slopes are equal i.. and C.

& Tangents. An Isosceles Triangle has One line of symmetry. Area of an equilateral triangle = \/3/4.  Angles subtended by the same arc in the same segment are equal. 6. An Equil. (Here ‘n’ refers number of sides of a polygon. N. take care of the following. Circumference of the wheel. 8.  Perimeter of a Circle = 2 π r  Area of sector = θ/360°(π r2)  Length of an arc = θ/360°(2π r). Basement.(side)2.com 5 9.  To a circle. Step To Success Tutorials (…Widen your knowledge horizons…) . 1.) Loci  The ‘Locus’ of a line segment is it’s Perpendicular bisector. A Rhombus has 2 lines of symmetry.  The angle subtended at the centre by an arc = Double the angle at any part of the circumference of the circle.ststutorials. A Regular Polygon with ’n’ sides has ‘n’ lines of symmetry. then find the radius first (Have you made mistake earlier by taking ‘d’ as ‘radius’ and solved the problem ?) .5. If diameter of a circle is given.  Number of revolutions = Total distance moved .( R2 – r2 )  Distance moved by a wheel in one revolution = Circumference of the wheel. Kalkaji. 7. In addition to these points. the above two points are good enough. If a tangent is drawn and a chord is drawn from the point of contact. then angle made between the chord and the tangent = Angle made in the alternate segment. Note: While solving ‘Mensuration’ problems. Circumference & Area of a Circle  Area of a Circle = π r2. You should have the basic knowledge of geometrical constructions. For solving most of the ‘Locus’ problems. bisects the chord of the circle. B – 118.  Area of ring = π. Triangle has 3 lines of symmetry.  The ‘Locus’ of an angle is it’s Angle bisector. For ex: A Regular pentagon (5 sides) has 5 lines of symmetry Note: Angle of a regular polygon = ( 2n – 4 ) × 90° n.  The sum of opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is always 180°.D-19 Sanjay Kumar (9899199876) www.  The perpendicular drawn from the centre of a circle.  Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the center. A Circle has Infinite lines of symmetry. Also look at the given figure in terms of either ‘line segments’ or ‘angles’ Circles.

A of solid 1 + C.S.  T.e they are same) Volume of hemi sphere = ⅔ π r3 [Take half the volume of a sphere] CSA of hemisphere = 2 π r2 [Take half the SA of a sphere] TSA of hemisphere = 2 π r2 + π r2 = 3 π r2 Volume of spherical shell = Outer volume – Inner volume = 4/3. CSA = TSA i. For Example: Diameter = 14 cm. If you want.ststutorials.A. ( In case of Sphere. Cylinder: Volume of a cylinder = π r2h Curved surface area = 2 π r h Total surface area = 2 π r h + 2π r2 = 2 π r ( h + r ) Volume of hollow cylinder = π R2h – π r2h = π ( R2 – r2) h TSA of hollow cylinder = Outer CSA + Inner CSA + 2 .D-19 Sanjay Kumar (9899199876) www. you may take 2 π ‘common’ ) 2. 2 π R h + 2 π r h + 2.S. Cone: Volume of a Cone = ⅓ π r2h.  If an ‘Ice cream cone with hemispherical top’ is given then you have to take a) Total Volume = Volume of Cone + Volume of Hemisphere b) Surface area = CSA of Cone + CSA of hemisphere (usually Surface area will not be asked) Trigonometric Identities  Wherever ‘Square’ appears think of using the identities (i) Sin2 θ + Cos2 θ = 1 (ii) Sec2 θ – Tan2 θ = 1 (iii) Coseec2θ – Cot2 θ = 1  Try to convert all the values of the given problem in terms of Sin θ and Cos θ  Cosec θ may be written as 1/Sin θ  Sec θ may be written as 1/Cos θ . Check the units of the entire data. then Volume of the larger solid = No of small solids x Volume of the smaller solid For Ex: A cylinder is melted and cast into smaller spheres. and Height = 3 m Therefore Diameter = 14 cm.S. CSA of a Cone = π r l ( Here ’l’ refers to ‘Slant height’) [ where l = √(h2 + r2) ] TSA of a Cone = π r l + π r2 = π r ( l + r ) 3.r3) While solving the problems based on combination of solids it would be better if you take common. Area of ring.(R3 . Kalkaji.A of solid 3  If a solid is melted and. N. and Height = 300 cm (Have you ever committed such mistake ?) Step To Success Tutorials (…Widen your knowledge horizons…) .com 6 Solids 1. If the units are different.A of solid 2 + C.S. Find the number of spheres Volume of Cylinder = No of sphere x Volume of sphere.π. [π R2 – π r2] ( Of course. then convert them to the same units. of combined solid = C. Basement.2. recast into number of other small solids. B – 118. Sphere: Surface area of a Sphere = 4π r2.

Basement.  Rationalize the denominator [ If a + b.. ( a – b )3formulae etc. and finally you will end up at a step where LHS = RHS  Sin ( 90 – θ ) = Cos θ : Cos ( 90 – θ ) = Sin θ. ( a + b )3.  To find the Median first of all arrange the data in ‘Ascending’ or ‘Descending’ order. Cot θ may be written as 1/Tan θ  Tan θ may be written as Sin θ / Cos θ  Wherever fractional parts appears then think taking their ‘LCM’  Think of using ( a + b )2. ( a – b )2. and on y-axis. N. in case of the data is having even number of observations. then start working with RHS. Kalkaji. B – 118. then take the corresponding point on Xaxis Measures of Central Tendency For un-grouped data  Arithmetic Mean = Sum of observations No of observations  Mode = The most frequently occurred value of the raw data.  Sec( 90 – θ ) = Cosec θ : Cosec ( 90 – θ ) = Sec θ  Tan ( 90 – θ ) = Cot θ : Cot ( 90 – θ ) = Tan θ Graphical Representation  Don’t forget to write the scale on x-axis. Median = [(N/2) + (N+1)/2)] / 2 term value of the given data. For grouped data Arithmetic Mean = Σ fx (Direct method) Σf Arithmetic Mean = a + Σ fd (short cut method) Σf Arithmetic Mean = a + Σ fu × C (where C is class interval) (step-deviation method) Σf Probability . then take the corresponding point on X-axis  To find the ‘Median’ take N/2. in case of the data is having odd no of observations. (or) a – b format is given in the denominator]  You may separate the denominator For Ex : Sin θ + Cos θ as Sin θ + Cos θ = 1 + Cot θ Sin θ Sin θ Sin θ Step To Success Tutorials (…Widen your knowledge horizons…) . then Median = (N+1)/2 term value of the given data.ststutorials.  To find the ‘Lower quartile’ take N/4 [Here N is Σ f] then take the corresponding point on X-axis  To find the ‘Upper quartile’ take 3N/4.com 7  If you are not able to solve the LHS part completely. Do the problem to such an extent you can solve.D-19 Sanjay Kumar (9899199876) www.

and Q total 13 cards ♦ (Diamond in Red colour) having A.8.6. and Q total 13 cards ♣ (Clubs in Black colour) having A.5.J.8.10.4.5.K.3.9.9.10.J.7. and Q total 13 cards 52 cards Jack.6.7. 2.Probability of an event : P(event) = Number of favorable outcomes Total number of outcomes In a deck of playing cards.6. As these cards are having some pictures on it.9.5. 2.7.4.6.5.10.3. 2.10.3. .K. there are four types of cards : ♠ (Spades in Black colour) having A.9.4. 2.7. and Q total 13 cards ♥ (Hearts in Red colour) having A.J.8.K. Always remember Ace is not a face card as it doesn’t carry any face on it.K.8.4.3. King and Queen are known as ‘Face Cards’ .J.