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COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute

Licensed by Information Handling Services

ANSI@A14.2-2000
Revision of ANSI A14.2 1990

American National Standard
for Ladders Portable Metal
Safety Requirements

-

Co-Secretariat

American ladder Institute
Co-Secretariat

Triodyne Consulting Engineers and Scientists
Approved January 14, 2000

American National Standards Instutute, Inc.

COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute
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American National Standard

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of those substantially concerned with its scope and
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to the standard. American National Standards are subject
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latest editions.
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All standards. had also beenballoted so the more technical material from the Testing Task Force could receive full attention of the three subcommittees.1. Over1 O0 known ladder experts were solicited to join this task force and provide their technical expertise.Portable Special Duty Ladders. At the August 11. 1923. Portable Reinforced Plastic Ladders. This standard on portable ladders is one of many American National Standards prepared under the supervision of the ANSI Accredited Standards Committee on Safety in the Construction. Requirements for these types were removed from the 1948 revision because rapid development in the metal ladder field warranted special consideration and treatmentof metal ladders. were distributed to the three portable-ladder subcommittees for review and incorporation into the standards. Design verificationtests would generally be conducted on a one-time basis during the original design development of the product and wouldusually be destructive tests. the A14 Committee mounted a three-prong attack to upgrade the portableladder standards within the consensus frameworkof developing standards. A14. The subcommittees are A14. The earlier editions contained some treatment of metal and fixed ladders.2also developed the 1972 edition. A14. Testing.7 Mobile Ladders Stands and Mobile Ladder Stand Platforms. The Metal Ladder Manufacturers Association is responsible for initiating the standard on portable metalladders.) and approved in 1956.5. design verification. and A14. Fixed Ladders. the Ladder Use SurveyForm and Bi-Level Fall Victim Report Form (that have beenincluded in the Appendixes). The cost of the project has been conservatively estimated at over $300. nearly 200 copies of the draft were sentto various organizations and individuals for review and comment. and for care and use of laddershad been previously balloted. namely. Care.2 was then created to review the document and make any changes necessaryto conform to the requirements of all the interested groups. 1948. Subcommittees that report to the American National Standards Committee A14 have developed all of the standards. and Use of Ladders.Portable Wood Ladders. and Use of Ladders. except A14. This group prepared the original draft and submitted it to Standards Committee Al4 for consideration in May 1951.4. which included a significant amount of human-factors work. some of the tests would be destructive and some would benondestructive. . and Labeling -were established in October1975. and in-service testing. Recommendations for nomenclature. Subcommittee A14. A14. which wasfirst approved on July25. which was submitted to the Standards Committee for letter ballot in December 1955. and November 10. Portable Metal Ladders. 1977.000. In addition. SubcommitteeA14. COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services Without question the Testing Task Forcecarried out the most massive technically difficulttask. 1935.2. joint meeting of the Testing Task Force and the A14 Advisory Committee.3. The work involved 50 meetings. After consideration and some revisionby the subcommittee. Revisions were approved on April 11.2-2000. derive from the original American National StandardsSafety Code for Construction.10.Three Task Forces -Anthropometric. quality control. A14. and fixed ladders (usually metal) in separate standards. Test procedures were developed for three different applications. A14. with an accompanying rationale based upon statistical and humanfactors data. Job-Made Ladders. April 2. 23 procedures were presented. over 400 test documents and the use of numeroustest ladders over a period of nearly two years. Care.Foreword (This Foreword is not a part of American National Standard 14. The suggestions receivedwere considered in the preparation of the final draft. The manufacturer on anon-going basis would conduct quality control tests. Responding to a Consumer Product Safety Commission challenge in August 1975.1952. These procedures.

. . . . . . . . . . . . IL 6061 l. .. .. . . . . . . Care. . . . and Use of Ladders. . David Shanahan David Stinson. . . The standard was processed and approved for submittal to ANSI by American NationalStandards Committee on Safety in the Construction. Co-Secretariat presented Organization of Representative Alliance of AmericanInsurers. . .. .. . . . . . . .. In 1981. . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. .Chicago. . . . . . . . .. . Thomas Murray (Alt) American Ladder Institute. . . . . A14. . . .. .. . . . . . it became necessary to postpone A14 Committee had the following members: ” Ed Killoren. . . . . . to allow timefor investigations which resulted in the needed changes in label test specifications. . . . . . . evidence essarily imply that all the committee members voted for was produced to warrant modifications in the label test its approval. . Philip B. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . Chairman Ron Pietrzak. . . . . . P. In addition. . . . . . . . . . . Michigan Ave. . . . . . Co-Secretariat Ralph Barnett. ... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . to October 4. .. . . . . . . . . . .. At the time it approved this standards.. . . . . . . . . Lois Nissly Alan Schutzman (Alt 1 ) American Ladder Institute (Alt 2) American Society ofSafety Engineers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . Neilson COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .. .. . .. . .. .L. . . . . . . Mederos International Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Trades. ... . . recommendations were received for clarifications in test procedure descriptions. . . . . . . Most significantly requirements have been developed to cover the multipurpose-articulated ladder. . (Alt) Edison Electric Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . The A14 Committee adopted June 4. . to design and build the required manufacturing tooling and machinery.. . . Vacant George Earhart American Insurance Association . .. . . . . .. . .. . ... .. . . ... . . . . . . . . . Keith Vidal David de Vries (Alt 1) Thomas Bresnahan (Alt 2) Canadian StandardsAssociation.. . . . . . . . . .. Dick Sulecki Tom Bayer (Alt) National Association ofArchitectural Metal Manufacturers. 1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. Randy Kissel Peter Pollack (Alt) American Institute of Architects . . . . . . . . . Also.. . . In this current revision.. . .. . . . .. 1982. .. . . . . . . . . . . Rick Hackney International Union of Bricklayers& Allied Craftsmen. .... several issues. .As a result.. . .2-1981. . . 1982*. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . which was approved March 4.. . . . . ... Adrian Treadway E. . . . . ... . . . Lessner The AluminumAssociation. . . .. . . . . . Suggestions for improvement of this standard are welcome. . . . . the labeymarkings section has improved graphics as well as new labels.. . .. .. . . . . . (Alt) Disappearing Attic Stairway Association. . ... . . . . .. . . . Anthony Kassman Metal Ladder Manufacturers Association. ... .and to convert their manufacturing operations to produce the revised products. . . . . . . . . . Jr. as the effective date of ANSI A14. . . . . . . . . .. . . . are addressed. . . . .. . . . . .. .. .... . . . .. . . . . which have arisen since the last revision. . . . .. . . Janet Fox Wanda Green (Alt) International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers . . . . . . experience by some of the manufacturers indicated that the inclined load test was not practical when applied to all available length ladders... . Betz. . . . . . . . . . . . . the requirements. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . 1980. ... . .. .In-service tests would be conducted by the user ona periodic basis and would be nondestructive in nature. . . . . . . . . . the effective date of these standards from June 4. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . This was to allow the manufacturers the necessary leadtime to evaluate their products for conformance to the 1981 edition of thethree portable ladder standards. . . . . Manuel A.. . . . . . . . . . . . to redesign and test their products where applicable.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . They should be sent to the American Ladder Institute. . . . . .. Committee apuroval of the standard does not necIn the course of resolving these questions. .. . . . . . . . . .. 401 N. . . . . . .. . . . . .. .E. Keith D.

.. . . .. . . .. . .. . .S. . . .. . . .S. . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. Shanahan M. . . ..STD-ANSI A3LI.. . . . . . . . . . . Fennema Gilbert Esparza U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .E. .S. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of the Army Corps of Engineers. . . . . . . . . National Fire Protection Association . . P. . . . . Alan Kline (Alt) Steel Plate Fabricators Association . . . . . . Johnson John E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . Sam Cramer Ronald Bennett (Alt) Don McKinney Precision Ladders . .. . DaveShaw ANSIZ133. . .. Nicholas Marchica U. . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. VanBree Keith Vidal. Wolff-Klammer *The original effective date was March 4. . . . 1982. Bennett E. . . . . . .P. . . Sulecki M. . . Waterproofersand Allied Workers.. . . .E. . . . .. . . . . . .. . Cramer Chester Gaynes Robert Hagan Frank H. .. ... . Vacan. . . . . . . Silverman D. . .OSHA* . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . which revised this standard. . Krafchick. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Yost. . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . Ojalvo D. . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . E. Russell E. . . . . .. . U. . . . . . .. Bob Zeman (Alt) Robert Kru1 United Union of Roofers. . . . Cooke S . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . .1Committee . . . . Consumer Product Safety Commission*. . . . . . . . . .. . Department of Labor . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . Wallace Melvin (Alt) Edgarr Wolff-Klammer Underwriter's Laboratories. . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. .. . *non-voting advisory member SubcommitteeA14-2 on portable ladders. . .Z-ENGL ZOO0 m 0724350 0 5 5 8 9 b 9 5 5 7 m National Associationof Government Labor Officials. . . . . . .. . . Steve Richey (Alt) Gary Larson Scaffold IndustryAssociation. . . . .. . .. .. Sr. . .. . . . .. Thurman E. Johnson Randy Kissell Alan Kline J.. . . . . . .. .. consists of the following members: Erick Knox. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. ... . . . . . .... Chairman R. . . . I.. . .

. . . . . . . . . . .. .1 Scope . . .. . . . ... . . . . Combination. . 1.. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .8 AngleofInclination. . . 7. . .6 EffectiveDate . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .3 Trestle (Double Front) and Extension Trestle Ladders. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . 6.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Rungconnections . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . and Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . General. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . ... .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . .. 2. . . . . . . . . . . .3 RungandStepSpacing . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 14 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 19 39 . . . . 2.. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . .. .. . 6. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Mandatory and Advisory Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . ... . . . . . . .3 Single. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rivets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .2 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . Bolts. . . . . . . . Definitions and Nomenclature . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Single and Extension Ladders . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .7 ArticulatedLadders . . . . . . . . . .. . . and Articulated Ladder Tests. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .5 Combination Ladders . . . . . . . . ... . . .5 Rungs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifications . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . TestRequirements . . . .. .. . . . . . Steps.. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .1 Stepladders . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. 2. . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . .9 PlasticTopCaps . . . .. . .. .. .. . .Contents Section Page 1 .. .. . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 2.. . . . . . . . . . .4 Articulated Ladder Tests . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . ..6 Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Relatedstandards .6 Step Stools (Ladder Type) . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . ..2 Application .2 Combination Ladder Tests .. . . . . . .. . . ... . . .. . . . . . . .7 Burrs. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .5 Equivalent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Flare . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 1. . . . . . ..3 Interpretation . and Platforms . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . Extension. . . . . . . . .2 SideRails . . . . . . . . 7.. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 5.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Rationale . . . . . . . . . .4 PlatformLadders . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . .. ScopeandPurpose . . . . . . . . GeneralRequirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . 6. . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .. . . . . . . 5.. . . . . . . . . . .

.. . . . . 57 9. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . ... . .. .. Figure 6 Standard Loading Block . . . . . .. . . . . ..... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .... . . 19 Table 6 Maximum Allowable Average Deflections for Horizontal Bending Test . .. 44 Table20 Static Cantilever Bending Test . . . . . . ... . .. .. . 14 Table 3 Minimum Required Extension Trestle Ladder Overlap . . . . . .. 40 7. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 58 Tables Table 1 Extension Ladder Size . . . . . 37 Table16FootSlipTest . . . . . . . . 15 Combination Ladder Size . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . ...... .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 53 Figures Figure 1 Horizontal Bending Test . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. ... 56 9 .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . Articulated Ladder and Step Stool Tests . ... . . . . . . 57 57 9. . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . Figure 3 Deflection Test Data Sheet . . . . . .. . .2 Selection . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 18 Stability Test Loads .. . . . . . . . . . . . LabelingMarking Requirements . . . . . . . 31 Table 12 RungTorqueTests .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . Figure 5 Column and Hardware Load Test and Single Lock Load Test . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . 51 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . 53 8. . 49 Table21 Table 22 Summary of Significant Accident Causes . . . . .. . ... . . . . . .. .. . . . . . 57 9. .3 Specific Labeling/Marking Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . 22 22 Table 8 Deflections and Angles of Twist . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . .. . .. Platform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .1 GeneralRequirements . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . Rung Bending. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . . . . .... . 42 Table 19 Maximum Allowable Racking Deflection . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .6 LabelingTests . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . ... . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . Side-Rail Bending. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . 8. . ... . 22 Table10 HardwareTests . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . Figure2 DeflectionTest . . . . . . . . . Combination. . . . . 32 Table 13 Maximum Allowable Deflection for Side Sway Test . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ..5 Step. . . . . . . . andUse . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . Figure7 LockTest . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 8. . . ... .. . . . . .. .. .WorkingLength. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . 39 39 Table 17 Articulated Ladder Self-supported Scaffold Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 52 Table 23 Ladder Size. . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ..4 Care . . . . . . . . . Trestle (Double Front). .. . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .1General .3 Rules for Ladder Use . . . . .. 16 Table 4 Table 5 Horizontal BendingTest Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . .Midspan Deflection of Lower Side Rail . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . Revision of American National Standards Referred to in this Document . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Product Data Information Markings . . . . . . . . . . 21 Table 7 Deflection Test Loads .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Table 11 Step Bending. . . 48 Rail Torsion Test . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services 20 23 24 25 25 26 27 . . . ... . . . . . ... . . ... .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Figure4InclinedLoadTest . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . 34 Table 15 Ladder SectionTwistTest . ... . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 51 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 33 Table 14 Static Side-Rail Cantilever Bending Test Load .. .. andShear Strength Tests . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . ... .. . Table 9 Simulated In-Use Inclined Load Test . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . Extension Trestle. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Compression. . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . .Care. . . . . . .andHeight . . . .. . . ... . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . 14 Table 2 MinimumRequired Overlap for Extension Ladders . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Selection. . ... . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .. 32 34 SideSwayTest .. . . . . Marking No .. . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . . Marking No .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Marking No. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . andStep-to-Side Rail Shear Tests. . .. 4 . .. .. . . . . Marking No . .. . . . . . . . . . . 43 45 Torsional Stability and Rail Torsion andSpreader Tests . Platform and Combination Ladders . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . ... . . .. COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services 61 62 62 62 63 63 64 64 64 65 65 66 66 67 67 68 68 69 69 70 . .. . . .Step.. . . .. . .. . 16. . Static Side Rail Cantilever BendingTest .... .. . . . . . .Combination Ladders .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. Trestleand Combination Ladders. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .23-AllLadders . . . . 70 Appendix C Marking Classification. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Extension Trestle and Combination Ladders. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .Step.. .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . .. . .Trestle Ladders. . .. . . . . . . . Combination and Articulating Ladders Marking No . . . . . . ... . .. .. . . . . . . ... . .. . Marking No . .Step Ladders . Articulating Ladders . . . . . . . Rail Static Cantilever Test . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Trestle Ladder (Double Front Ladder). . O0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marking No . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . Trestle and Platform Ladders. . . .. . . . . . .. . 9 . . . . ... . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . 6 . . . ... . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 30 RungTorqueTests .. .. . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 36 Side-Rail Cantilever Dynamic Drop Test Ladder m i s t Test (Single. . . . .. . . . . ... . . .. . 35 . .. . . . . . .. .. Marking No . . . . ... . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . Front. .. .. .. . 39 Scaffold Bending Strength Test . . .. . . ... . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . .. . . .. ... . .. .. . . or Articulated Ladders). . . . .. . 12 . . .. .Articulated Ladder . . 3 . . . . . . ...Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 28 LockTipLoadTest . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. ... . . .. . . . . . 1O . . . ... . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . ... . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Compression. . . . Trestle. . . . ... . . . . Marking No .. . . . . . . . . . Combination. . . . . . . 29 Cyclic RungLock Test Arrangement.. . . Platform Ladders. . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. .. .Articulated Ladder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . .Extension Ladders . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . .. . . . . . . . . Marking No... . . .. . . . . . . . . MarkingNo. . .. .. . . . .. .. . . . Extension Trestle. . . . . . . . . . . . .Extension Trestle Ladder . . . . .. . .. . .. . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . Extension. . 5 . .Extension. . .. 11. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . 20 . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . 21. .. . . . . .Step. . . .. . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Rear Stability Tests . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Rung Lock Testing Cycle . . . . . . . .. 1 . ... Marking No. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 46 RackingTest . . . . . . . . All Ladders.. 19. .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. Marking No. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . ... . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . ... Marking No . . . . . 13 . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .Extension. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 37 38 FootSLipTest . . . . . .. . 2 . .Step.. .... . . . . . . 17 . . . .. . .... . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . Markings Marking No. . . . .. . . . . .Extension Ladders . . . . .. . 14 . . ... .. . . . . .. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .Platform Ladder . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . 30 Rung Bending Test and Rung-to-Side-Rail Shear Strength Test . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .... . . .. . . .. .. ... . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . 18 . .Step Stools . . ... .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. Marking No .. .. 15 . ... . . . . .. ... . . . .. Step Bending. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 59 60 Appendix B Format of Design and Color for the Safety First and Notice LabelsNarkings . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. .. . .... ..40 41 Methods (Other Than Dead Weight)for Applying Test Loads. . . . . Marking No . . . Extension Trestle Marking No . .. . . . . . ... .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 50 Appendixes Appendix A Format of Design and Color for Primary Hazard Danger and Caution LabelslMarkings. . 47 DynamicDropTest .. . . . ... Marking No .. . . . . . . . .. Side. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Side Rail Bending. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . 49 Stepladder Slip Test. . .. . . . . . . . .Extension. . . . . . . . . . . Marking No. . .

platform. purchaser. testing. and articulating ladders. It is recognized that a step stool code is under development. Itis also designed to serve as a guide to federal and state authorities or other regulatory bodies in the formulation of laws or regulations. and property. including.In order to develop an effective safety program.2 Application This standard is intended for voluntary use by establishments that use. and userof metal ladders with a set of performance and dimensional requirements against which this product may be compared. supervision. 2.ladder jacks. ladder type step stools. ladder levelers. trestle. portable extension. and the like. The methods employed to ensure compliance with this standard shall be determined by the proper regulatory or administrative authority. Itdoes not cover specialpurpose ladders thatdo not meet the general requirements of this standard. 2. but exclusive of furniture type step stools and special purposeladders. 1. nor does it cover ladder accessories. these labeling/marking requirements. These requirements are also intended to prescribe rules and criteria for labelinglmarking of the kinds of portable ladders cited in this standard. A14. manuals. work platforms. step. 9 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .the standard may serve also as a basis for purchase requirements and for instructions in personnel training. it is recommended that suggestions involving changes in the requirements or disputes over its interpretation shall be referred to the following organization: 'The rationale is on file with the Co-Secretariat. utility poles. manufacture or evaluate ladders. antenna communications towers. transmission towers. posters. American Ladder Institute.' 2. combination. mobile equipment. and chimneys. 401 N.3 Interpretation To secure uniform application of this standard. The limitations imposed are for the purpose of providing adequate general requirements and testing methods needed for consistency. Scope and Purpose This standard is also intended to provide the manufacturer. 60601.1 Rationale A rationale has been developed coveringthe specifications and performance requirements of this standard. 1. but excluding: ladders in and on mines. limb.2. andin the preparationof motivational/ instructional material such as safety practices. care and use of portable metal ladders of various types including. design. single.2 will no longer cover ladder type step stools. or documented safety procedures would be in conflict. or serve in lieu of.1 Scope This standard prescribes rules governing the safe construction. Michigan Avenue. These labelinglmarking requirements do not apply to those situations where training.2-2000 - American National Standard for Ladders Portable Metal Safety Requirements - 1. It is not the purpose of this standard to specify all thedetails of construction of portable metal ladders.2 Purpose The purpose of this standard is to provide reasonable safety for life. Chicago. Whenthe step stool code is approved. IL. or ladder straps or hooks. the fire services. that may be installed on or used in conjunction with ladders. General Note: While ladder type step stools are covered by A14. 2. hoisting equipment. ladder stabilizers or stand-off devices. sectional. but not limited to.American National Standard A14.

That component ofladder support that is in contact with the lowersupporting surface. or plate of a primary hazard or informational character.5-1992 Marking. will forward the inquiry to the appropriate Subcommittee Chairman for committee response. with or without a stand-off. it is expected that the administrative authority will grant exceptions tothe literal requirements of this standard or will permit the use of alternate designs or features. The back legs are joined by rungs.ANSI A14. but not limited to. with a suitable means for locking the ladders together.Portable Wood . painted. Angle of inclination. American National Standard Safety Requirements for Scaffolding. American National Standard for Ladders . Extension trestle ladder.American National Standard A14. burned.2 standardis approved by ANSI. including. the inquiry must be submittedin writing and Triodyne Inc.8-1988 Ladder foot. Combination ladder. connection. (See Appendixes A and B.1994 Ladder type. or material providing equal performance.Safety Requirements. which imply service capability.or slip-resistant bearing surface. Back leg (rear rail). A portable ladder capable of being used either as a stepladder or as a single or extension ladder. Highest Standing Level. shoe.5 Equivalent The word “equivalent”in this standard means a construction.The vertical distance. It may alsobe capable of being used as a trestle ladder or a stairwell ladder.ANSI A 14. Ladder.Safety Requirements. stencil. The support members of a selfsupporting portable ladder back section. 3. rear braces or other bracing to form the back section. stamped or embossed on a ladder surface. affixed. Consulting Engineers andScientists 5950 West Touhy Avenue Niles.1).Portable Reinforced Plastic. or both. Related Standards This standard is intended for use in conjunction with the following American National Standards (see Section 10): Articulated joint. 2. adjustable inlength. 2. but only if equivalent safety is thereby secured. Duty rating. A hinge which can be locked in one or more positions.The designation that identifies the working load. rungs. Its components may be used as single ladders. or cleats on whicha person may step to ascend or descend. this standard shouldbe liberally construed considering the rationale (see2. Extension ladder. In view of the many differentkinds of ladders and the many different conditions under which they areused. In cases of practical difficulty or under special-service conditions. IL 60714 FAX: 847-647-2047 E-mail: infoserv@triodyne. Any sign.com If it is determined thatyour inquiry requires an interpretation of the standard. 2. as a regular or double front stepladder. with the ladder in the preferred climbing position. A portable ladder with one or more pairs of locking articulatedjoints which allow the ladder to be set up in several modes suchas a single or extension ladder. consisting of a trestle ladder base and a vertically adjustable extension section.The distance between the inside flanges of the side rails of a ladder. It consists of two or more sections traveling in guides or brackets or the equivalent and so arranged as to permit length adjustment. The total lengthof the extension ladder when the middle or intermediate and top or fly sections are fully extended (maintaining the required overlap). expressed in feet and inches.2-2000 Al4 Technical Secretariat Triodyne Inc.The preferred pitch for portable non-self-supporting ladders.A self-supporting portable ladder. A device incorporating or employing steps. The word “should” is to be understood as denoting a recommendation.) 4. 10 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .6 Effective Date The requirements of this standard shall become effective90 days after the date the revised A14. label.ladder types and design features. Inside clear width. from the uppermost rung or step the climber is advised to use to the horizontal plane of the ladder base support. Definitions and Nomenclature Maximum extendedlength or maximum working length.ANSI A10. bars. scaffold or work table.1. A non-self-supporting portable ladder adjustable in length.4 Mandatory and Advisory Provisions The word “shall” is to be understood as denoting a mandatory requirement. American NationalStandard for Ladders . The combination of factors. Articulated ladder.

E N G L 2000 American National Standard A14. in order to adapt the ladder for special or specific climbing uses. The length of a non-self-supporting portable ladder measured along therails from thebase support point of the ladder to the point of bearingat the top. foldable. which may be spaced at any interval. The side rails may continue above the top cap. Test failure. portable ladder. Rear Braces. A self-supporting portable ladder of fixed size with a platform provided at the intended highest standing level. rungs. A self-supporting portable ladder.S T D . A ladder that can readily be moved or carried. A temporary elevated platform andits supporting structure used for supporting worker(s) or materials or both. Single ladder. Pitch. Trestle ladder (double front ladder). which is measured on the side of the ladder opposite the climbing side. with flat steps and without a pail shelf. Damage or visible weakening of the ladder structure or a component. nonadjustable in length. Visual inspection. it shall be the Solarian II vinyl tile from Armstrong. Sectional ladder. non-adjustable in length. Ladder crosspieces that are intended for use by a person in ascending or descending. 11 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . usually consisting of side rails joined at intervals by steps. Where a ladder is constructed without a top cap. Top step.A self-supporting. It is usually expressed as the ratio HL. with flat steps and hinged base. (2) Top or fly section. Visual damage. Step stool (ladder type). The side members joined at intervals by rungs. one (1) per side and hinged at the top to form angles with the base. Methods of defining size are presented in the individual standards. The lowest section of a non-self-supporting portable ladder. Platform. rungs. The uppermost horizontal memberof a portable stepladder or step stool. where applicable. A non-self-supporting portable ladder. materials. nonadjustablein length.A N S I A L Y . the top step is the first step below the top of the rails. Stand-off. Rungs. Test load. Special-purpose ladder. or cleats. and so constructed that the sections may be combined to function as a single ladder. or rear braces. Plastic top cap. Platform ladder. Portable ladder. designed so that the ladder top cap as well as all steps can be climbed on. A portable ladder that is either an experimentally designed ladder or a modification or assemblage of A14 approved requirements for design or Working load. Ultimate failure. Section (1) Bottom or base section. and tools which the ladder is to support for the intended use. nonadjustable in length. Crosspieces or diagonals (in the back section of a self-supporting ladder) not intended for climbing. Scaffold. consisting of one section. steps. Those deformations remaining in any partof a ladder after all loads have been removed. Step surfaces. (3) Middle or intermediate section. The collapse of the ladder structure or. The maximum applied load. Unwaxed vinyl tile. or cleats on which a person may step while ascending or descending ladder. or rear braces. Molded thermoset or thermoplastic uppermost horizontal memberof a portable stepladder. which is the horizontal distanceH from the base of the ladder to the supporting surface divided by the working lengthL of the ladder. Rail. The section between the top (fly) and bottom (base)sections of a non-self-supporting portable ladder. In this standard. a component thereof. Top cap. Working length. The first step below the top cap of a portable stepladder or step stool. Sue. except where otherwise defined by the test protocol. consisting of two or more sections. Stepladder. The quantitative description of the length of the ladder. steps. The uppermost section of a non-self-supportingportable ladder. consisting of two sections. The included (acute) angle between the horizontal and the ladder. 32 inches or less in overall size. The applied load used to demonstrate compliance with performance test requirements. nonadjustable in length. A landing surface that is used as a working or standing location. Damage evident by visual inspection. The clear portion of steps. A non-self-supportingportable ladder.Z . designed to be able to be climbed on by two (2) individuals simultaneously. cleats.2-2000 Permanent deformation(set). A self-supportingportable ladder. including the weight of the user. cleats. A means by which a ladder may be erected at some horizontal distance away from its upper support point. construction features of one of the general-purpose ladders defined elsewhere in this section. Inspection by the eye without recourse to any optical device except prescription eyeglasses.

In this case the top step may be used for stepping purposes. the 12-inch spacing shall be maintained across hinged sections. discoloration and excessive sink marksor parting line flash.2-ENLL 2 0 0 0 E 0724350 0 5 5 8 9 7 b 7 9 7 E American National Standard A14. serrated.7 Burrs. 6. 5. working. or with side rails flaring at the base. but the tread portion isnot required to be horizontal.1.1. shall be corrugated. Slope is the angle of the side rails or back legs with respectto the vertical and is expressed as the horizontal deviationfrom the vertical per unit length of the member. knurled. provision should be madeto restrict inadvertent stepping into the opening. Heavy-duty (Type I) and extra heavy-duty ( v p e IA) ladders shall be 3 to 20 feet.Metals shall be so selected as to avoid excessive galvanic action. welded. Steps.across their entire width.1). For articulated or combination ladders usingsteps.S T D * A N S I A34. to the extent necessary to permit the tread portion of the steps to be horizontal (level). Stepladders shall be constructed so that when theyare in the open position. with side rails varying uniformlyin separation along the length (tapered). intermption in the slip-resistant surfaces is permissible if necessitated by operational and/or struc- 6.2. Rivets. descending. General Requirements Specific design and construction requirements are minimized in this standard because of thewide variety of metals and design possibilities. Provided the overall slip-resistant characteristics are not compromised.8 Angle of Inclination The angle of inclination for single and extension ladders. Finished component shall meet specified dimensions.1 Stepladders 6. including top cap and foot. ladders may be designed with parallel side rails. dimpled. 6. or standing.5 Rungs.swaged.2-2000 5.2 Slope. for each 12-inch length of side rail. Bolts. except for step stools where the spacing shall be uniform butnot less than 8 inches +1/8 inch nor more than 12 inches +1/8 inch measured along the side rail.6 Hardware Hardware shall meetthe requirements for the ladder's component parts and shall be of a material that is protected against corrosion unlessit is inherently corrosion-resistant. burrs.3 Rung and Step Spacing The spacing between ladder rungs or steps shall be on 12-inch centers +1/8 inch. Specifications Rung-to-side-rail or step-to-side-railconnections shall be so constructed as to ensure sufficient rigidity and strength to conform to the requirements of this standard.1. possess a minimum of shorts or voids. steps. this angle may range from 70" to 75-1/2". be reasonably free from distortion or warping.4 Rung Connections 12 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . or coated with a slip-resistant material. shallbe 75-U2". and combination ladders when used as a single ladder.9 Plastic Top Caps Top cap shall be manufactured ina controlled process yielding good commercial workmanshipof the part. when used as a single or extension ladder shallbe 75-1/2". The size shall be measured along thefront edge of the front side rail. and Platform Those surfaces of rungs. 5.1 Flare Because of the varied conditions and the wide variety of ladder uses. and the slope of the back section is not less than 2 inches. the design shall have such characteristics as to produce a ladder of sufficient strength and stiffness to meet the performance requirements of this standard and shall produce a ladder without structural defects or accident hazards such as sharp edges. with a tolerance of +U2 inch. However.1 Stepladder Size. and articulated ladders. andplatforms designed for use in ascending. 5. The angle of inclination for articulated ladders using rungs. tural requirements or other considerationscould that affect safety or function. 5. All connections shall be riveted. 5. and the like. fastened with a locking type bolt or other permanent means. 5. the slope of the front sectionis not less than 3-1/2 inches. Stepladders longer than 20 feet shall not be supplied. 5. medium-duty (Type 11) ladders shall be three to 12 feet. On articulated and combination ladders. Note: Stepladders with the top step 18 inches below the top cap and the bottom step 6 inches above the base support are permitted as an alternate means of construction. and Welds All workmanship shallbe free from burrs in excess of 1/64 inch. When the top step is 18 inches below the top cap.2 Side Rails The design of the side rails shall be such as to ensure a product that will conformto the requirements of this standard. and light-duty (Type III) ladders shall be 3 to 6 feet in length (see 8. 5. 5.

Steps shall be parallel and level within 118 inch (see 5.6.1.The minimum inside clear width between side rails of the fly or intermedi- Minimum Inside Clear Width (inches) 14 15 18 6. For ladders using double sets of spreaders. The size of a single ladder is designated by the overall length atthe side rail.2.2 Single and Extension Ladders 6.Extension ladders shall be equipped in such a manner that theladder cannot be used with an overlap less than the minimum specified in Table 2. Designs employing ladder lock location.7 Buck Section. or the equivalent are acceptable. Bucket (Pail) Shelves. but not those depending upon pulley location. filler and additives are the responsibility of the manufacturer.Where bucket shelves are an integral partof the stepladder.6. and light-duty (TypeIII) ladders shall not exceed 16 feet in length.E N L L 2000 m 0724150 0558777 b 2 3 II American National Standard A14. and structural integrity under the stipulated thermal conditions outlined in the standard.1.S T D . A tolerance of k 3 inches per section shall be allowed. 6. The minimum inside clear width between side rails atthe bottom of the base section shall not be less than the following dimensions: 6. in letters not less than 118 inch high.8 Feet.2. up to and including 40 Over 40. 6. Ladder S i e (feet) Up to and including 28 Over 28. Heavy-duty (TypeI) or extra heavy-duty (Type IA) ladders shall not exceed 30 feet in length.2. 6. 13 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . A section incorporating locks that result in the elimination of a rung in the section or one not intended for separate use because of non-compliance with single ladder requirements shall include a permanent marking*. thermal stability.The spreader shall not be more than 6-1/2 feet above the lower support surface and shall haveall sharp points or edges covered or removed to protect the user. Extension ladders shall not exceed the sizes specified inTable 1.Z .1.3 Width und Spread. The minimum inside clear width at the top step shall be 12 inches. 6. such as gravity. when fully extended in the locked in useposition shall overlap the adjacent section as indicated in Table 2. up to and including 72 6. Bearing length is determined byperformance tests. with a tolerance of +1/2 inch. A spreader or locking device of sufficient size and strengthto securely hold the front and back sections inthe open position shall be a component part of each stepladder.3 Single Ladder Size.5 Step Width. The dimensions of the slip-resistant surface shall not be less than the dimensions of the projected area outlined by the cross section of the end of the rail.2-2000 6. The size of an extension ladder is designated by the sum of the lengthsof one side rail of each section measured alongthe side rails. 6.Each section of a multi-section ladder. Qne preferred system is a minimum of 0. excluding any foot or end cap.1. medium-duty (Qpe II) ladders shall not exceed 24 feet in length.4 Extension LadderSize.A N S I A L q .2 The assembled part shall be designed to exhibit satisfactory corrosion resistance. 6.2. Locks may be any design.2. 6.The extension locking device shall be designed to withstand all performance tests. ate section shall not be less than 12 inches.2 Extension Ladder Width. 6. the foregoing height limitation applies only to the lower set. The back section may be designed with any type of rear braces as long as it meets the general and testing requirements (see Section 7). spring-action. excluding any foot or end cap.6 Overlap Control. Allfilled thermoplastics shall have the appropriate coupling agent and adequate ultraviolet inhibitors should be incorporated.1.1 Singre Ladder Width.9 Spreaders. outdoor weathering.1. The minimum width of the step or tread shall be 3 inches.5 Overlap and Bearing Length.1. who shall giveconsideration that certain requirements are achieved. On ladders eight feet or less in length.3). Extension ladders shall be marked to indicate both the total lengthof sections and the maximum extended length or maximum working length. Specification of the particular resin. or during the closing of the ladder the shelf shall fold and the bucket shelf arms shall not project beyond the front rail frame surfaces facing the user.12% antioxidant.the shelf shall bedesigned so that it must be folded before theladder can be closed. they shall be so fastened that they can befolded up within the ladder when the ladderis closed. *labels qualify as permanent markings provided they comply with Section 7. 6. mechanical stops. 6.25% by weight of HALS (Hindered Amino Light Stabilizer) and0. From top to bottom the spread shallincrease a minimum of 1-1/4 inches per foot ofside rail length. rope-operated.1.2. 6.4 Steps. The bottoms of the four rails shall be made of or covered with slip-resistant material.The minimum inside clear width shall be not be less than 12 inches for ladders 10 feet and under and shall increase 1/8 inch for each additional foot of length.7 Extension Locking Device. or stationary types.2.10 Phstic Top Caps.

8.2. including the foot or shoe designates the size of a trestle ladder.A tolerance of +2 inches. shall have a minimum breaking strengthof 560 pounds. End closures onthe bottom of the fly or intermediate sections. 6. safety shoes. End closuresor equivalent protection against sharp edges and snagging shallbe provided on the bottomof each side railof the fly or intermediate section whenit operates onthe front of the base section. The spread when thebase section is open shall not beless than 5-112 inches per foot of base-section side rail. The minimuminside clear width of the trestle or extension section at anypoint shall not be less than 12-1/2 inches. spurs. 6. The cable shall be not less than 1/8 inch in diameter. 6. Such devices include.3 Base Spread. or base sections of extension trestle ladders. conformable shoes.2 Width. Shoes.1. Fastening means to secure the pulley shall not be construed as weakening the rungs.3. . In no case shall the extension section size exceed the base-section size. but are not limited to.2 Extension Trestle Ladder. shall apply to all sections. shall not be more than 20 feet in length. End caps shall be provided on the upper endof each side railof the fly or intermediate sectionof an extensionladder and on a single ladder. The pulley shall be attached to the ladder in such a manner as not to weaken either the rungs or the side rails.The width spread shall not be less than 1-114 inches per foot of side rail length. up to and including 48 Over 48. 6. The size of an extension trestle ladder is designated by the length of the trestle ladder base along the front edge of the side rail. including the shoe.1 Size. Permanently attached stops are considered to be those that wouldrequire cutting or drilling.10 End Caps and End Closures.3 Trestle (Double Front) and Extension Trestle ladders 6. On three-section ladders. Each rail of a single ladder and each rail of an extensionladder base section shall beprovided with a means of slip resistance secured to the lower end of theladder rail and designed to function at the Minimum RequiredOverlap for Extension ladders Overlap (inches) TWO Section Other 34 46 58 70 69 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services ~ ~~ 33 45 57 14 - specified angle of inclination.8 Rope and Pulley.3.1 Extension ladders may be equipped with a rope and pulley. 6.3. Table 2 Ladder Size (feet) Up to and including 32 Over 32.2.Type III Up to and including 32 Caution -This Ladder Section Is Not Designed for Separate Use Or permanently attached stops shall be providedto prevent removal of the section. 6. 6. up to and including 72 Up to and including 72 Up to and including 72 Up to and including 60 6. Trestle ladders. up to and including 36 Over 36.Type I Medium duty . -112 inch.may serve as ladder shoes where the unit permits the sections to be taken apart.2. and Other SI@-Resistant Devices. and shall be of sufficient length for the purpose intended.2.1.1 Trestle (Double Front} Laddel: The length of the side rails measured along the front edge.3. and flat or radiused tread feet.8.2.9.Type II Up to and including48 Light duty .2. Spurs.9. or extension sections. or on the topof the base section when the fly or intermediate sectionoperates in the rear of the base section.wire cable may be used in the rope and pulley hook-up. on the fly section only. for removal. or similar forcible means. 6. provided the rungs meet the applicable rung bending strength test.3.2-2000 Table 1 Extension-Ladder Size and Rating Three-Section Two-Section Duty Type (feet) (feet) Up to and including 60 Extra heavy duty. spikes.2 The rope used with the pulley shall be not less than a nominal 5/16 inch in diameter.American National Standard A14.when suitably designed in accordance with 6.Type IA Up to and including60 Heavy duty. 6.

4. for each 12-inch length of side rail. The width spread shall not be less than 1-1/4 inch per foot of side rail length. Type IA.2 Slope.l. The dimensions of the slip-resistant surface shall not be less than the dimensions of the projected area outlined by the cross section of the end of rail.1 through 6. The platform area shall be at least 20 inches below the top of the ladder. The bottoms of the four rails shall be made of or covered with slip-resistant material. and not less than 130 square inches forType III ladders. 6. medium-duty (Type II) ladders shall be two to 10 feet.7 shall also apply to platform ladders. mechanical stops.4 Platform ladders 6. The spreader shall not be more than 6-1/2 feet above the lower support surface. including any foot or shoe.up to and including 12 Over 12. End closures or equivalentprotection against sharp edges and snagging shallbe provided on the bottom of each side rail of the extension section. For ladders where double sets of spreaders are used.4 Extension nestle Overlap. Designs employing ladder lock locations. may serve as ladder shoes where the unit permits the sections to be taken apart.and TypeII ladders.4.3 Width and Spread. The extension locking device shallbe designed to withstand all load tests. End closures on the bottom of the extension section. Extra spreaders shall be provided on all ladders greater than six feet in size. and Type II ladders and 13 inches for Type III ladders. and light-duty (TypeIII) ladders shall be twoto four feet in length. 6.8 Other Requirements.6 Extension LockingDevice.The requirements of 6. the 6. and the slope of the back section is not less than one inch.4. its location may be more than6-1/2 feet above the base. when fully extended. On extension trestles where the extensionguidance system serves as the spreaders.3. Extension trestle ladders shall be equipped in such a manner that the ladder cannot be used with an overlap less than the minimum specified in Table 3.4.The extension section of the extension trestle ladder. The back legs andside rails of a platform-type ladder shall extend at least 20 inches of vertical height abovethe top of the platform and shall be connected with a top member to form a three-sided rail. Heavyduty (Type I) and extra heavy-duty (TypeIA) ladders shall be twoto 18 feet.3. shall overlap the base section as indicated in Table 3.8 Feet. 6. with a tolerance of 2112 inch. Type IA. 6.3.9 End Cups und End Closures. 6. The spreader shall have all sharp points or edges covered or removed to protect the user.3. The minimum inside clear width at the platform shall be 14 inches for Type I. the lower setshall not be more than 6-1/2 feet above the lowersupport surface. The spreaders shall have all sharp points or edges covered or removed to protect the user. 6. The platform area shall not be less than 200 square inches forQpe I. 6. up to and including 16 Over 16.3.6 Spreaders. 6.or the equivalent are acceptable.9 thatare not in conflict with 6. Equivalent construction may be provided. A spreader or locking device of sufficient size and strength to securely hold the front and back sections inthe open position shallbe a component of each trestle ladder. The size of a platform ladder is designated by the overall length as determined by the lengthof the front edge of the front side rail from the top of the platform to the base of the ladder. 6. Only ladders six feet or under may use the platform hinging device as the spreader if the device locks the ladder open. 6. Slope is the angle of the side rails or back legs with respectto the vertical and is expressed as the horizontal deviation from the vertical per unit length of the member. The bottoms ofthe four rails of the trestle ladder and the basesection of an extension trestle ladder shall be madeof or covered with slip-resistant material.4.7 Feet.4.5 Top Rail.1 through 6.1.4.4 Platform. up to and including 20 (inches) 34 46 58 70 6.1 Size.American National Standard A14. Table 3 Minimum Required Extension Trestle ladder Overlap Section Base (fW 6 up to and including 8 Over 8. The dimensions of the slip-resistant surface shall not be less than the dimensions of the projected area outlined by the cross section of the end of the rail.2-2000 6. When double sets of spreaders are used. when suitably designed.4. 6. 15 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . Platform ladders shall be so constructed that when inthe open position.4. the slope of the front section is not less than 3-1/2 inches.3. the foregoing height limitation applies only to the lower set.7 Spreaders.4.5 Overlap Control. The platform shall not extend more than 1-1/2 inches beyond the back rail. End caps shall be provided on the upperend of each side rail of the extension section of an extension trestle ladder.

1/4inches per foot of side rail length. The minimum inside clear width at thetop step shall be 12 inches.5.they shall be so fastened that they can be folded up within the ladder when the ladder is closed (see Section 7). for each 12-inch length of siderail.1 Size. shall not exceed the maximum working lengths specifiedby the manufacturer. 6.2 SZope.5. Step stool size is measured along the front edge of the front side rail.5.American National Standard A14. including the top cap and feet. with a tolerance of +1/2 inch.6. 6.2-2000 6.1 /2 inches per foot of side rail length. The dimensions of the slip-resistant surface shall not be less than the dimensions of the projected area outlined by the cross section of the end of the rail. Combination ladders shall be equipped in such a manner that the ladders. When steps are used in the rear section. the slope of the front section is not less than 3-1/2 inches. . or to the top step when no top cap is used. the slope of the front section is not less than four inches.4 Steps.7 Feet. with a tolerance of +1/2 inch. 6. Table 4 Combination ladder Size Length in Feet Duty Rating and Type Minimum Maximum Extra heavy duty .5.5. the step surfaces shall be parallel within *1/8 inch with the step surfaces in the frontsection when the ladder is used as a single or extension ladder.2 Slope. Step surfaces shall be parallel and level within*1/8 inch.6. A spreader or locking device of sufficient size andstrength to securely holdthe front and rear sections in the open position shall be a component part of each combination ladder.9 Stops.6 Bucket (Pail) Shelves. 6.5.1 Size. The spreaders shall notbe more than 6-1/2 feet above thebase supporting surface.Type LA Heavy duty .3 Widthand Spread. Combination ladders shall be so constructed that when in the open position for use as a stepladder. 6.6. The spreader 16 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services ~~~~~~~ shall have all sharp points or edges coveredor removed to protect the user. Designs employing ladder lock location. the size is designatedby the length of the ladder. 6.3 Width and Spread. but such side rail extension is not considered part of the ladder size. measured along the front edge of the front side railfrom the bottom of the foot to the top of the top cap. From top to bottom the spreadshall increase a minimum of 1 .Type II Light duty. The minimum outside width at the top cap shall be 12 inches. The bottoms of the four rails shall be made of or covered with slip-resistant material. Excluding the interval betweenthe bottom step and thesupport surface.5 Step Width.4 Steps and Rungs. and shall be within the limits shown in Table 4. mechanical stops. the steps and top cap shall be uniformlyspaced at intervals of eight to 12 inches.5 Combination ladder 6.6.3). End caps shall be provided on the upper ends of each side rail of a combination section when the rail is not otherwise capped.5.Type I Medium duty .5.5. The inside clear width of the rear section (extension or single ladder section) shall be 12 inches. and the slope of the back section is not less than 2-112 inches.The front side rails may continue around and overthe top cap. Slope is the angle of the front side rails (stepladder section) or the rear side rails (single or extension-ladder section) with respect to the vertical and is expressed as the horizontal deviation from the vertical per unitlength of the member. the minimum widthof the step in the front section only (stepladder section) shall be three inches. 6. Slope is the angle of the side rails or back legs with respect to the vertical andis expressed as the horizontal deviation fromthe vertical per unit length of the member. The minimum inside clear width at the top step shall be 10-1/2 inches. 6. Steps shall be parallel and level within the tolerance specified (see 5. and the slope of the back section is not less than twoinches for each 12-inch lengthof side rail. or the equivalent areacceptable. 6. From top to bottom the spreadshall increase a minimum of 1. 6.8 Spreaders. When the combination ladder is usedas a self-supportingladder.Type III 4 4 4 4 10 10 10 6 6. Either steps or rungs may be used on thefront and rear sections. Where used.10 End Caps. when used as extension ladders. Step stools shall be constructed so that when in the open position. 6.6 Step Stools (ladder Type) 6.Where bucket shelves are an integralpart of the combination ladder.5. The stepladder length and the maximum extension ladder length shall be within +1/2 inchof the size indicated on the label. 6.

The top cap shall not be splitfor folding the ladder. and light-duty (Type ILI) ladders shall not exceed 12 feet in length. 6.6. and the slope of the back section is not less than two inches. The back section may be designed with any type of rear braces as long as it meets the General and Test requirements.7. the minimum width of a step shall be three inches.7 Feet. including any foot. the size is designated by the overall length at the side rail. (See Section 7) 6.1). Round rungs shall have a minimum diameter of 1-118 inches. (vpe When the articulated ladder is used in a single or extension ladder mode.The minimum insideclear width at thetop step when set up in a stepladder mode shallbe 12 inches. 6.6. A spreader or locking device of sufficient size and strengthto securely lock the front and back sections in the open position shall be a component partof each step stool. trapezoidal. the slope of the front section is not less than3-112 inches. Articulatedladder shall be constructed so that when the ladder is in the open position for use in the stepladder mode.8 Spreaders. or covered with.If the ladder is provided with both a front and back section which spread. the spread whenthe ladder is open shall not be less than 5-1/2 inches for each 12-inch length of side rail. then the front section’s minimum outside width at the bottom support shall exceed the width atthe top of the rails by 1-1/2 inches per foot of ladder length when measured tothe outside of the top side rails. 6. medium-duty(Type II) ladders shall be three to 12 feet.7 Articulated ladders 6. When steps are used in the rear section. The dimensions of the slip-resistant surface shall not be less than the dimensionsof the projected area outlined by the cross section of the end of the rail. 6. Heavy-duty (Type I) and extra heavy-duty (Type IA) ladders shall be three to 15 feet.The minimum insideclear width at the base when set up in asingle or extension ladder mode shallbe 12inches for ladders 10 feet and under and the minimuminside width shall increase 1/8 inch for each additionalfoot of length.4 Steps and Rungs. and the joint to side rail connections. All sharp points or edges shall be coveredor removed to protect the user.1.2 Slope. The joints.5 Step Width.6 and 7.American National Standard A14. If rungs are used.7.square.7. The minimum width of the step or tread shall be 3 inches.7. the step surfaces shall be parallel within i118 inch with the step surfaces in the front section when the ladder is used in a single or extension ladder mode. then both sections’ minimum outside width at the bottom support shall exceed the width atthe top of the rails by 1-1/4 inches per footof ladder length when measuredto the outside of the top side rails. 6. Right-angleor near-right angle comers shall have their edges roundedto a radius of not less than 1/16 of an inch. Slope is the angle of the front side rails or the rear side rails with respect to the vertical and is expressed as the horizontal deviation from the vertical per unit length of the member. square or rectangular rungs shall havestep a surface of not less than 1 inch.3 Widthand Spread.Either steps or rungs may be used on the front and rear sections. 6.5 test requirements. D-shaped or equivalent.5 Step W d h and Rung Diameter. Heavy-duty (Qpe I) or extra heavy-duty (Type IA)ladder shall not exceed 30 feet in length. slip-resistant material.5.2-2000 6. medium-duty (TypeII) ladders shall not exceed 24 feet in length. 6. 6. the size is designated by the length of the ladder measured alongthe front edge of the front side rail from the bottom of the foot to the center of the pivot pinof the hinge.1 Articulated Ladder Size. The bottoms of the 4 rails shall be made of or covered with slip-resistant material. Its size shall be not less than 12 inches wide and 4-314inches deep. 6.6.6. for each 12-inch length of side rail. with a tolerance of +1/2 inch.8 ArticulatedJoints. The joints shall have set locking positionsto allow set upat the proper 17 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . The bottoms of the four rails shall be made of.7. The tread surface may be a radius. The top cap shall not overhang theladder in any direction in excess of the dimensions of the attaching hardware or the equivalent.6 Bucket (Pail) Shelves.9 Top Cap. If steps are used. either flator along a segment ofarc of 3 inches or greater radius. Where bucket shelves are provided they shall be in compliance with Section 6.7 Feet. If the ladder is provided with a straight back section. or rectangular. 6. they may be round.7.7.7.6. If the ladder permits use inthe double front stepladder mode. 6. The top cap shall be of sufficient strength and slip resistance to permit its use as a climbing surface. with a toleranceof +1/2 inch. The dimensions of the slip-resistant surface shall not be less than the dimensions of the projected area outlined by the cross section of the end of the rail. D-shapedor equivalent.1.6 Back Section.When the articulated ladder is used in a stepladder mode. Trapezoidal. Step surfaces shall be parallel and levelwithin +1/8 inch. and light-duty III) ladders shall be 3 to 6 feet in length (See 8. shall be so constructed as to ensure sufficient strength and rigidity to conform to the requirements of this standard.1.

7.3 Many of thetests required by the standard are inherently dangerous.1.where applicable.1. facility.1. or abuse. chemistry. 7. or their agents. the A14 Subcommittees. misuse.11 ScafioM Position. spectroscopic. However.7. 6. All sharp points or edges or pinch points shall be covered or removed to protect the user. should be especially careful to follow the preferred test methods.1 General 7. Hence.1. even though otherwise professionally qualified. or personnelfor or in connection with the test is furnished by the manufac- 18 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services turer or by any other such individual. Personnel inexperiencedin ladder testing. Working heights shall be limited to 6 feet or less.7. The manufacturer shall supply suggestions for an appropriate decking for safe usage.1. . Extreme care shall be exercised to avoid personal injury whensetting up and conducting the tests and when disassembling the test gear at the conclusion of the tests. and whether or not any equipment. It is not intended that design verification tests shall be conducted on ladders that have been in use or subjected to prior damage. where proper recognition is given to the influence on the test results of the prior use and the test method itself. Except where the quality control tests are destructive in nature. where the supposed equivalent test methods yield different results. or organization. method of manufacture.2 The test requirements were developed using statistical tolerances.1. Subtle variations in test techniques may introduce significant testing errors that bias the testing program. to evaluate the conditionof the product following actual field service may conduct in-service tests in the field.1. misuse. 7. the A14 Committee. the actualowner.7 The manufacturer. 7.7. Ladders that conform to the in-service use tests shall continue to be employed. or abuse. 6. consultant. Use as a scaffold shall be based on a one man usage (250 lb.10 Telescoping Sections. ladders subjected to quality control tests maybe subsequently placedinto field service. the preferred test methods shalldetermine whether or not the ladder is in conformance with the standard. the user. including equipment). wherever performed.angles designated by the manufacturer. Such tests normally shall not be conducted on every ladder manufactured or on ladders that have been in use or subjected to prior damage. whether performed in whole or in part by the manufacturer. Note: The tests in italics are advisory.6 Quality control tests should be conducted during the manufacturing process employed to produce the ladder.9 Conformance to the design verifkation test requirements shall be determined5 minutes after load removal.and the A14 Task Forces neither assume nor accept any responsibilityfor any injury or damage that may occur during or as the result of tests. hardness. Certain quality control tests. The height shall not exceed three times the minimum outside widthof the bottom support inthe scaffold position. the test may berepeated utilizing a statisticallyjustifiable number of test samples to ultimately determine compliance or noncompliance with the standard.1 The test methods depicted in this section represent the preferred methods to be followed in determining whether a ladder conforms to the requirements of this standard.1.1. 7. 7. 7. anoutside laboratory or consultant. 6. 7.5 Design verification tests shall be conducted during the initial evaluation of a specific product design and thereafter whenever there is achange in the design. 7.Ladders subjected to design verification tests are not intended for subsequent use. not mandatory. where a single test result indicates noncompliance. The locks for any telescoping sections shall visibly indicate as to whether they are locked or unlocked. Each lock shall visibly indicate whether it is locked or unlocked. such as dimensional verifications. Use as a worktable shallbe limited to working heights of 5 feet or less. Test Requirements 7. the user or owner ofthe product. Hand rails and toeboards are not required. or any other individual or organization.8 The development and ongoingimplementation of overall qualitycontrol shall be the responsibility of each individual manufacturer. when conducted for in-service testing purposes. The manufacturer shall supply orsuggest an appropriate decking for safe usage. or material.4 Diligent effort and close attention to all details shall be exercisedin setting up and conducting the tests. The American National Standards Institute. laboratory.9 Worktable Position. Variationsfrom the specific methods depicted in the various diagrams shall be acceptable provided such alternate means provide equivalent results and comply with theintent of the applicable preferred test method. and mechanical properties tests may be conducted on ladders subsequent to their use when done with extreme care by properly qualifiedprofessionals following applicable ASTM standards for such tests.

Table 5 Horizontal Bending Test Loads* Deflection Duty Rating and Type Extra heavy duty -Type IA Heavy duty . The test results shall be recorded on a data sheet that containsat least the minimum data shown in Fig.Type I Medium duty . as shown in Fig.1.3 Single. Extension. which shall be held for a minimum period of one minute and then unloaded. and Articulated ladder Tests 7. I The ladder shall be placed in a flat horizontal position. Note: This is both a design veri8cationtest and an in-service use test. 7. The ladder shall be preloaded with a30 lb. as shown in Fig. When testing an articulatedladder. The 75-112" angle of inclination for extension ladders shall be modified when applied to combination ladders in theirextension-ladderorientation to the extent necessary to permit the tread portionof the steps to be horizontal (level). The load shallbe applied to the center of the rung nearest tothe center of the test span over a 3-112 inch length of the rung. lb. When an articulated ladder is being tested it shall be set up at its maximum length in the extension ladder mode.2-2000 7. the horizontal bending test shallbe conducted front and back. Combination. After preloading. When extension and combination ladders are tested. The ladder shall be supported and the load shall be applied to the rung closest to the midpointof the span.3. The test load shall be appliedfor a period of one minute.Type III Workiig Load 300 Preload Test Load 225 300 250 188 225 200 169 150 250 225 200 Ultimate Test Load 375 310 280 250 *All quantities are in pounds. 7. using care to avoid impact loading during the test. 7. la.Type II Light duty . than the centerof the ladder span. Note: This is a design verification test.3.3.2. and third to the center of the lowest fly rung above the overlap. loadfor one minute before applying thetest load. The ladder shall sustain theultimate test load without ultimate failure.S T D * A N S I AL'4-2-ENGL 2000 m 072qL50 0558783 927 American National Standard A14.2 Deflection Test. 2a and 2b. 7.1. equal to the ultimate test load inaccordance with Table 5 . The unit shall be loaded withthe preload shown in Table 5. and after the load is removed. 2a and b.2 The ladder shall thenbe subjected for at least one minute to an increased load. the test load shall be applied to the center of the rung immediately above thecenter of the test span. The test load shall be sequentially applied at the three different rung locations: first to the center of the highest base rung below the overlap. over a 3-1/2 inch bearing on the rung. Whenthe articulated ladderis intended to beclimbed from either side. second to the center of the fly rung inthe cen6 inches higher ter of the overlap or.2 Horizontal Bending Test.in accordance with Table 7. 19 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . yet still maintainthe 6-inch overhang at each end. 7. a deflection test load in accordance with Table5 shall be applied equally to both side rails. The end support bars shall be designed to permit longitudinal translation of either one or both supports during loading as the test unit deflects. as shown in Fig.20 The test load shall be applied slowly.2 Combination ladder Tests Combination ladders shall comply withthe test requirements for stepladders when in the stepladder position. or the equivalent. if necessary. The maximum average deflection of both side railsshall not exceed the value given in Table6 .3. and for extension ladders when in the extensionladder position. Vertical measurementsshall be taken of both rails before andduring loading. All supporting and loading apparatus shall conformto that shown in Fig. 3. the unit shall be opened to the required overlap and extended to its maximum workinglength.

o 01l h ! !o O O g tt o .3.--- o o o “ ” ‘ < I r-. I I“:3 in Section A-A the ladder load. (4) This test is illustrated for a ladder design in which the fly section is behind the base section. The deflection test load. . shown here with the base section on the left. WS 7. Note: This is a design verification test. shall be applied only to the center of the rung nearest thecenter of the test span (test load2).6 in “rI I ---.Figure 1 Horizontal BendingTest REWIRED MINIMUM OVERLAP c- CLIMBING SIDE -c O o oo oo ou g p o ic g . under (b) (2)The ultimate test load shall be applied at three different locations: (a) to the center of the highestbase rung below the overlap (test lmd 1). (3) The support bars shall have a nominal radius of 1 inch. and test load positions 1 and 3 would be reversed ( 5 ) Auxiliary means that do not increase the strength of the ladder may be used to ensure that the ladder locks remain engaged during the test to prevent translationof the fly section relative to the base section during the test. and (c) to the center of the lowestfly rung above the overlap (test load 3). the base should be on the right. 3). These measurements shallbe entered on the data sheet (see Fig. 6 inches higher thanthe center of the ladder span (test load 2). The test shall be repeated with the load applied to the other rail of the laddel: The twist angle between a line joining the loaded and unloadedrailsand the horizontalshallbecalculated fromtrigonometric the equation: a = arcsine difference in deflection of rails outside widthof widest section ” 20 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services = arc sine [y) The ladder shallpass this test without exceeding the valof akjlection and angleof twist shown in Table8. (b) to the center of the fly rung in the center of the overlap or. if necessary.theverticaldistance from the extreme outside edgesof the widest section of both rails to theflooror otherreference sulface bothbeforeloadingandwhilethe full test load is applied.3 Simulated In-Use Inclined Load Test.~J“-”””””-j)pSN (U O P T P E O $ ””” SUPPORT BAR (NOTE 3) TEST (NOTES LOAD 2 AND 3 41 Y (NOTES 2 AND 4) (RUNG CLOSEST TO CENTER OF LADDER) (NOTE 2 ) NOTES: BAR C K ”I. which is applied before the ultimate test load. (1) y = deflection of Deflections shall be determinedby measuring. at the midpoint betweenthesupports. For the alternative design in which the base section is behind the fly section.

4.8 10. for two-section 7. If a full-size ladder is used.1 Single and Extension Ladders.5 41.6 22.6 42. in accordance with Table 10.8 38.6 26. The ladder shall be loaded in accordance with Table 9. Permanent deformation (set) shall be allowed. as shown in Fig. 5 . to the lowest fly rung above the overlap on extension ladders andto 21 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .9 48 48 52 52 56 56 60 60 64 68 12 - 60 *For single laddersuse column for maximumworkinglength extension ladder.0 41. 7.S T D * A N S I A l ' i * Z . The ladder shall be extended to the maximum usable length and supported as shown in Fig. The load shall be applied using two3-1/2 inch straps.4 Hardware Test Requirements. shall be applied for a period of one minute.6 20.4 38.E N G L 2000 E 0729150 0558985 7 T T m American National Standard A14. It shall not be employedfor quality control or field inspection purposes.1 Column and Hardware Load Test Note: This is a design verification test. A downward distributedload. This test shall be used onlyfor design verification. Allsupporting and loading apparatus shall conform to that shownin Fig.0 13.4.4 17. 7. 4 or shall be such as to produce equivalent results. The load shall be applied equally to both side rails on the lowest fly rung above the overlap on extension ladders and at the first rung at midspan or above on all other ladders.0 26.3.2 35.4 19.1.6 34.6 5. the fly section shall be extended a minimum of one rung beyond theminimum working length of the ladder.2-2000 Table 6 Maximum Allowable Average Deflectionsfor Horizontal Bending Test Maximum Working Length (Size less Minimum Overlap)* Ladder size (feet) 12 14 16 20 24 28 32 32 36 36 Two-Section (feet) 9 11 Three-Section (feet) - 13 17 21 40 40 44 44 Maximum Average Deflection (inches) 3. The full load shall be applied for a period of one minute before release. The test unit shall either be the shortest full-size ladder manufactured or a unit merely of sufficient length for test purposes.4. v The unit shall be placed at a 75-1/2" working angle.3.2 16.4 31.3.2 29.2 32.8 22.0 29.2 44. Short test units shall consist of portions of the base and fly sections of the extension ladder with allthe hardware or fittings attached.2 6. each located next to a rail and centrally loaded through an equalizer bar on the climbing side of the ladder. with both locks engaged. The ladder shall sustain this load without ultimate failure.

Type 11 tight dury .70 3.70 5.50 12.3 3.09585 O.06802 0.8 3.14436 8.1 2.~ 70 60 55 50 '150 22.5. t Y = 0.o0 7 - 1 .15126 * For single ladder use column for maximum waking length for two-section extcnsian ladder.04013 0.20 2.03664 0.1 1667 0.12360 O.04536 0.50 15.75 3.13053 - - - - - - O.50 11.so 3.00 2.50 3.10 5.Type I duty Medium .3 2.05408 0.40 3.25 1 .05931 0.10279 O.50 14.o0 3.10 7.Type III Working Load (poundsj Duty Rating and Type Extra heavy duty .06453 0.00 3.20 1.05234 0.5 3.07498 0.70 0.1W + 1.50 1. 13744 o.30 68 72 60 8.Type 1U Table 8 Deflections and Angles of Twist ~~ Single* and Extension Ladders Maximum Working Maximum Length Deflection (Size less Minimum Overlap) (feet) Size of Ladder (feet) - - 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 Two-Section* Three-Section 11 12 13 14 15 17 19 21 25 29 32 35 39 43 46 50 54 - - Combination Ladders Y of Loaded Railt Maximum (inches) Working Combination Length Extension Combination Extension Combination Extension (feet) Ladkr Ladder Ladder 1 .6 4.90 2.40 1.06105 0.05756 0.60 1.50 - Sine a (degrees) 7.Type IA Heavy duty .35 3.08889 0.10 - - - Twist Angle a $ Ladder - - 2.S T D .wherc a = twist angle d X = maximum working length or size of laddcr(feet).80 2.50 1.10973 0.10 3.06279 0.50 3.Type i .04885 0.50 9.04362 0.50 - 5.Type IA Heavy duty .90 4.50 13.80 2.2-2000 Table 7 Table 9 Deflection Test loads Simulated ln-Use Inclined load lest Deflection Test Load ~Domds) rating Duty and Type Extra heavy duty . 64 - (m) 22 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services " .50 7.06976 0.00 2.E N G L 2000 m 0724150 0 5 5 8 7 8 b b 3 b W American National Standard A14.30 2.A N S I A 1 4 .90 - 6.50 8.W: .70 7.05756 0.15 1.Type II duty Light .2. a = O. whem Y = maximum deflation of loaded rail (inches) and X = maximum working b g t b or sizc of laddcr (feet).2 .05059 0.50 5.90 3.5 2.06105 0.05408 0.08194 0.0 - - - - - - Ladder Ladder - - 0.50 4.50 6.4 3.1 3.50 10.05582 0.6 2.30 6.30 4.50.5 Test Load (pounds) IWO loo0 900 200 800 3O(f Medium duty.

(4) B = vertical height of unloaded rail. 23 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .S T D . (6) a = angle of twist. f J t o o o o o o P o i n ~ SUPPORTBAR (NOTE 2 ) TEST LOAD (NOTE I l Test Setup (a) \ ‘W f tSI .OAD B (NOTE 6 ) (NOTE 4 ) BASE ON TOP OF FLY Section A-A (b) NOTES: (1) The test load shallbe applied to the rung closest to the midpoint of the test span over a 3-1/2-inch bearingon the rung.A N S I A 1 4 .E N G L 2000 m m O724150 0558787 5 7 2 American National Standard A14. (3) A = vertical heightof loaded rail.2 . (2) The support bars shall have a nominal radiusof 1 inch. ( 5 ) W = width of widest ladder section.2-2000 Figure 2 DeflectionTest SPAN c1 TEST c G_ 6 i n 4 REOUIRED MINIMUM OVERLAP - I( - “1 o o o o o o o ~ h A SUPPORT BAR (NOTE 2) . (7)Auxiliary means that do not increase the strength of the ladder may beused to ensure that the ladderlocks remain engaged during the test to prevent translation of the fly section relative to the base section during the test.

300 lbs _ _ - Vertical Readings Deflection a t No Load (inches) Deflection a t -lb Load (inches) Actual Deflection due to Load (Column 2 Column 1) (inches) Difference in Actual Deflection. 24 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .Combination Code name: Ladder size: Length of test span: Width of widest section.A-B (inches) Right-hand loaded A B Left-hand loaded A B Right rail loaded Angle of twist a = arc sine Left rail loaded -= A-B W Allowable angle of twist (Table 8) = Deflection of loaded side rail = Allowable deflection (Table 8) = Remarks: NOTE: This is a suggested format for a data sheet used to record test results from thedeflection test.2-2000 Figure 3 Deflection TestData Sheet DATA SHEET Company: Date of test: Recorded by: Type of ladder:Single ___ Extension .American National Standard A14. W : Ratedload of ladder: 200 lbs .225 lbs 250 lbs .

American National Standard A14.2-2000

Figure 4

Figure 5

Inclined load Test

Column and Hardware load Test and
Single Lock Load Test

NOTES:
(1) This illustration shows the testsetup before the load is
applied.
(2) The test platformfollows the test load as the ladder
deflects into the wall.
(3) The angle of inclination shallbe 75-1/2", except that
for combination ladders in the extension-ladder orientationa
slightly modified angle shall be used so that the tread portions of the steps are horizontal (level).

the top rung ofsingle ladders. The loadshall
be applied equally to both side rails using two
3-1/2 inch straps, each located next to a rail
and centrally loaded through an equalizer bar
over the climbing side of the ladder. Permanent
deformation in other parts of the ladder
structure due to the test is not a test failure.
However, the ladder shall still support the test
load after the application of the load, evenif the
rung assumedpermanent deformation (set).
7.3.4.1.2 Combination Ladders. The test unit
shall be a full-size ladder. The extension section

NOTES:
(1) The fly section maybe located either to the frontor to
the rear of the base section.
(2) The angle of inclination shallbe 75-1D0, except that
for combination ladders in the extension-ladder orientationa
slightly modifiedangle shall be used so that the treadportions of the steps are horizontal (level).
(3) Both locks shall be engaged for the column and
hardware load test(7.2.4.1); for the single lock load test
(7.2.4.2), one lock shall be engaged and theother lock
removed.

shall be extendeda minimum of one rung or
step beyond the minimum working lengthof
the ladder. The unit, set up as an extension
ladder as shown in Fig. 5, shall be placed
against a vertical support, with both locks
engaged at an angle of 15-1i2".
A downward distributed load, in accordance
with Table 10, shall be applied for a minimum
period of 1 minute on a standard loading block
(see Fig. 6) resting on the center of the highest
fly rung or step, or by means of a 3-1/2-inch
strap over the rung on the climbingside of the

25

COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services

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2 0 0 0 W 072'4150 0558770 Ob7

S T D - A N S AI L ' 4 . 2 - E N L L

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American National Standard A14.2-2000

Table 10
Hardware Tests
~~

Compression. Lock Tip
ColumnandHardware
Single Lock
Test Load
Test Load
(Pounds)
(Pounds)

Duty Rating and Type
Extra heavy duty- Type IA
Heavy duty - Type I
Medium duty - Type II
Light duty - Type III

1200
loo0
900
800

loo0

loo0
900
800

Figure 6
Standard Loading Block
SOLID STEEL PLATE

f - in THICK

OR EOUIVALENT MATERIAL

60 2 IO SHORE DUROMETER "A"
ELASTOMERIC MATERIAL SUCH AS
RUBBER OR POLYURETHANE.
ADHERED TO PLATE
NOTE: W = width of step or rung plus 1 inch.

ladder. During the test, the tread portion of the
stepson the front rail section shall be parallel
to the ground. If the treads are used on the single or extension ladder section, these treads
shall also be parallel to the ground. The unit
shall withstand this test with no permanent
deformation (set) or other visible weakening
of the structure.

test is notatest failure. However, the ladder
shall still support thetestloadaftertheapplication
of the load, evenif the rung assumes permanent
deformation.
7.3.4.2 Single Lock Load Test
Note: This is a design verification test. Not
applied to articulated ladders.

7.3.4.1.3 Articulated Ladders. The test unit
shall be a full size ladder. If equipped with
an extension section, it shall be extended a
minimum ofone rung or step beyond the
minimum workinglength of the ladder. The
unit shall be set up as an extension or single
ladder andplaced against a vertical support,
with all locks engaged.

The test unit shall either be the shortest full-size
ladder manufactured or a unit only of sufficient
length for test purposes. If a full-size ladder is
used, the fly section shall be extended one rung
beyond the minimum working length of the ladder.
Short test units shall consist ofportions of the
base and fly sections of the extension ladder
with all the hardwareor fittings attached.

The ladder shall be placed at a 75-112" working
angle. A downward distributedload, in accordance
with Table 10, shall be applied for a period of
one minute, equally to both side rails on the
highest rung, using two 3-112-inch straps, each
located nextto a rail and centrally loaded
through an equalizer bar over the climbing
side of the ladder. Permanent deformation in
other parts of the ladder structure due to the

The test shall be set, as shown in Fig. 5, at a
75-112" working angle, with one lock removed.
For combination laddersin the extension ladder
orientation a slightly modified angle shall be
used so that the tread portions of the steps are
horizontal (level).

26
COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services

A downward distributedload, in accordance with
Table 10, shall be applied for a minimum periodof
one minute, equally to both side rails on the lowest

S T D - A N S I A 3 4 - 2 - E N G L 2000 I 0724350 0558993 T T 3 I
American National Standard A14.2-2000

Figure 7
Lock Test

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f

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O

O

O

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d

fly rung abovethe overlap using two 3-1/2 inch
straps, each located next to a rail and centrally
loaded through an equalizer bar over theclimbing
side of the ladder.
The locks shall withstand this test with no permanent deformation (set) or other visible weakening
of the locks. Permanent deformation in other parts
of the ladder structure including racking of the
ladder structure due to the test is not a test failure.
However, the ladder shall still support the test load
after the application of the load, even if the rung
assumes permanent deformation (set).
7.3.4.3Lock l ï p Load Test
Note: This is a design verification test. Not
applied to articulated ladders.
The test unit shall be either the shortest full-size
ladder manufactured or a unit onlyof sufficient
length for test purposes. If a full-size ladder is
used, the fly section shall be extended a minimum
of one rung beyond the minimum workinglength
of the ladder. Short test units shall consistof portions of the base and fly sections of the extension
ladder, with the locks attached.
The test unit shall be set at a 75-1/2" working
angle, as shown in Fig. 8a and b, with both locks
partially engaged. For combination laddersin the
extension-ladder orientation a slightly modified

angle shall be usedso that the tread portions of the
steps are horizontal (level). The bottom end of the
ladder shall be prevented from slipping by a block
or equivalent means.The tip of each lock shall
bear on the center of a steel test fixture placed
over the top of a rung, as shown in Fig. 8a and b.
During the test, each lock shall be prevented from
pivoting by a means located adjacent to its pivot
point, but which shall not in any way affect that
portion of the lock under test.
A downward distributed load, in accordance with
Table 10, shall be applied for a period of one
minute, equally to both side rails on the lowest fly
rung above the overlap, using two 3-1/2 inch
straps, each located next to arail and centrally
loaded through an equalizer bar over theclimbing
side of the ladder. Permanent deformation in other
parts of the ladder structure due to the test is not a
test failure. However, the ladder shall still support
the test loadafter the application of the load, even
if the rung assumes permanent deformation (set).

7.3.4.4 Cyclic Rung-Lock Design Verification Test
Note: This is a design verification test. Not
applied to articulated ladders.
A machine equivalentto that pictured in Fig. 9
shall be used to operate the rung lock through the
following cycle, as shown in Fig. 10:

27

COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute
Licensed by Information Handling Services

2-2000 Figure 8 Lock Tip load Test INCLINATION Compression Lock (4 Tension Lock (b) NOTES: (1) The angle of inclination shallbe 75-1/2". The allowable permanent deformation (set) .3. except that for combination ladder in the extension-ladder a d portions of the steps are horizontal (level).4. 1) and the extension section moved forward until it disengages from the lock (See Fig. The test shall be conducted on either a single section of the ladder or on a three-rung test sample taken from the maximum widthportion of a like ladder section witha like rung. The stroke speed shall be 6 to 12 inches per second. The rung lock may be manuallylubricated prior to or during the test.5 Extension-LudderRung Bending Strength li& Note: This is a design verification test. Spring-loaded locksshall be tested with theladder in the vertical position. in accordance with Table 11. shall be considered as a failure to meet this requirement. orientation a slightly modified angle shallbe used so that the & (2) A block or equivalent means shallbe used to prevent the bottom of the ladderfrom slipping. The distance for such disengagement shall not be less than one inch. a slightly modified angle shall be used so that the tread portions of the steps are horizontal (level). Any malfunction ofthe rung lock or fracture of its components. Upon removal ofthe test load. 28 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services 7. (1) One 6-inch upstroketo allow rung lock to engage rung This test is not intended to apply to fixed-type locks used on extension or combination ladders. shall be applied on the standard loading block for a period of 1 minute. 1lb. A downward distributed load. (3) Full 12-inch upstroke to disengage rung lock (4)Full 12-inch downstroke toreturn rung lock to starting position Locks shall be tested with the ladder at a 75-1/2" angle. The presence of wear that does not affect theproper functioning of the lock shall not constitutefailure. The ladder shall be placed in the horizontal bending test position (See Fig. 7). The test unit shall be supported and theload shall be applied as shown in Fig.3.S T D * A NASLI ' 4 .2 . using a standard loading block. 1la.5 Combination L a d e r Lock Test. A minimum of 6000 cycles shall beimposed. (2) Full &inch downstroke to lock rung lock on rung 7. the permanent deformation (set) shall be measured witha straight edge and a rule as shown in Fig. including springs. The rung tested shallbe unbraced. For combination ladders in the extensionladder orientation.E N G L 072'4150 0 5 5 8 7 7 2 7 3 T ZOO0 American National StandardA14.

7. there shall beno test failure. 2 C O C O No. On removing the load.3.S T D . but resting on the widest like cross section braced and unbraced test rungs as near theside rail as possible.E N G L 2000 W 0724350 0 5 5 8 9 9 38 7 b American National Standard A14. in accordance with Table 11. the unit shall show no indicationof test failure either in thefastening means attaching the rung or in the side rail. A downward distributed load. as shown in Fig.6 Rung-to-Side-Rail Shear Strength Test. The test unit shall consist either of a single section of the ladder or a three-rung section taken from like a ladder having the same rung cross-section and rung joint. shall be applied for a minimum period of 1 minute.A N S I A L q m Z . in accordance with Table11 (K is a factor that varies with duty rating and Type). l l a . 1 O C O C No. 4 C O O O O C C C *O means open to atmosphere. a slightly modified angle shall be used so that the tread portions of the steps are horizontal (level). For combination ladders in the extension-ladder orientation. shall not exceedL K for rung length (L) measured between the inside webs of the attached side rails.2-2000 Figure 9 Cyclic Rung Lock lest Arrangement BASE SECTION 12) 6-ICAIR CYLINDERS MOUNTED BACK TO BACK (4) CAY L / AIR SUPPLY Air-Valve Position* Operating Cycle Full upstroke Fulldo&e One-half downshnire to latch Dovmstmke to lock No. The test unit shall be set at a working angle of 75-1/2" to horizontal. Other than buckling related to the allowable permanent deformation (set). C means closed to pressure. 3 No. 29 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . Note: This is a design verification test.

6) is indicated by the dashed arrow.3. (2) The angleof inclination shallbe 75-1/2'.3.STD*ANSI A L V . 30 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .Z . except that for combination laddersin the extension-ladder orientationa slightly modified angle shall be used so that the tread portions of the steps are horizontal (level). the test load for the rung-to-side-railshear strength test (7.2-2000 Figure 10 Rung Lock Testing Cycle UNLOCK (POSITION 41 WEAR SURFACE ENGAGE (POSITION 2 ) " """"- " (POSITION I ) WEAR SURFACE SURFACE WEAR SURFACE DOWN STROKE TO POSITION I (CYCLE COMPLETEI Figure 11 Rung Bending Test and Rung-to-Side-Rail Shear Strength Test STRAIGHT EDGE 4 RUNG i-LENGTH (L) Test Setup (a) PERMANENT DEFORMATION RAIL \SIDE WEB Reading Permanent Deformation @J) NOTES: (1) The test load for the rung bending test (7.E N G L 2000 m 0724350 0558774 702 m American National Standard A14.5)is indicated by a solid mow.

12a).2).7.3.7 Rung Torque Tests. or rung clamp. and Shear Strength Tests Maximum Allowable Permanent Deformation (Set) Test Load* (pounds) Duty Ratingand Type Compression. 12b). In the case of tubular rungs.7. compression. as well as the type of break (R-J for rung-to-joint movement.T ~ p IA e Heavy duty .The rung joint shall be so secured to the side rails that this alternating torque load shall cause no relative motion between the rung and the side rails in excess of 9" (based on 1/16 inch maximum movementfor a 1-1/4inch diameter round rung).Type III 1200 lo00 900 800 Rung and Step Bending LlKt Tests lo00 LI 25 900 850 800 L I 50 L I 75 L / loo *This test lead isfor use in the step bending.3.2-2000 Table 11 Step Bending. for 10 cycles at each torque test load increment. the test load shall be applied to the third or fourth rung fromthe bottom. side-rail bending. The load shall be applied with atorque wrench. the rung joint itself. Side-Rail Bending.3. The torque load shall be applied to a 3"2 inch wide biock in the center of the rung. Compression.2 Rung Torque ln-Service Test Note: This is an in-service use test. L is the rung lengthin inches. Rung Bending. consisting of the The test unit shall consistof either a single section of the ladder or a short section comprisingof at least one rung and two side rails (see Fig. rung bending. When single sections of a ladder are tested. The rung clamps shallbe located 3 inches from the rung joint and shall be tightened in place.3.or R-J-R for rung-to-joint-to-rail movement). across the rung joint. 12a and b). adjacent area of the rail. and the torque shaft shall be slid through the pillow block into the cut end of the rung until it is within 5/8 inch of the rung joint.1)(see Fig. The rail itself shallextend 2 to 2-3/4 inches from each side of the joint. and shear strength tests. the test shall be applied to the center rung. 7.3. or rung torque tube clamp shall be tightened. 50 for heavyduty ladders.3. ?Values listed are for rung bending test only.J-R for joint-torail movement. 75 for mediumduty ladders.3.and ShearStrength (inches) Tests Extra heavy duty .1 Rung Torque Design Verifìcation Test Note: This is a design verification test. K = 25 for extra-heavyduty ladders. shall be applied in aclockwise and then counterclockwise direction. SideRail Bending. The test unit shall consist of one rung and one side rail and shall be trimmed so that the rung extends 5 to 6 inches from the rung joint (see Fig.T y ~ Ie Medium duty . When solid rungs are tested. The surface that is visible in the area around the rung joint.7. A reference line shall be scribed.7. after which the rail shall be clamped in place with the hold-down plate and the rung chuck.1) and the in-service test (7.m STDeANSI AL'4-2-ENGL 2000 072qL50 0558975 L119 American National Standard A14. and onto the side rail. 7.2) or one rung and one side rail when employing the design verification test (7. alternately. a clamp shall be placed over the rung.7. for both the design verification test (7.7. The factorK varies with dutyratingand type. When a 3-foottest sample is used. shall be coated with die bluing or similar material and allowedto dry. 7. and the adjacent area of the rung.Type II Light duty. All bolts shall be checkedfor tightness. running along the rung.The test unit shall consist of either an extension ladder with rungs or a short test sample comprising of at least one rung and two side rails in the case of the in-service test (7. The torque load. The load at which the first movement is noted should be recorded. the test rung shall be inserted into a chuck. collet. Torque test loads shall start at 300 inch-pounds and shall increase in 300 inch-pound increments until the maximum load application required to meet the requirements of Table 12 is reached. The rail shall be clamped in place withthe hold-down plate. collet. and100 for light-dutyladders. made of such material that the block will not defonn the rung 31 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . in accordance with Table 12.

Type IA Heavy duty .3.3. Figure 12 Rung Torgue Test Ut I I - HOLD DOWN PLATE 1 TEST LOAD (NDTE 3) ln-Service Test (7.The rung mandrel is put insidethe hollow rungbemg tested to keep it from collapsing.so that the run neutral axis is approximatelycoincident with the pillow block centerline.Type III 600 600 600 600 In-Service Torque Test* (inch-pounds) 900 900 900 900 * The test load (pounds) at a 30 inch moment m is 20 pounds for the 30 pounds for the in-service torque test. (3) The load may be applied by means of a dead weightor a force gage. The moment ann shown may be replaced by a pipe wrench or the equivalent.2-2000 Table 12 Rung Torque Tests Maximum Test Load D e s i g n Verification Torque Test* (inch-pounds) Duty Rating andType Extra heavy duty. (2) The testing of a hollow rung is illustrated. design verification torque test and These valueswill vary with the moment arm selected.21 (b) Design Verification Test (7. 32 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .7.E N G L 2000 0724350 055899b 585 D American National Standard A14. (4) Shim the test unit as requr ied.7.Type II Light duty.Type I Medium duty .1) (4 LRUNG MANDREL (NOTE 2) NOTES: (1) An equivalent method may be used to apply toque.~ STD-ANSI A L q .Z .

o4X + 0. Fig. Both sets of rung joints and the immediately adjacent areas of the rung and side railshall be coated with a die marking material. 14c.o0 1 . The load shall be appliedby hanging weightsfrom to the bottom of the lower rail. The maximum defection of the midpoint of the lower side rail. as shown in Fig.56 1.68.16 - 1. The test unit shall consistof a single laddel. measuredto a reference s u ~ a c eshall . A test load. The test unit shall be placed on edge with the rungs in a vertical plane. If the rung has a flat surface.8 Side Sway Test. 12b illustrates typical methods that are acceptable alternatesfor performing this test.40 1.3.88 1. The rung shall be so secured to the side railsthat the alternating torque load shall cause no relative motion between the rung and the side rails.o4 1 .o4 1 .84 0. and unloaded.a section from an extension ladder. in accordance with Table7. Maximum Allowable Deflection for Side Sway lest Midspan Deflection of lower Side Rail - Maximum Deflection Y* (inches) Test Section Length X* (feet) 4 5 0.72 1.2-2000 Table 13 locally.96 I . Note: This is both a design verijcation and an in-service use test. howevel.9 Side-Rail Cantilever Bending Tests. 7.48 24 1. Care shall be taken ensure that the load is centered with respect to the width of the rail. 14a and b. across the rungjoint. The torque shall be applied.For ladders built with a stabilizer bar across the bottom of the front rail. 7. not exceed the deflection listedin Table 13.9. Both rung joints in the assembly shall meetthis requirement. shall the moment arm be less than 18 inches. and a line shall be scribed along the rung. and onto the side railat both rung joint locations. 7. using a test bar whose momentann may vary as long as the required torque test loadin inch-pounds is obtained. by means of a weight. and the rungs shall be in the verticalplane and perpendicular to the ground.a section of an articulated laddel.80 1. The side rail shall be in an approximately horizontalplane. heldfor a period of one minute.O8 Combination Ladders 0.84 0. as shown inFig.64 26 28 30 1. or both the stepladder portion and the single or extension ladder portion of a combination ladder:This test shall be conductedfor all sectionsof an extension ladder: The sectionsfrom a combination ladder shall be individually tested. The test load shall be applied. as shown in Fig.24 1. A preload of 30 pounds shall be applied at the center of the span. In no case.1 Static Side-Rail Cantilever Bending Test Note: This is a design verification test. section or the base section of anextension ladder. to the extreme bottom end of the upper side rail.O8 - - *Y = 0. resting on level supports located6 inchesfrom each end of the laddel. including a mid-span joint.92 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Straight and Extension 0.88 0.92 0. where Y = maximum allowable midspan deflection in the side sway test (inches) and X = ladder test section length (feet). the test unit shall be placed on edge with the rungs in a vertical plane as shown in Fig. in accordance with Table 14. The load shall be centrally appliedto a 2-inch long block resting on the full width of the side rail and 33 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . Each section shall withstand this test without a n y pennanent deformation (set) in excess of 1/1000 of the effective span of the side rails. articulated or combination ladder.88 0.3. 14a. 13.32 1.3. The test unit shall consist of a single ladder.96 1 .American National Standard A14. The test sectionshall be placed onedge. any safety shoes or spikes affixed to the section shall be removed before the test is conducted. as described above. shall then be applied for a minimum period of one minute to the center of the span over a3-112 inch length of the bottom side rail. that surface shall be parallel to the edge of the support. for a minimum period of one minute.o0 1 . The lower side rail shall be clamped to a support and shall be unsupported from the bottom end to the midpoint of the lowest rung.

--"_ L DEFLECTION (AVERAGE) ( NOTE 1 I " "". . . " " . Table 14 Static Side-Rail Cantilever Bending Test Load Single LadderSection or Base Section of Extension Articulated or Combination Ladder and Rating Duty Type Extra heavy duty. 34 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services Articulated Ladder with Stabilizer Bar* 800 600 200 400 ..""L &SUPPORT I I """_" P d " " " k HOLDER SUPPORT WEIGHTS TEST LW0 NOTE: The deflection is the difference between the height of the lower edge of the ladderside when unloaded (solid line) and when loaded (doaed line).T y ~ IA e Heavy duty .T y ~ Ie M e d i ~ mduty300 ...E N G L 2000 D 0 7 2 ~ 1 5 00558778 358 American National Standord A14."--- ._..~~~ ~ ~~ ~ STD*ANSI A L q .Type III Working Load (pounds) Test Loads (pounds) Test Loads (pounds) 300 250 225 200 500 400 loo0 *Stabilizer bar which joins both rails..2-2000 Figure 13 Side S w a y Test r..._ .Type II Light duty .. . " ..... L .Z ..

and a minimum width equalto the full width of the side rail including side rail flanges.2-2000 Figure 14 Static SideRail Cantilever BendingTest I/ Cantilever-out Tesr &/ m ROPE T E S LOAD pEIGHTS] Nok:The block shall be a minimumof 114" and a maximum of 1-inch thick. and shall be 2-inches long measured along the siderail.American National Standard A14. 35 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .

The angle of twist measured from the horizontal position shall not be greater than the values in Table 15. The test load shall then be appliedto the extreme bottom end of the lower side rail in a like manner. An initial preload of 600 inch-pounds.The torque shall be applied first in a clockwise and then in a counterclockwise direction. held in place bya clamp. (See Fig. If more than one joint design is used. The weight shallbe suspended so that it is acting throughthe vertical neutral axis of the side rail. The fly section To perform the drop test. An extension ladder shall be openedone foot for the drop test. exceptfor the limitation on the maximum allowable permanentdeformation (set) of the upper and lower side rails. When testing an articulated ladder. permanent deformation(set) or ultimate failure of any ladder components as a result of the tests. 7. The ladder shall be unloaded after the application of 600 inch-pounds and the angular deflection set to O. Ladder feet shall remain onthe section. but each foot shall be taped so the bottom surface makes an angle of 90" with the rail length. The test unit shall be the longest extension ladder for each basesection rail size and the longest single ladder for each rail size. The load attachment point on theclamp shall not be more than2 inches below the underside of the web of the rail being tested.3. shall be used to establish a reference for angular deflection. When testing a ladder with a stabilizer bar. The ladder shall be placed in a flat horizontal position and supported at each end.American National Standard A14.this test shall be repeated with a joint at mid-span. 36 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services 1 . A torque of 1200 inch-pounds shall then be applied. 16.3. 15b for setup. 15a). 16. see Fig.2-2000 shall be supported 6 inches from the very top of the fly section (including caps). as shown in Fig. both rails of the secbase tion shall be guided in a vertical plane duringa freefall drop. Note: This is a design verificationtest.2 Side-Rail Cantilever DynamicDrop Test Note: This is a design verification test. so that the lower rail of the bottom section is 36 inches from a concrete floor. each shall be tested. 14b. supported over a 7-foot test span.9. The horizontal support for the ladder on one end shall be fixed. No perma- Figure 15 Side-Rail Cantilever Dynamic DropTest Il T SIDERAIL CANTILEVER DROP TEST ARTICULATED LADDER Il ////////////////// NOTES:This test evaluates the result of inward-cantilever dynamicloading of the ladder. 14c. Attention shallbe given to ensure that the ladder is tightly clampedonto the test fixtures during this test. Ladders with a stabilizer bar shall havetheir test load applied to the extreme bottom end ofthe lower stabilizer bar as shown in Fig. The allowable permanentdeformation (set) of the upper side rail shall not exceed 1/4 inch. The allowable permanentdeformation (set) of the lower side rail shall not exceed 1/4 inch. using one of the two methods shown in Fig. The test unit shall consist of a ladder base section of any length. shall not constitute test failure. applied in a clockwise direction. The test ladder shall be placed in a horizontal position with the rungs vertical. as shown in Fig. 7.The allowable permanent deformation (set) of the lower side rail s h d not exceed 1/4 inch.10 Ludder Section Wist Test. Provided the ladder continues to support the test load.

extension. A weight. similarly treated. Note: This is a design verification test. shall be attached to the third highest rung. 17.Type III and Rating Duty (pounds) 300 250 22 225 200 Maximum Allowable Angle of Twist B* (degrees) 14 18 20 *8= 38 . Extension. The test unit shall be a 16-foot model (or longest available if only shorter versions are manufactured).American National Standard A14. in accordance with Table16.Type II duty Light .3.11 Foot Slip Test. or single ladder. which would interfere with the smooth operation of the joint. or a test load maybe applied alternately on each end of the arm.Type I duty Heavy Medium duty . statically applied centrally to the bottom of the ladder at 1 inch 37 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . that is at least 8 feet in length may be tested (2) Thetorque may be applied alternately using atorque wrench. combination and articulatedladders shall be tested for slip resistance as shownin Fig. which shall be pre-sanded using 320 fine wet/dry sandpaper. 7. The test surface shall be A-C plywood. The surface thatthe top of the ladder rests against shallalso be A-C plywood. is permissible. where 8 = maximum allowable angleof twist (degrees) and X = working load (pounds). The “A” side of the plywood shall be placed in contact with the bottom of the ladder. Single. A horizontal pulling force.O.OSX.Type IA .2-2000 Figure 16 Ladder Twist Test (Single. nent deformation to any component. in accordance with Table16. but any ladder base section. Table 15 ladder Section Twist Test Working Load Type Exm heavy duty . or Articulated Ladders) P IVOT MOUNTING ING ET (CLAMPEO) FOR APPLYING TORQUE WRENCH (NOTE 21 TEST LOA D [NOTE 2) NOTES (1) The test span is 7 feet.

The test unit shall be a complete extension ladder or an articulated ladder with an extendible section where no hinge is employed. The force shall be smoothly applied to cause vertical extension ofthe fly section of two feet or more. and the grainon the horizontal sheet under the base section shall be parallel to the direction of the testload. *This load is applied on the third highest rung. shall not cause movement in excess of 1/4 inch across the test surface. Note!: This is a design verification test. at a rate of 1/2 to 1 foot per second. Three test pulls shall be done for each ladder. above the test surface.American National Standard A14. The base section may be braced or otherwise held to maintain vertical alignment. For those ladders notequipped with a rope and pulley. andthe maximum forces shall be averaged forthe three pulls.3. The maximum measuredforce that occurs during each pull shall be recorded.2-2000 Figure 17 Foot Slip Test NOTES: (1) The grain of the plywood shall be parallel to the direction of loading. 38 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services A measured downwardforce shall be applied to the rope if the ladder has a rope and pulley system installed. (3) The angleof inclination shallbe 75-1/2".the measured force shall be applied vertically to the bottom rung of the fly section.12 Multisection Extending Force Test. the grain on the vertical sheet under the upper end of thefly section shallrun in a vertical direction. at the minimum working length of the ladder. The unit shall be set in a vertical position. except that for combination ladders in the extension-ladder orientationa slightly modified angle shallbe used so that the tread portions of the steps are horizontal (level). 7. (2) The dead load shallbe applied on the third highestrung. This average maximum .

test load applies only to the articulated ladder for the specific scaffold application shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.4.Type III 200 Test Load 1200 lo00 lo00 lo00 *This load is applied on the third highest rung.3 Inclined Load Test.Type I Medium duty . and with the test requirements 7.4. *The 1. for trestle ladders when in the trestle ladder mode. which shall be pre-sanded with 320 fine weddry sandpaper. 18.Type IA Heavy duty . The lubrication employed shall be that employed bythe manufacturer during production or that recommended by the manufacturer to the user. the ladder shall be capable of withstanding.E N G L 2000 m 0724150 0557003 313 m American National Standard A14. 7. The test shall be conducted with the ladder on a test surface of A-C plywood. different testloads apply.Type II duty Light .Type IA 300 Heavy duty. extending the lengthof the scaffold top.Z . which shall be pre-sanded using 320 fine weddry sandpaper. for 6.4.1 Scaffold Bending Strength Test.4. a pair of joints shall be cycled from the closed position to fully open. The “A” side of the plywood shall be placed in contact with the feet of the ladder. 7.2-2000 Duty Rating and Table 16 Table 17 Foot Sliplest Articulated Ladder Self-Supported Scaffold Test Type Extra heavy duty . and 7. 7. After initial lubrication.4.000 lb. The feet of the ladder shall rest on the “A” side of AC plywood.2 through 7. When set up as a scaffold.Type II Light duty.4. without test failure. for straight ladders when inthe straight ladder mode.3. as specified in the appropriate sections.000 cycles. However.000 pounds or four times the duty rating. The load is to be applied to the center or simulated decking or plank .STD-ANSI A L q . 7.4 Articulated ladder Tests Note: These are design verification tests.1 when in the scaffold or worktable position. Articulated ladders shall comply with the testrequirements for stepladders when in the stepladder mode.3.3 Unlocked Joint Test.a steel plate 6” wide and 3/8” thick.Type III Horizontal Force TestLoad*Pulling (pounds) (pounds) 50 50 50 50 300 250 225 200 Working Load Duty Rating and(pounds) Type (pounds) Extra heavy duty . The hinge is to be locked and unlocked in each of its locking positions during every cycle. Figure 18 Scaffold Bending Strengthlest shall not exceed two times the weight of the ladder fly section. to those other applications of the articulated ladder. In addition. a load of 1. it should comply with the additional joint tests 7. 18.The use of additional lubricant on the joints during the test is not permissible. the ladder shall meet the requirements of the 7. If the ladder design includes extendible sections all tests shall be conducted with those section fully extended.1 Horizontal Bending Test.2 Cyclic Joint Test.4.Type I 250 225 Medium duty . whichever is greater* (see Table 17). Following this test. 39 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .

2-2000 7. The test ladder shall be full length witha pair of unlocked and dry (no lubricant other than that used during manufacture)joints at midspan.3 Unlocked Joint Test. A uniformly distributed 7. Articulated ladder andStep Stool Tests 7.1 Compression Test. The test unit shall be a full-size ladder set in the single or extension ladder mode. vertical load over a 3-1/2 inch wide area at the center of the lowest rung. Permanent deformation shall be allowed. with one hinge at midspan unlocked. Step Bending. Note: This is a design verification test. as shown in Fig. 19 and 20.4. 7. Platform. 40 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .American National Standard A14. Figure 19 Cornpression.2 and 7.5 Trestle Step. at a 75-1/2" working angle. Trestle. shall be applied for a period of one minute equally to both side rails on the lowestrung above A load test of the entire ladder or step stool shall be made with the ladder or stool in an open position. the unlocked hinge. see 7. SideRail Bending. in accordance with Table 10. The load shall be applied using two 3-112 inch straps. Inthe straight ladder mode the internal friction in the joint shall not allow theladder to rest at an angle of 75-1/2" upon application of a 5 lb. and Stepto-Side-Rail ShearTests TOP CAP LOADING FOR COMPRESSION TEST WOOD LOADING BLOCK NOTES: ( I ) This test setup is illustrated for a stepladder.4. (DoubleExtension Front).5. each located next to a rail and centrally loaded through an equalizer bar over the climbing side of the ladder.4Single Joint Lock Test.3. (2) Typical locations for the test loads are shown.4 as to the placement of the loads. Combination.3. The ladder shall withstand this test without ultimate failure. A downward distributed load.

(2) The top l d m g method is illustrated for the armpressioa test. or mechanical means m a y be used to apply the load. in excess of 1/100 of the clear length of the step.but itcan alsobeusedforrheothfxtests. with the ladder in an open position. The strength of the step. as shown in Fig. The resistance to side-rail bending shall be testedby placing a load. 19 and 20.Z . 7. over a 3-112 inch width of the step or Figure 20 Methods (Other Than Dead Weight)for Applying Test Loads (NOTE 31 TOP REACTION SURFACE FORCE DYNAMOMETER TEST BLOCK / / \\ TEST MEMBER (NOTE 2) H Top-Loading Method Bottom-LoadingMethod (4 (b) NOTES: (I) Hydraulic. A combination ladder shall be tested while erected in its stepladder position. Note: This is a design verification test. for a minimum period of 1 minute. or platforms of different designs or material specifications. in accordance with Table 11. shall be applied for a minimum period of one minuteto the ladder top cap or platform. or platform between the side rails (between inside flanges) or of the overall length of the stool top cap.A N S I A L q . Note: This is a design verification test. rung. as well as to steps.The test load shall also be applied to the top cap of a step stool. pneumatic. as shown in Fig. 7. platform or step stool top shall withstand the load without testfailure or permanent deformation (set). over a 3-112 inch length across the full width of the step. or platform and onthe center of the longest or bottom step or rung with the ladder in the open position. or platform section shall be tested by applying a load.S T D . but it can also be used for the other tests.E N G L 2000 072qL50 0559005 2 7 b m American National Standard A14. The ladder shall withstand the load without test failure. (3) The bot%xnloading method is illusbated for the m g bending test. The sheer strength of the step.2 Side-Raíl Bending Test. The unit shall withstandthe load without test failure.5.where it is applied to the top of the lad&r. Note: This is a design verification test. rung. rung.2-2000 load. for a minimum periodof one minute. rungs. in accordance with Table 11.4 Step-to-Side-Rail Shear Strength Test. 19 and 20.5. in accordance with Table 11. 41 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .5. in accordance with Table 11. The test load shall also be applied to the longest like step or rung without braces. The step.3 Step or PIayorm Bending Test. The next higher step shall also be tested. 7. rung. over a 31/2 inch width on the middle step adjacent to one side rail of the ladder for a minimum period ofone minute.or rung-to-side rail joint shall be measured by applyinga test load.

and the values shall be averaged to obtain the minimum load. The test load shall also be applied to the top cap of a step stool. in accordance with Table18. The pulling force shall be applied to the top horizontal guard rail member of platform ladders. 7. shall be applied to the second highest step. in accordance with Table18. the load shallbe applied to the second highest extension-section rung. Note: This is a design verification test. in accordance with Table 18.) During this test. The test surface shall be such as to ensure that the ladder does not slip or slide during the test. in accordance with Table18.Type II Light duty. the load shall be applied to the second highest extension-section rung. withthe ladder in an open position withthe spreaders locked. The test shall be run with the force applied to both sides. shallbe applied to the second highest step. The ladder shall be set in the open position on a level floor. During this test. as shown in Fig. the minimum load that causesthe ladder to tip over shall not be less than the value shown in Table 18. rung. (For an extensiontrestle ladder. and to the topcap of combination ladders or to the top step when no top capis used. The bucket shelf shallbe constructed so that it supports a distributed load of100 pounds. The side stability of a ladder shall be measured with the ladder set in an open position on a level floor.Type ID Distributed Platform and Pulling Pulling laad t 200 200 200 200 Other Ladders Front Side Force Force Ladders 25 20 35 25 25 20 20 35 35 *All quantities are in pounds.21. The bucket shelf shall withstandthe load without ultimate failure. 19 and 20. applied tothe shelf for a minimum periodof one minute. to the apex of the base section of trestle and extension trestle ladders. 21. as shown in Fig. towards the front of the ladder. The test load shallbe applied as near the side rail aspossible withthe ladder in a fully opened position. and the pulling force shall be applied to the top cap also. Note: This is a design verification test. Whenthe load is removed. applied at the geometric centerof the stepladder top cap. at the geometriccenter of the stepladder top cap. 7. rung. ladder top cap. with the spreaders or hinges locked. 42 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services Step Stools 45 45 45 45 Torsional Stability Pulling Force 30 30 25 20 .5. The testload shall be applied onthe longest braced and unbraced steps withthe least fastening. (For an extension trestle ladder. Ladders equipped witha bucket shelf shall be tested withthe bucket shelf inthe inuse position.T20y ~ 1e 25 Medium duty . rung. 21. Note: This is a design verification test. Ladders The ladder shall then be subjectedto a horizontal pulling force.or platform.5. comprising lead weights or the equivalent to maximize the density of the loading medium. applied to the side of the front rail.7 Side Stability Test.) 7. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 21. the minimum load that causes the ladder to tip over shall not be less than the value shown in Table 18. A uniformly distributed load. The same test load shallbe applied to steps or rungs of different cross sectional designor materials.Type IA Heavy 35 duty . as shownin Fig. at a distance of not more than112 inch above its top Table 18 Stability Test Loads* Duty Rating and Type Extra heavy duty.~ ~~ ~ STD-ANSI ALL¡-2-ENGL 2000 American National Standard A14. The test surface shall be suchas to ensure that the ladder does not slip or slideduring the test.A uniformly distributed load. at a distance of not more than 112 inch above its top surface.6 Front Stability Test. or platform (the highest proper standing level).5 Bucket (Pail) Shelf Test.5. The ladder shall thenbe subjected to a horizontal pulling force. over a 3-112 inch wide area across the front-to-back depthof the top cap adjacent to one side rail. the unit shall show no indication of testfailure in the fastening means attaching the step.2-2000 rung. tThis load is applied at the second highest step. Step stools shall be loaded withthe distributed load on the top cap. or top cap to the side rail or test failure of any other component. comprising lead weights or the equivalent to maximizethe density of the loading medium. top step. a combination ladder shallbe opened to its stepladder position. surface. or platform.

21. The pulling force shall be applied to the top horizontal guard rail member ofplatform ladders. and to thetop cap of combination ladders or to the top step when no top cap is used. equipped with a bucket shelf shall be tested with the bucket shelf in thein-use position. shall be placed on the second highest step (the highest proper standing level). /r// NOTES: \\ i W - ( 1 ) The pullingforce shall be applied at a maximum distance of IR inch above the top of ' the stepladder. and Rear Stability lests 200-lb UNIFORMLY. in a rearward direction. and the pulling force shall be applied to the top cap also. the load shall be applied to the second highestextension-section rung. comprising lead weights or the equivalent to maximize the density of the loading medium. in accordance with Table 18. applied to the geometric center of the stepladder top cap. to the apex of the base section oftrestle and extensiontrestle ladders. (2)This test is illusrrated for a stepladder. in accordance with Table 18. at a distance of not more than 1/2 inch above its top surface. as shown in Fig.8 Rear Stability Test.STD-ANSI ALq.2-ENGL 2000 B 0724150 0557UO7 T b 9 m American National Standard A14. as shown in Fig. 7. 43 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . (Foran extension trestle ladder. The rear stability of a ladder shall be measured by placing the ladder in an open position on a level floor. A uniformly distributed load. Step stools shall be loaded with the distributed load on the top cap. Note: This is a design verification test. 21.5.2-2000 Figure 21 Front.) The ladder shall then besubjected to a horizontal pulling force. Side. The test surface shall be such as to ensure that the ladder does not slip or slide during the test.

such as diagonal braces or rear horizontal braces.35 ally blocked to prevent movement relative to the floor.65 floor.9) Type-II Type-III (Y= (Y = 1. of less than 1/8 inch. This test is not applicable to step stools. The test unit shall be placed on a level floor. Minor permanent deformation (set) of individual ladder components. unwaxed. shall not constitute test failure.95 10. during the test.9) 1. 7. The front rail cantilever bending strength of a ladder or step stool shall be measured by applying an edgewise loadto the bottom end of a frontside rail.10.35X+ 7.35X+ 3.11 Rail Cantilever Bending Tests 7. any damage or visible weakening ofthe ladder structure or component. such as removing. The maximum lateral displacement shall not exceed the value given in Table19. top guardrail or top step when no top cap is used. 23a. in accordance with Table 18.00position. vinyl tile floor. The force shall be maintained perpendicular to the moment a r m .95 1 1. the horizontal force shall be applied as close as possible to the apex hinge.30 7. directed to the rear of the ladder. Ladders equipped with a bucket shelf shall be tested with the bucket shelf inthe in-use position.50 the two frontrails during the test. prior to testing. with a tolerance of +lo". as shown in Fig.1 Fmnt Rail Static Cantilever Bending Test Note: This is a design verification test. with the spreaders properly set.5. Note: This is a design verification test. A high temperature and a low temperature racking test shall be required for ladders with plastic top caps.40 20.9) 1 1.70 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Type-I and I-A (Y = 1.1The test unit shall be placed on a level 14. in the fully opened position. as shown inFig.10 uted dead load shall be applied to24.10 the bottom step or rung.00 ers properly set. or any significant visible major damage from permanent deformation (set) of the test unit upon release of the test force shall constitute failure to meet this requirement.10 Racking Test Note: This is a design verification test. platform ladders less than three feet in size.35X+ 7.5. comprising lead weights or the equivalent to maximize the density of the loading medium.2 Ladders with Plastic Top Caps. A 200-pound distributed dead load.35 shall be individu13. the minimum load to cause the ladder to tip over shall not be less than the value shown in Table 18.30 9. after which the ladder shall be unloaded toestablish a no-load reference point. The high temperature test shall be performed with the stepladder at 14O0F*5"F with 50 percent greater rack allowable than in the room temperature test. 7. no part of theload shall contact either of 25. in the fully opened with the spread16. ?Y = lateral racking deflection (inches)during a 6 pound pull. slipon feet or feet Table 19 Maximum Allowable Racking Deflection* Deflectiont Ladder Size (feet) 3 4 14.40 17.16.65 - 14.95 13. using a force gage or the equivalent.00 12.American Notional Stondard A14. The test shall be conducted on a dry. at the final load position. or top step when no top cap is used. Ladders equipped with a bucket shelf shall be tested with the bucket shelf in the in-use position.80 28. 7. and the lateral displacement of the rear rail shall be measured relativeto its noload position.90 of the ladder top cap.70 22.9 Torsional Stubility Test.5.2-2000 During the test. X = ladder size (feet). A horizontal force.20 - - - - - *All deflectionsare measured in inches. shall be applied to the ladder top cap at a distance of 18 inches from the vertical centerline of the ladder. Bothfront feet17. Ladders equipped with a bucket shelfshall be tested with the bucket shelfin the in-use position.5. A vertical pulling force shall be applied to the rear 30. platform. 7.11. A six-pound lateral pulling force shall be applied at the bottom of one rear rail. 7. and other step-type ladders less than five feet in size. 22. as shown in Fig. shall be applied to the ladder top cap. A 100-pound distrib21.65 5 6 7 18. Relative movementin excess of one inch of the ladder with respect to the floor.A four-pound pre-load shall then be applied at the bottom ofone rear side rail. For articulated ladders. 22. .5.5.23b. The low temperature test shall be performed at a temperature of -2OoF+5"F withno fracture permitted. so as to lift both rear feet and provide a three-inch clearance between the 44 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services rear feet and the floor.10. as shown in Fig. Use appropriate means to ensure that the test load is applied to the lower endof the side rail.30 13.

(2) The clamp is used only for the Rail Torsion and Spreadertests in 7. (3) The test surface shall be dry.12.2-2000 Figure 22 Torsional Stability and Rail Torsion and Spreader Tests I 2ooLB DEAD WE'GHT LEVEL TO BASE NOTES: (1)The!testbarisclampedtothetopcap. 45 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .American National Standard A14. (4) This test is illustrated for a stepladder.5. unwaxed vinyl tile.

(2) Blocks futed to the test surface are used to resist rail rotation. (4) The vertical lifting force shall be applied by a memberbearing against therear centerof the ladder top cap. The lateral displacement of rear direction the lateral force is applied. and shall be attached to a S-16-inch minimum diameter rope at least3 feet long with therope secured against motion inany direction at least3 feet above the ladder top. 46 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .2-2000 Figure 23 Racking Test MINIMUM FORCEAPPLIED TO LIFT REAR FEET (NOTE 41 Method for Blocking Feet (4 100-lb DISTRIBUTED LOAD BLOCK (NOTE 2) P BLOCK J' (NOTE 2) Test Setup (b) NOTES: (1) The lateral force shall be applied using a force gage or the equivalent. The forcebeshall applied parallel the section shallbe measuredparallel to the to thebottom of the front section.~~~ STD-ANSI A14-2-ENGL 2000 m 0724350 0559030 553 American National Standard A14. (3) This test is illustrated for a stepladder.

" SAME AS A B W Ë EXCEPT FOR CLAMP LOCATION" CANTILEVER-OUT TEST (W Note: The block shall be a minimum of 1/4" and a maximum of 1-inch thick.STD*ANSI A34. and a minimum width equal to the full width of the side rail including side rail flanges.2-ENGL 2000 I I 0724350 0557033 4 7 T American National Standard A14. 47 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .- HOLDER "Ukf"- Y " P= CANTILEVER-IN TEST (a) LATERAL RESTRAINTS LEVEL F- 'cc1AMP" HOLDER TEST L W (WEIGHTS) LATERAL RESTRAINTS .2-2000 Figure 24 Rail Static Cantilever Test LATERAL RESTRAINTS BLOCK RESTRAINTS LATERAL (NOTE) +CCIAMP' )y/J L LEVEL -. and shall be 2-inches long measured along the side rail.

for a minimum periodof one minute. or using special purpose test fixtures to load the side rail appropriately.2 . The test load shall be applied by means of a weight.The lower side rail shall be clamped to a support and shall be unsupported from the bottom end of the rail to the top of the bottom horizontal brace. in accordance with Table 20.E N G L 2000 S 0724150 0557032 32b E American National Standard A14. in accordance with Table 20. with the same bottom bracing for each unit tested. The load shall be centrally applied to a 2-inch long blockresting on the full width of the rail and held in place by a C-clamp. The maximum allowable permanent deformation (set) of the lower side rail is 1/4 inch. The allowable permanent deformation (set) of the lower side rail shall not exceed1/4 inch. 24. for a minimum period of one minute. The maximum allowablepermanent deformation (set) of the upper side rail is 1/4 inch. permanent deformation (set) or ultimate failure of any ladder components as a result of the tests. 24a).5.Use appropriate means to ensure that the test load is appliedto the lower end ofthe side rail. except for the limitation on the maximum allowable permanentdeformation (set) of the upper and lowerside rails. 7. in a like manner (see Fig. The test unit shall be opened and placed on its side. 7. The test unit shallbe the tallest ladder for each rail size. The maximum permanent deformation (set) of the upper side rail is 114 inch.2Rear Rail Static Cantilever Bending Test Note: This is a design verification test.11.Type IA Heavy duty . such as removing. 24a). to the extreme bottom endof the upper side rail (see Fig.T y p I Medium duty . slip-on feet or feet extending below the end of the rail.~~ S T D . The lower side rail shall be clamped to a support and shall be unsupported from the bottom end of the rail to the top of the bottom step. permanent deformation (set)or ultimate failure of any ladder components as a result of the tests. or using special purpose test fixtures to load the side rail appropriately. The load shall be centrally applied to a two-inch long block resting on the full width of the side rail and held in place by a C-clamp.11. with the horizontal rear bracesperpendicular to the ground. The test load shall be appliedby means of a weight.5. 24b). to the extreme bottom end of the upper side rail (seeFig. The top surface ofstep the shall be parallelto the edge of the support. The weight shallbe suspended so that it acts through the vertical neutral axis ofthe rear rail -lower horizontal brace assembly. except for the limitation of the maximum allowable permanent deformation (set) of the upper and lower siderails shall not constitute test failure. prior to test4a COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services ing. so as to avoid introducing twisting into the rear rail. Combination ladders shallbe opened to their stepladder position. The rear rail cantilever bending strength shall be measured by applying an edgewise loadto the bottom end of arear side rail. as shown in Fig. the load attachmentpoint on the C-clamp shall not be more than 2inches below the underside of the web of the rail beingtested.3 Front and Rear Rail DynamicDrop Est Note: This is a design verification test. The stepladder shall be tested in a closed . The test load shall then be appliedto the extreme bottom endof the lower siderail.The test unit shall be opened and placed on its side.Type II Light duty . Guidesshall be used which have a nominalclearance between the rear section railsto prevent lateral movementof the section when the test load is applied. as shown in Fig. Provided the ladder continues to support the test load.2-2000 Table 20 Static Cantilever BendingTest Duty Rating andType Extra heavy duty . The weight shall be suspended so that it is acting through the vertical neutral axis of the side rail. 24. the load attachment point on the C-clamp shall not be more than two inches below the underside of the web of the rail being tested. shall not constitute test failure. 24b).A N S I A L 4 . with the steps perpendicular tothe ground.Type III Working Load Front Rail Cantilever Test Load (pounds) Rear Rail Cantilever Test Load (pounds) 300 250 225 200 300 200 250 200 150 175 150 125 extending below the end ofthe rail. Provided the ladder continues to support the test load. The test load shall then be applied to the extreme bottom end of the lower side rail in a like manner (see Fig.

Minor permanent deformation (set) of individual ladder components. The test unit shall be a six-foot stepladder.13 Stepladder Slip Test. fully opened and spreaders locked.American National Standard A14. The test shall be conducted on a dry. 22. position. in the fully opened position. The maximum allowablepermanent deformation (set) of the lower side rail is 1/4 inch. fully opened and all hinges locked. the horizontal force shall be applied as close as possible to the apex hinge. For articulated ladders.5. This test is not applicable to step stools. with the spreaders properly set. A horizontal force. The test unit shall be placed on a level floor. such as diagonal braces or rear horizontal braces. with the ladder horizontal so that the steps are vertical. as shown in Fig. or top step whenno top cap is used. Note: This is a design verification test. shall be applied to the ladder top cap at a distance of Table 21 Rail Torsion Test Duty Rating and Type Extra heavy duty . comprising lead weights or the equivalent to maximize the density of the loading medium. 25.Type III Rail Torsion Working Load Test Force (pounds) (pounds) 300 I25 250 225 200 100 75 M 18 inches from the vertical centerline of the ladder. A 200-pound distributed dead load. the front and rear rails shall be guided in a vertical plane. when the test load is reached. 7. opposite from the side where the horizontal force is applied. When testing an articulated ladder.5. shall be applied to the ladder top cap. platform. Note: This is a design verification test. The force shall be perpendicular to the moment arm. unwaxed vinyl tile floor. Stepladders shall be tested for slip resistance as shown in Fig. during a freefall drop.Type IA Heavy duty . It is performed with the ladder closed. as shown in Fig. with a tolerance of +lo". or any significant visible major permanent deformation (set) of the test unit upon release of the test force. any damage or visible weakening of the ladder or components.A uniformly 49 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . directed to the rear of the ladder.2-2000 Figure 25 D y n a m i c Drop Test / SUPPORT W NOTE:This test is for cantilever in only. withoutthe spreaders unlocking.T y ~ U e Light duty . The test unit shall withstand a horizontal force of not less than the value given in Table 21. 7. 26. The front side rail. of less than 118 inch shall not constitute test failure. The top of the ladder shall be supported six inches from its top so that the bottom of the lower rail is 24 inches from a concrete floor.T y ~ 1e Medim duty . the test unit shall be a six-foot ladder or the shortest size greater than sixfoot. Ladders equipped with a bucket shelf shallbe tested with the bucket shelf inthe in-use position. shall be blocked from movement. To perform the drop test.12 Rail Torsion and Spreader Test.

2-ENGL 2000 E 0724350 0557034 IT7 m American National Standard A14. The testsurface shall be a dry.6 The Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT) at 264 psi shall be at least 120°F in accordance with ASTM D648-82.7.5.1 “Accelerated Weathering Test Procedure. Failureoccurs when elongation after 1.14.5.14. 7. 7. which were employedfor performance tests. statically appliedto the bottom of the ladder at a distanceof one inch abovethe test surface.5.14.5.7 For the materialtensile strength test. (Re-approved 1988).”of ANSI A14. curve area. Half of the coupons shallbe tested as received without any special conditioning. Type I tensile coupons ofthe material shall be prepared and shall comply withASTM D638-91. tion for each set of samples 50 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services 7.5. of the 7.5 An infrared analysis of the materialshall be performed andthe results shall be retained.4 A differential scanning calorimetric test shall be performed to catalogthe material for future reference. and the results shallbe recorded and retained for future reference.A horizontal pulling force of 35 pounds.2-2000 Figure 26 Stepladder SlipTest NOTE: The 200-pound distributed load shall be placed on the second highest step.5. 7.5.14.000 hoursis 70% or less than the elongation of “as received”material. shall be employed to performthe following tests.14 Stepladder Plastic Top Cap Reference Material Tests.5.5 for 1. 7. distributed load of200 pounds shall be placed on the second highest step.9. The samplesizewhen tictopcapsshall shallbeten (10) andthemeanandstandarddevia-weathering” shall be computed.3Thespecificgravityordensity minimumandmaximumsectionthickness’ofplas-the be determined.14.2 Ten (10) top caps shallbe weighed and both the mean and standard deviation determined. 7.14.14.5. vinyl tile floor. shall not cause any movementin excess of 1/4 inch across the test surface. 7.STDWANSI: A14. and the other half shall be testedafter exposure to accelerated weathering as defined by Sec.000 hours. unwaxed.Alternate criteria is the areaunder the stress-straincurve“after is less than 70% of the “as received”’ .1 Plastic tops from the initial lot of moldings.

indicates a mental test.6.1. safety use instruction (safety 8. Table 22 provides a summary of significant accinominal thickness.is scraped across it.2. with the geometry precludescomplete support on aflat horiwater level a minimum of1/8 inch above the label.1 For maximum serviceability and safety. Switzerland. Testfor Peel or Stripping Strength of Adhesive Bonds.Factors contributing to falls include: on a new label that has not been subjected to the other tests in 7. The guidelines disthe appropriate surfaces and conditioned for 24 hours at 73°F (+5"F)and 50% relative humidity (*5%). by government bodies.5 Proper use of a ladder will contribute signifi7. The test shall be conducted cantly to safety. The label shall 'Available from the American Societyfor Testing and Materials. users shall employ safe practices in the use Unless otherwise specified. One such method occur inthe legibility of the labels or in their is to position thetop cap so that it is supported as adhesion to the ladder surface (as evidenced by close to its sides as possible restingon 1/4 inch delaminating or curling) following the test.6.2-2000 7. Applied labels shall be so that thetop of the cap rests in a horizontalplane placed in an oven maintainedat a temperatureof within dl" in any direction. by other researchers. and product data information (notice) labels for application to ladders. dent causes.afullsize sample resistdefacement or removalwhena flat metal ofthetop cap shdl be subjected to a 5 ft.1 General printed labels applied to surfaces representative of 8. Selection.4 Oven Aging Test. eliminate unnecessary damage to equipment and goods. and Use first).1Adhesion Test.shall be placed on awaterimmersion test. International Labour Office. and to those employed in the intended application.. The top cap shall show 158°F (70" C)for 240 hours. This test shall be beingconditionedfor 24 hoursat -20°F.1. according to ASTM D903-49 (1978).3 Water Immersion Test. the labels are applied to and care ofladder equipment. These substrates shall portable ladders are lateral sliding at the top support. of 0. 6061-T6 or the equivalent outward sliding at the lower base support. Ladders. 7. impact blade 1/32 inch thick. Geneva 22.2.S T D * A N S I AL4-2-ENGL 2000 m 072'1L50 0559035 035 American National Standard A14.PA 19103. cussed in this section constitute the most appropriate Satisfactory results are needed on three samples for and proper procedures for the care and use of ladders.6.3 The major causes of falls from self-supported Note: These tests are all design verification tests portable ladders are lack of stability and sliding. labelside down.2. 2" diameterguidedsteelball after testpanel.' Aminimum force of 30 ounces shall be required to remove the label.2. Care. and human in mechanical properties. CH 1211.5. this section. where the designpermits. 7.6.6. No significant change no signs of cracking after impact. Where topcap be immersed in water. shall occur inthe legibility of the labelsor in their adhesion tothe ladder surface(asevidenced by 7. 51 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . 1916 Race Street.6 labeling Tests delaminating or curling) following the test. and basis to one set of test samples. be aluminum extrusions.Z. zontal surface the requirement shall be achieved by for 48 hours at 75°F. and should be performedon standard substrates The major causes of falls from non-self-supporting rather than on actual ladders. Labels shall be mounted using a 4-1/2 pound weight8.6. The following procedures are designed to evaluate the suitability of primary hazard (danger and caution). The top run on labels before and immediately after the cap.Applied labels shall geometric centerof the top cap. held at a right angle to the froma l . flat horizontal surface and impact applied to the 7. the samples should be conditioned at close correlation between major accident causes and 73°F (k5"F) and 50% relative humidity (+-5%) for 24 the failure to follow guidelines like those provided in hours before subsequent tests are conducted.1.1. No significant change shall equivalent meansof positioning. each test to fulfill the requirements.070 inch slip. subjected to test.045 to 0. After eachenvironin the L O 4publications CIS-12.4 Proper selectionof a ladder is essential for ensured roller and then cured for 24 hours before being ing safety and reducing the potential for accidents. It is not intended 8.6.2 Tests 8. Available from the International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre. 18lb.2. 8. thick steel plates supporting the underside of the top cap across the full width of the top (front to back) 7.14.Z General. 7. and the performance of 8.8For the coldimpacttest.2 Scratch Resistance Test.-lb. Philadelphia.2 A comparison of studies within A14 jurisdicthat the tests shall be conducted on a progressive tion.

2-2000 Table 22 Summary of Significant Accident Causes Possible Factors Involved in Accident Ladder Design Accident ven BaseCause of Support Top Support Set-up Location User Ladder Selection and Condition or surface Stability Selfsupporting surface Unstable (stepladder) Soft Not applicable Slipper surface Differences in firmness of surface Slope of surface Unlocked Above “highest standing level” spreaders One or more feet label Reaching out too unsupported Used unstable far.oily. missing or contaminated feet slip Not applicable Not Pitch (angle) Descending too surface scaffold) off Getting or on Lateral Uneven surface Uneven tied Not sliding Differences in surface held Not at roof ladder base to or (left firmness of slippery Inadequate or Reaching too out right) at Surf= laterally far excessive exsurface top supUnstable surface Unstable tension above Applying side Port support (pole. ladder versus or 52 Incomaladder type (IA. p l a d m or single versus stepladder) Use of improper equipment (for example. Dirty. ladder versus scaffold) Removal or det e r i d o n of slip-resistant ladder feet TOO~OrtOO long (size) Not extended far enough (too load Outward Unstable surface OverextenUsed unstable Above or“highest Wrong sliding atinsufficient above friction sion standing slip-resistant level” Low tup support suppom label lower base Loosesurface support snow. to work building. parriculatly or insuffficient laterally Climbing onto ladder supports Ladder not close from above enough to work Handling heavy loads location or unstable objects User’s physical Applying side load condition Sliding location Non-selfHuman supporting (extension and single) applicable Uneven surface Used Not nonas Reaching a outfar too Low friction applicable self-supporting Stepping ladder off surface Unstable ladder load side Applying or closenot Ladder snow Ice wet surface enough to work surface Slippery Worn.and the like) tionoffeet or Applyingsideload slip-resistant bearing s u r f a s Extension locks not engaged COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services m) surfaces Use of improper equipment (for example. ladder versus scaffold) use of improper equipment (for example. notLadder enough comer of example. Ice.American National Standard A14.r versus scaffold) floor or bearingsurface Too long (size) or far use of improper versus scaffold) . ladder off or blocked Worn.I. Ice. st=P M wet Feet unsupported Surf¿XX M unstable Insufficient Extension l o c k s not engaged top support off II. or icy flat rungs) Shoes Too short (size) S W ) Useof imprope!r equipment (for 1adde. tclose ree. Incorrect style ladder (forexample. or wet Pitch (angle) Sliding tendency too surface flat too extended above increases Slippery surface footed Ladder ladder working not Ladder not tied length midpoint equipment (for Careless climbing example. missing onto or or off of ladder ( h m or to s l i p m feet Improperselec-roof. IOCation and the like)Pitch(angle)too snow.

1.1. offices.2 Stepladders.2-2000 haste. 8. Qpical relationships are as follows: Table 23 ladder Size. 8. utilities. For users requiring a 300-pound working load or duty rating. and the like. Forusers requiring a 250-pound working load or duty rating.2 Selection 8. Ladders are not designed or intended to possess an infinite safe useful life. although the actual dimension will change as the ladder is extended. the duty rating.1. lack of attention during use. Users shall not overloada ladder. Portable ladders are designed for one-man use to meet the requirements of the man. light maintenance.the working load. 8. Product information data necessary for proper ladder selection is found on the ladder rail. utilities. and height to the top support point are given in Table 23. This section covers the factors involved in makingthe proper ladder selection. Ladder type IAA is covered in A14. 8.1 Extension Ladders. ladder condition (worn or damaged).2. However. working length.The highest standing level is constant for a specific stepladder. such as industry.to 3-Foot Extension 9-ID-1 1-10 13-1/2-15-1/2 17-19 21-23 25-27 28-30 3 1-33 *All quantities are in feet. (3) Medium-Duty. Whileladders are designed for extended service. 8. and the like. sudden movements.7 The information providedin the balance ofthis section principally addresses stepladders and extension ladders. including the italicized advisory in-service use tests) are available for evaluating the ladder’s condition. (4) Light-Duty. The user’s excessive weightor size does not increase the likelihood of falls.6 The safe useful life of the ladder is dependent upon its proper in-service care. however.1. The nominal relationships between size.2. The principles.Light duty ladders shall not be used with ladder jacks or scaffold planks.3. user’s age or physical condition.2. Ladders have been designed in five dutyclassifications: Working Load Duty Rating Special Duty Extra Heavy-Duty Ladder ’Qpe (Pounds) 375 300 IAA IA I 250 Heavy-Duty II 225 Medium-Duty m 200 Light-Duty This standard covers ladder types IA-III.2. and the like.2.3. In-service use test methods (see Section7.2 Ladder Selection. such as general household use. 8.2 Loading undService. Working length.American Notional Standard A14. and the footwear employed by the user. Medium duty ladders shall not be used with ladder jacks or scaffold planks. Forusers requiring no more than a 200-pound working load or duty rating. The following criteria shall be used when purchasing or using a ladder: (1) Extra Heavy-Duty.10-2000. 53 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services ~~ . or both.are applicable toall self-supporting and non-self-supporting portable ladders. (2) Heavy-Duty.1. Where the topsupport is a roof eave. or both.to three-foot extension beyond this point. and the environment.2. improper climbing posture creating user clumsiness on the ladder may cause falls. additional workinglength is needed to permit the required one. contractors. such as industry. such as painters.2. 8. Selection of proper extension-laddersize requires knowledge of the vertical heightor elevation to the top support point.and frequency of use to which the ladder will be subjected.1 Duty Rating. it is necessary to provide periodic in-service care and maintenance to ensure their continued safe use. and Height* Extension M-¿XimWll Working Length Height to Top Support on Wall 24 28 32 36 13 17 21 25 29 32 TO 12-IR 12-1/2-16-1D 16-1/2-20 40 35 Ladder 16 size m 20-24 24-28 28-3 1 32-34 Height to Roof f i v e with 1. Forusers requiring a 225-pound working load or duty rating. The highest standing level shall also be considered. the task. Users shall give consideration to the length required. or both.3 Proper Size 8.1. contractors.

a non-self-supportingladder shall not be used to climb abovethe top support point. When this %foot extension ladder is closed to 14 feet. To safeguard against bottom sliding.The user shall not step or stand on: (1) A ladder top cap and the top step of a step or trestle ladder. For example. 54 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services 8.5 A ladder jack system shall not be used by more than two persons. 10 inches 7 feet. 8. Portable non-self-supporting ladders should be erected at a pitch of75-1/2” from the horizontal for optimum resistance to sliding. 8.4 Work Site Restrictions on Working Length. a shorter non-self-supportingladder or a self-supporting ladder such as a stepladder should be considered. 8. The user shall climb or work with the body nearthe middle of the step or rung. In cases where the work site imposes a height restriction on the non-self-supporting ladder’s working length.3. The ladder base shall be placed with a secure footing on a firm. 8.an important factor to consider is the bottom and top support conditions.3 Rules for ladder Use 8. an extensionladder might be a better choice. 11 inches 3 feet. There are situations in which the user of a particularsize ladder creates a gap in the height that can be reached by the user.2 In choosing between a self-supportingand a non-self-supporting ladder.2. Ladder use shall be restricted to the purpose for which the ladder is designed. These conditions create a gap between seven and 10 feet in height where another ladder selection is recommended. If such supportis lacking or is not convenient.1 Intended Use. 9 inchewlfeet. the top support allows the opportunity to secure or tie off the top to increase stability. 10 inches 5 feet.3. A stepladder requires level support for four rails.4 Footing Support. 9 inches .STD-ANSI AL‘4-2-ENGL 2000 W 072’4150 0557018 B 9 9 I American National Standard A14.2. (2) The rear braces of a self-supporting ladder unless they are designed and recommendedfor that purpose by the manufacturer. To work in this zone.3. 8.2.4 Combination ladders. select a shorter extension ladder or single ladder. and if a top support is available. when used as selfsupporting stairway ladders. the user may find that longer ladders are not capable of erection at the proper angle of inclination of 75-1/2”. 10 inches 4 feet. The user shall not step or stand higher than the step or rung indicated on the label marking the highest standing level of a ladder.1.3.3.2-2000 Stepladder Size (feet) Recommended Highest Standing Level 4 1 foot.2.1.3. Combination ladders should be erected so that the step surfaces are in a horizontal plane.3.1. (3) The top step of the extension sectionof an extension trestle ladder. 8 inches-7 feet. In addition. 11 inches 2 feet.1 . then working on a wall below10 feet becomes a problem. 8. Note: This restriction is not applicable to top steps located 18 inches under the top cap. 8. 8.3.5 feet. (4) The top cap or top step of a combination ladder when it is used as a self-supporting ladder. Effective workinglength is measured by the distance along the side rails from the bottom of the support point to the upper portion of the ladder.2 Climbing and Working Locations. shall not be climbed on their back sections.3 Manufacturers do design and offer certain ladders intended for use by more than one man.1. 8.1. These products shall be so identified on their labels and markings. 9 inches 5 6 7 8 10 The maximum work height is then established by adding the user’s height and safe reach to the highest standing level dimension. which meansup to a height of about sevenfeet. levelsupport surface.3 Angleoflnclination. extension ladders of 28-foot size andlonger cannot be used to work on a wall below a certain height because the user would be too far out fromthe wall. strength of the ladder.3. Usually the lower portion of the wall can be reached from the ground. A simple rule for setting up a ladder at the proper angle is toplace the base a distance from the wall or upper support equal to one-quarter the effective working length of the ladder (the “quarter lengthrule”).I Ladders shall not be climbed by more than one person at a time unless designed to support more than one person.3. and balanceof the climber. 10 inches-2 feet.1. or the bucket or pail shelf of a selfsupporting ladder.3. 8.3 Unless specifically designedfor a cantilever operation.3 User On-LadderLocation. 8. Ladder levelers may be usedto achieve equal . 8.2 Self-supporting ladders shall not be used as single ladders or in the partially closed position.

The user shall not overreach.locked.3. scaffold plank. lever. gangway. or from a swing-stage to a ladder.3. Ladders shall not be placed in front of doors opening towardthe ladder unless the dooris blocked open.3.3. Adjustments of extension ladders from the top of the ladder (or any level over the locking device) is a dangerous practice and shall not be attempted. extending acrossthe window. The user shall ensure thatthe stepladder is fully opened.13 Setup and Adjustment of Ladders. unless the manufacturer specifically recommends such use. uninsulated circuit or conductor in order to avoid electrical shock or short circuit. Ordinary precautions should be employed as would be taken when using any tool that may become a conductorof electricity. from one ladder to another. unless specifically designedfor the application. Ladders shall not be placed on boxes. When it is necessary to support the top of a ladder at a window opening.or in tree-type operations (pruning. but shall descend and relocate the ladder instead. The user shall ensure that both upper and lower ladder support points are contactingfirm support surfaces. Users are cautioned to take proper safetymeasures when ladders areused in areas containing electricalcircuits. The user shall not climb a brokenor bent ladder or a ladder that does not comply with9. shall notbe tied or fastened together to provide a longer length. spurs.American National Standard A14. When ascending or descending the ladder. A ladder shall notbe used as a brace.It should be used when the laddertop support is a pole. fruit picking. When using a ladder. spikes.13. spurs. Where ladders withno safety shoes. spikes. The top of a non-self-supporting ladder shallbe placed withthe two rails supported equally unless itis equipped with a single support attachment.7 Climbing Ladders. Such an attachment shouldbe substantial and large enough to support the ladder under load. 8. guy or gin pole. The user shall checkthat the rope is tracking correctly in the pulley. and the like). The ladder shall never be used in a reverse position where the top end of the fly section becomes the lower end of the ladder.8 Electricd H a a d s . unless the ladder is secured against sideways motion or has been tied to the structure. building comer.3. with spreaders locked and all feet contacting afirm level support surface.13.The ladder shall be tied to the upper access level before climbingonto or off the ladder at the upper level. Ladders and ladder sections. 8. 8. Ladders shall not be erected on scaffolds to gain additional height. to provide firm support againstthe building walls or window frames. skid. or slippery surfaces unless suitable means to prevent slipping are employed.9 Improper Use. The ladder shallbe kept close to the work.5 Top Support.3. a device should be attached across the back of the ladder.3. 8. Adjustment of extension ladders shall only be made by the user when standing at the baseof the ladder so the user may observe when the locks are properly engaged. Users are cautioned to be particularly careful when manipulating any ladder around an overhead electrical power line. Extension ladders shall always beerected so that the top section (fly section) is above and resting on thebottom section (base section) withthe rung locks engaged. or other unstable bases to obtain additional height. 8.10 Getting on or off ludder at upper levels.12 Doorways. andthe lower end ofthe base section becomes the upper end of the ladder. Metal ladders and wood ladders with side-rail metal reinforcement wires shall not be used where they would come in contact with exposed energized electric wires. or guarded. Where 55 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .6 Side Loading. 8. platform. 8.2 Stepladders.the user shall face the ladder and maintain afirm hold on the ladder.3. the user shall never pushor pull unless the ladder is properly secured.4.1.3. snow. or similar devices are used. or similar devices of substantial design shouldbe installed where required for slip resistance and bearing area. a foot ladder board orsimilar device may be employed.14 Erection of Extension Ladders.1 Extension Ladders.3.These precautions should prevent any contact or possible contact with an energized. depending uponthe design. material hoist.11 Fastening Together. 8. 8. The user shall take care when getting on or off the ladder atthe upper level in order to avoid tipping the ladder over sideways or causing the ladder base to slide.3. 8. Ladders and ladder sections shall not havetheir length increased by other means unless specifically designed for the means employed. barrels. 8. Adjustmentsshall not be made while anyone is standing on the ladder. unless so designed.The user shall not climb onto a ladder from theside.Devices such as shoes. Ladder should extend approximately three feet above the upper access level.or for any other use for which it was not intended. The top section may be located in front of or behind the bottom section. Portable ladders are not designed for excessive side loading. All ladders shouldbe kept away from electric power lines unless theyare specifically designed for that application.2-2000 rail support on uneven surfaces. 8.3. Ladders shall notbe used on ice. and such abuseof the ladder shall be avoided. light standard. combinations thereof.

unlessso designed.) 8. Extension sections of extension trestle ladders should notbe used as single ladders. Ladders.STD.3. 8. Overhang ofthe ladders beyond supporting points should be limited.Special purpose ladders outlined in A14. ANSI A10.4.2-2000 extension ladders have been previously usedas single ladders.18 Hooks. or excessively dented rungs.19 Ludder Jacks.1 Inspection. After such exposure the ladder shall be inspected visually for damage and tested for deflection and strength characteristics.4 Oil and Grease.4.3.4. A thorough ladder inspection shall be made when the ladder is originally purchased. to minimize chafing and the effects of road shock. The ladder truck rack shall be designed to positively secure the ladder into a fixed position. as two-man working load products. The ladder shall be inspected periodically.3.5 Ropes and Pulleys.by the manufacturer. 8. and replaced if they are wornor defective. When service conditions warrant. Therefore. Middle and top sections of sectional ladders shouldnot be used for bottom sections. refer to the manufacturer. 8.3.16 Bracingof Stepladders.1. as well as hardware connections. 8. Metal ladders or other ladders specifically designed to permit grounding or dissipation of static electricity should be used around high static electrical fields to assist in preventing shocks to the user. rivets (for shear).3.ANSI A W Z . which will cause premature deteriorationof the .4. preferably before each use. the ladder shall be taken out of service and either discarded or repaired by a competent mechanic. If these requirementsare not satisfied.A ladder shall not be relocated while anyone is on it. as in the case of fire. and identifiedby the manufacturer. Where structural damage or other hazardous defect is found.4. any variation fromthis purpose constitutes a mishandling of the equipment.4 Transporting. care should be exercised to ensure that the sections are properly reassembled and thatthe interlocking guides or brackets are properly engaged between the sections before further use.3 Proper Handling. like any tool. 8. see American National Safety Requirements for Scaffolding. specified.15 Relocating Ladders.4 Care 8. 8.2 Damaged Ladders. grease.4.3.I . 8. Consult the manufacturer or a qualified person prior to use. portable ladders to give added security. and pulleys should be inspected frequently. hooks may be attached at.10 shall be used in conjunction with ladder jacks. and identified. Trestle ladders (double front) are designed. They are designed for the purpose intended.Supporting points should be of a material such as wood or rubbercovered iron pipe. shouldbe secured from pivoting about the ladder while the vehicle is in motion.4. For additional information on ladder jack systems. The bracing on the rear rails of stepladders is designed solely for increasing stability and not for climbing. and put into service.4. All rung/step- 56 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services to-side rail connections shall be checked. The ladder shall be inspected for side rail dents or bends. street. 8.3 Corrosive Substances. must be handled withcare and not be subjected to dropping.1. and all other components.3. or near the top of.8-1988. 8. In doubtful cases. 8. Working parts and rungstep-to-side rail connections shall be checked.4. unless so designed. excessive wearof the ladder will occur. If ladders are exposed to excessive heat. 8. Securing the ladder to each support point will greatly reduce damage due to road shock. If ladders are subjected to certain acids or alkali materials. and highway motor vehicles shall be properly supported. More information is provided in Section S. (Such hooks are used for upper support in cable strand or roofing applications. received. or slippery materials on climbing or gripping surfaces.4.and the rack should be designedto fit the particular ladder being ked to the truck. 8. their strength may be reduced. stages and planks. Ropes. cables. Ladders transported on road.21 High Static Electrical Fields. and identified.1. 8. and Other Impact Damage.2 Exposure to Fire.20 Ladders Designedfor Special Uses. 8.I Truck Racks.E N G L 2000 m 0 7 2 ~ 1 5 00559020 Y T Z American Notional Standard A14. I l'ïpping Ovel. The ladder feet.1.Broken or bent ladders shall be marked and taken out ofservice until they are repaired by a competent mechanic or destroyed in such a manneras to render them useless. they may experience chemical corrosion and a reduction in strength. Ladders shallbe secured to the truck rack in a manner that will avoid chafing from relative horizontaland vertical motion. 8. or misuse. jarring. The user shall not attempt to repair a defective side rail. checked to ensure that they operate properly. 8. Ladders should be free of oil.17 Useof individual sections of sectional ladders and sectionsof extension trestle ladders. This does not apply to the stepladders provided with steps for climbing on both front and rear sections. when present.4.

2. is 4-112 to six feet from the bottom of the ladder on the outside of the rails.5 Markings shall be positioned so that other parts of the ladder shall not damagethe labeymarking when the ladder is open. (7) Manufacturer or distributor name (may be logo). markingsshall be in the most prominent locations available. fittings. 9.3 is not possible due to the size or design of the ladder.2 shall appear on the ladder.2 Product Data Information Markings 9.3.2. (1 1) Warranty.3.I Stepladder. 8.2 The following information is required: (1) Ladder size.see appendixfor size notes. 9. Materials shall not be placed on the ladder while it is in storage.and other ladder parts. Labeling/Marking Requirements 9. construction features and materials and finishes.6 Maintenance. and accessories should be checkedfrequently and kept in proper working condition. if offered (optional). O E in prominent locations.2-2000 ladder and reduceits service life. AppendixB refers to “THE SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS AND PRODUCT DATA INFORMATION’ labeldmarkings.7 The labeldmarkings in the Appendixes shallbe considered as illustrations only. and no ladder should be used if any bolts or rivets are missing or if the joints between the steps (or rungs) and the side rails are not tight. Also. 4 shall met the general requirements in Section 9.1. (2) Typeanddutyrating.1.2.3 Marking No. and No.1.1. These racks should have sufficient supporting points to avoid sagging. All bolts and rivetsshall be in place and secure before using aladder. 9. Product data information markings may be presented as provided by the labels/markings and instructions in Appendix B (See Marking No.3.1. closed or extended.4. (8) Manufacturingplantifmultiplantorganization (may be coded). 9.1. 9.1 Marking No. O0 shall be placed on all portable ladders.3 l j p k a l Presentation. 9.2 Marking shall be legible and readily visible. suchas on step stools or ladders constructed of tubular side rails.3 The preferred location for markings. 9. All pivotable connections and the rung-lock cam surfaces should be lubricated frequently.1. (4) Higheststandinglevel. 8. 9. Marking No. 9. 9. Improperly designed and used truck racks may damage side rails.1 General Requirements 9. (5) Total length of sections (if extension ladder).3. including equivalent wordlng and symbols to accommodate material.3. 2 or Marking No. 3 shall be such as to assure best viewing positionand to accommodate design.American National Standard A14.1. 9. Ladders with safety shoes or padded feet which are excessively wornshall be taken out of service until repaired.4 The placementof Markings No. illustrations inthis standard may not be optimum size.4 Marking No. I Primary hazard “DANGER’ and “CAUTION’ markings shall conform to the general design principles (and wherelabels are used) to the design and color principles of these requirements as provided in Appendixes “A” and “B’ for the kinds of ladders in this standard. OOD or Marking No.2. markings may be located under top caps or steps when accompanied by markings similarto Marking No.I .4.5 Storage. 9.1. owing to vehicle vibration and road shock.5 Marking No.1. 57 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . 9. 23). 5 can have fly section either over or under base section.Hardware.1. 9. ( 6 ) Modelnumber or name. When rail space is limited. stepsor rungs.1. 9. unless otherwise specified.1. 24.3 Specific Labeling/Marking Requirements 9. 9.1 The product data information markings in 9.1. (3) Maximum working length (if extension ladder). feet.3. (9) Month and year of manufacture. An equivalent marking for plastic top caps is to mold into the top cap “DANGER: DO NOT STAND OR SIT” in bold or raised letters at least 114 inch high. 2 or No. 3 shall be located on the first step below the top cap when this step is 18 inches or less from the top and may be omitted when the first step is more than 18 inches from the top cap.For example. Ladders should be stored in or on racks designed to protect the ladder when it is not in use. (10) ANSI standardcompliance. 9.8 Exception. 24 shall be located on the top cap of stepladders.1. Modification of these marking requirements withinthe design or color principles of Section 9. finish and construction features shall be permitted.2 Marking No. Proper ladder maintenance ensures the safe condition of the ladder.6Where compliance with9. 1 shall meet the general requirements of location andpositioning to avoid damage to the label/marking.

3.5.3.2 Extension andSingle Ladders. 5 . 9. 9. 1 and No.1 Markings No. 9. 9 shall be placed on extension ladder sections not designed for separate use if the ladder is not equipped with permanent means to preclude removal. An equivalent marking for plastic top caps is to mold into the top cap “DANGER: DO NOT STAND OR SIT” in bold or raised letters at least 1/4 inch high. 7 shall be placed in lieu of Marking No.4. 9. 18 shall conform to the general requirements in Section 9. Inc.8. 3 shall be located on the first step below the top cap on each side when this step is 18 inches or less from the top and may be omitted when the first step is more than 18 inches from the top cap.2.3 Marking No.4.4 Marking No. 5 and No. 2 or marking No. a combination of stamping. No.3. 7 and No..3.3.7. materials and finishes.5. 9.4.3. 16 and No.3. 21 shall be in a predominate location as near to the center hinge as possible.4.1 Markings No. 9. 17 shall meet the general requirements in Section 9.2. Revision of American National Standards Referred to in this Document When the American National Standards referred to in this document are superseded by a revision approved by the American National Standards. l .3 Marking No.6 Marking No. 10.1 through 9.1 Marking No.3. construction features.7. 14 shall meet the general requirements in Section 9.3.3 for the trestle sections.1 9. Anequivalent marking for plastic top caps is to mold into the top cap “DANGER: DO NOT STAND OR SIT” in bold or raised letters at least 1/4 inch high. l . 1 1 and No. 9. 9.3 Markings shall meet the requirements of Sections 9. 3 shall meet the requirements set forth for stepladders. 3 shall be such as to assure best viewing position and to accommodate design.8. on the inside of the right rail of single ladders andthe right rail of the fly section of extension ladders.3. .1.3. 10 shall meet the general requirements in Section 9.3.4 nestle Ladder (DoubleFront)Ladder.2 Marking No.1 Marking No. 22 shall be located on the outside of one of the side rails when theladder is in the folded (storage) position. the revision shall apply. 24 shall be located on the top cap or highest cross member above the platform.1 In the stepladder mode. 1 shall meet the general requirements of location and positioning to avoid damage to the label/marking. 9. 9.3. depending upon which rung is 22 inches or more fromthe top of the section.3.2.8 Articulating Ladders.6. 8 shall be placed in lieu of Marking No.5 Extension nestle Laddex 9. 9.2 Marking No.3.6. with the arrow pointing tothe second or third rung.2 Marking No. 24. 9.2 In the single or extension ladder mode. 15 shall meet the general requirements in Section 9. 20 and No. 9.7 Combination Ladder.3. 9.2 Marking No. 9.1. 58 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services 9. 7 and No. Marking No.3. No.4.3 The placement of markings No.3. 9. and No. 12 shall conform to the general requirements in Section 9.3. 9. 19 shall meet the general requirements in Section 9.A N S I A3‘4-2-ENGL 2000 D 072‘4350 0559022 275 m American National Standard A14. 6 shall meet the general requirements for location. 8 shall be used on the extension section as required for single section straight ladders.2. 2 or No. 13 and No.5.7. 9.3.3. 9.2 Marking No.3. Exception: Since the definition of marking allows for stamping and embossing. 6.3 Marking No. 6 and No.2.1 Marking No. 9. No. 9.3.S T D . embossing and color coding shall be permitted to meet the precautionary warningintent of this marking.5. 8.3.3.2. 9.3 Marking No. No.3. I Markings No.4. 9.6 Platform Ladder. 9.3. 9.3.3. 13 and No.3.3.2-2000 9. l . 7 on the second or third rung from the top of single ladders or fly section of extension ladder depending upon which rungis 22 inches or more fromthe top of the section. 24 shall be located on the top cap.4 Marking No.3.8. 6 shall be used on all exten- sion ladders andsingle ladders constru&d of metal. 2 or No.3. 9. 8 shall meet the requirements set forth for single and extension ladders. 6 .6.l. marking No.5 In lieu of embossedletters.3 Step Stool. Markings No.

08”). These labeldmarkings are illustrationsof typical labeldmarking.American National Standard A14.2-2000 Appendixes Appendix A (These Appendixes are notapartofAmericanNational Standard A14. Minimumrecommended text size for the caution and warning labels shown is nine point (capital lettersare approximately .) Note: The following are the preferred design and color principles for the primary hazard “DANGËR’’ and “CAUTION” labeldmarkings forthe kinds of portable metal ladders cited in this standard. but areincluded for information purposes only. Red Oval with White Letters I I L BlackBackground 4 ’ 1 Color Same tI Notes asDanger Other Yellow Letters on Black Background Black Letters on White Background Black Letters on Yellow Background 59 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .2-2000.

60 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services Highest Standing Level Total Lengthof Sections (If extension Ladder) Model Numberor Name Manufacturer or Distributor Name blanufacturing Plant(If multiplant organization) Month andYear of Manufacture ANSI Standards Compliance Warranty If Warranty Offered Marking No. In fact. embossed. the optional character of panel No. the information in panel No. Manufacturer's and distributor's name may be a logo. 23 Preferred Notice Presentation . would haveto be entered by ink stamp for the one-label approach. 1 should be presentedas one unit either in a label or other marking. Panel No. The three panels are also designed to be divided between panels No. including a label which providesfor ink stamping of month and year data.An effort should bemade to avoid the placement of other Markings between panels which are separated. Permanent inks should be sought.and are available . the rest of the marking can be a label or similarly stamped. if separated. 2 may be placed elsewhere if it is first placedas required by 9. Panel No. if this information is stamped. since this product informationis most critical in selecting the right ladder. or otherwise marked. Minimum recommended text size for safety instruction and product data labels shown is seven point (capital letters are approximately . may be stamped. 3 may eliminate its use or incorporate its information in either panel No.2-ENGL 2000 0724150 0559024 04B W American National Standard A14. This method would meanthe month and year data. 1 and 2 and panels No. Additionally. 2 and 3. Manufacturing plant (if multi-plantorganization) may be coded.2-2000 Blue Background with White Letters Appendix B Note: The following are illustrations of typical safety instruction and product data labels/markings.~ STD-ANSI A14.06"). for economic use of preprinted labels.2. Green or Black Letters on White Background L with White Letters on White Background Ladder Size L Type andor Duty Rating Maximum Working Length (If extension Ladder) Typical Presentationof Product Data Information Markings A typical method wouldbe to present the notice and threepanels as one label or marking. Such information provides the necessary elements of a sound purchase that allows the user to matchhis needs and requirements to the capabilities of the ladder. 1 or 2. In fact. 2.as long as the one-label effect is maintained.for such applications.

American National Standard A14. may result in injuries or death. E) 61 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . FAILURE TO READ D AND FOLLOW ALL INSTRUCTIONS ON THIS LADDER MAY RESULT IN INJURIES OR DEATH. including those under the steps. B. C Marking No.2-2000 FAILURETOREADANDFOLLOWALL INSTRUCTIONS ON THIS LADDER MAY RESULT IN INJURIES OR DEATH. I A l n B Failure to read and follow all instructions on this ladder. D. C. O0 (A.

DO NOT STAND OR SIT Marking No. 3 SET AU FOUR FEET ON FIRM LEVEL SURFACE.2-2000 KEEP BODY CENTERED BETWEEN SIDE RAILS DO NOT OVER-REACH. 2 W NM STAND ABOVE THS I STEP DO Not Stand On Or Above This Rung YOU CAN LOSE YOUR BALANCE Marking No. Marking No. WEAR SUP-RESS I TANTSHOES.American National Standard A14. 1 62 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .

INDUSTRIAL-MTRA HEAW INWSTRIAL-HEAW COMMERCIAL-MEDUM HOUSEHOLD-LIGHT 300 lbs. unstable bases M scaffolds lo Bain additional height.All pam must be in gmd d n gadK. 2. mes m e . Do not plau. speaders and pail shelf function pmperly. Do not ovenach. S p r e a d e c S . Do not s t a n d . keep body centered between SUE raib. a above sermd step horn bop m%n. 2. Maintain a A r m gip. PROPER SET-UP 1. bentM k k e n Wer. leamer soles m d l not be used. do mt laave Wer sei up and Unattended. Keep a lW e r clean. DONOTUSELPDOERStfyoutireeasity. 5.Keep~c~bo~. never dimb a damaged. Never store materials m ladder. and m e r slippery material. 225 Its. Make sure all pints. 4.maifergasedto tire M chemical coman.avoidpushingDIpuBing offbomesldeoflaMers. Never climb ladder from the d e u n e lss ladder is secured against side-wise 6. I Marking No. Do mt overload.2-2000 - STEPLADDER FOR YOUR SAFETY READ CAREFULLY 1. Keep IaWer clean and free of all fmgn materiab.Do mtusemsli¡parywrfaces.Oonotplacemboxes. PROPER SELECTION S e e lc $ td d e r o p fW e r k n @ h k m l m n g height 2. 4. m. Do not "walk"or '"WWer when standing m it. 3. 3. INSPECTION l . 9. free from oil. spreadm. 3. 3. hWesuteladderkfullyapen.orare subject bo fainthg spes l . M are physkally impaired. 5.spraadersare secure. Do not use as brace. 2. missing park.A N S I A 1 4 . PROPER CLIMBING ANO USE 1. 4. pail shelf. DestroyladderIbmken. Select W e r s wimin the folbwing: lWE LAA IA I Il 111 M Y RATING SPECIAL DLlTY SET UP L A D D m O P E R L Y TO REDUCE SLIP AND OVERLOAD HAZARDS.use both hands in climbing.and grease. Ladders are meant for one person. pmperty secure and suppwt ladder while in bansit.or m using medicine M alcahol. lnspect upon receipt and befwe each use.S T D . 5 63 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . 200 Its. m ladder when needed. DANGER1 MElAL WNOUCTS ELECTRICITY!Do not Y ladders of any maml mm in contact wim live elecbical wires. Keep your shoesClean. n us. back W~CHI. pail shelf in pmillm. rk&. Face M e r when dimbing up M down. 2. IMPORTANT. wet paint. lo. 250 lbs. dim M Sn On braces. 4 Marking No.and tob are @m. Ladders are &signed bo wwrt me persln plus materials and tools not m e man the wkingktadmthetmticesignon~isladder. @STAND ERECT @EXTEND ARMS STRAIGHT OUT @PALMS OF HANDS SHOULD TOUCH TOP OF RUNG AT SHOULDER LEVEL of !add%. Stwe Idder m safe and dry place. 8. mud.E N G L 2000 W 072'4150 0559027 857 m A m e r i c a n National S t a n d a r d A14.2 . 7. To potsa chlldren. Wlceontirmlevelsurfkewlthasecurefwhng. platlmn M plank. in frmt of dm opanhg tavird ladder. 3. Never make temporay repah of damaged M s t e p s . FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS WMlKlNGUUD 375 lbs. @PLACE TOES AGAINST BOllOM OF LADDER SIDE RAILS. PROPER CARE AND STORAGE l .

6 Do Not Stand On Or Above This Rung YOU CAN LOSE YOUR BALANCE Marking No.2-2000 Do Not Stand On Or Above This Rung YOU CAN LOSE YOUR BALANCE WATCH FOR THIS LADDER CONDUCTS ELECTRICITY 1 II Marking No. 7 Marking No. 8 THIS LADDER SECTION I S NOT DESIGNED FOR SEPARATE USE ~~ Marking No.American Notionol Standard A14. 9 64 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .

bent a bmkm step stool.2-2000 KEEP BODY CENTERED BETWEEN SIDE RAILS. ~ s t e p s t o o l I t b m k e n . K e e p s $ p s b o l c i e m m d f o f a U f o r e g n ~ Marking No. 3. leather sols should not be ussd. Skmstepstwlinsafeanddryplace. 5. 2.A N S I A 1 4 . DO NOT OVER-REACH. tiQw spreaders funetion popertv. r m m ~ i f e x p s d t o fire a chemkxi cwmsion. Never makee tm m repairs of damaged o! missing pa*. Make sure step slwl ts fully apen and spraadas secure. 3. m w .A l pm must be in w&ng d e r . unstablebases of scaffolds to gain addilkml heLgM. - STEP STOOL FOR YOUR SAFETY READ CAREFULLY INSPECTION I. Neverstorematemlsons$pstwl.S T D . spreadem.Do rot place cm boxes.2 . 12 Marking No. PROPER SET-UP 1. DANGER! MELU CONDUCTS ELECIRICITY! Do not IetstepStmlsofanymataMcomeinmntactwith l i e elecbicalwires. P m m secure and suppwt s$p stool while in transit 3.E N G L 2000 0729150 0557027 American National Standard A14. 4. Pkeonfirmswfaceardasecuretooting. Marking No. 11 PROPER CARE AND STORAGE 1.Domt use on sp il perysurfaces. 2.Cmrmtplzeinircntoldmopening toward stsp Stml. Keep your shoes dean. wet paint and m e r s l i m ma$rlal. 4. nuts and bob are Steps.mud. Make sure all ri& and pints. Inspect upon receipt and befws each use: never climb a damaged.oil. Keep step stool dean. W SET ALL FOUR FEtT ON FIRM LEVEL SURFACE.t e e tom grease. 2. and braces %E SBCUIB. 10 65 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . WEAR SUP-RESISTANT SHOES.

2 Make sure all rivets. PROPER CARE AND STORAGE 1. Use both hands in dlmbing. me m sde. Select ladders wwin the following: TWE ~ I I A l DLmR4llNG WORKINGW SPECIAL OW 375 lbs. Dastmy ladder Ibmken. PROPER SET-UP 1 DANGER! METAL CONDUCT ELECTRICW! Do not let U d m of any material come in amtact with live electreai wires. inspea upon receipt and before each use.p4atbrmaplank. 2. keep body centeredbetween side nik. whose wdgM Muding mateMlsandtookisrmtmaethanmewakingloadon the NOTICEsign on this lackief. 9.E N G L American National Standard A14. P t e on a firm surface and a securetoating.Keep your shoes clean. SeCrreWnktolaMecbefureeaduse. Do not me on slippery swfaces. 10. M are subject to faintingspells. PROPER CLIMBING AND USE SEI ALL FOUR FEEI ON FIRM LEVEL SURFACE. Marking No. Keep M e r dean. 13 l . Keep ladder dose to rmk.or are using medicine or alcd~olor are physically impaired. 5. 14 66 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . To proteet children.Do rot phce on boxes.spreaders. 3. Mdcesureladderisfullyopenand?pear!mpeaderssearre. M & v a semnd rung from top of ladder.~~ zooo m 0724350 0559030 3~11. 7. 2. never climb a damaged. 4.free from grease. Keep~rdeanmdfofallíueignmal8riak Marking No.m S T D . h "ML"M "pe"h& when wing On fi. 8. Never make tempwary repairs of damagedM missing m. wwn or t exposed to fire or chemicalwmion. 2.A N S IA L W . move ladder Menneeded.Al parts must be in ~JOKI working order. 3. fab l w Ihsbwtimm plank. oil. WEAR SUP-RESISTANT SHOES. 3. 3. ~ l W p l a c ~ p ~ k & W V E s e m n d N r g ~ m t D p .2-2000 KEEP BODY CENTERED BETWEEN SIDE RAILS. leathersoles should not be used. DO rot overreach. unStable bases M scaffolds to gain addMrmal height. p m ~ e m e n 5. s g u e M g y ~ t o . DO ilCds$nd. simultan w . UsepoperlysecuredthiiWertomessplank. 3. Roperly w x r e and summt ladder while in mtt Never stae rnateds on bdder. \ IA I INSPECTION l . SPREADERS u 2. INDUSTRIAL-HEAW 250 lbs. IMWKTANTThis W a d d e s r is dffigned to wppxt. SpeadwS. avoid pushirg M pllling off to the side of l a d d e n . wet paintand other slippery material. DO N M EXCEED WORKING LOAD PER SIDE. INDUSTRIAL-EXTRA HEAW 300 lbs. nuts. dimb M Sit WaCeS. spreaders funcmn properly. bentM broken !adder. - TRESTLE LAODER FOR YOUR SAFETY READ CAREFULLY PROPER SELECTION l . 4. and bolts are tight NW. and braces art! secure. Seles! ladder of poper l e m to reach working height 2. FOR SCAFFOLD USE 1. snow.pink. DONOTUSELADDERS i! you t i e easily. Oarotarerload. 3. Never dimb W e r h m me side unless ladder is secured against side-wise motan. Facea l &Men dimbing up M down. Donot place in fmnt of d m opening toward ladder. mud. 4. DO NOT OVER-REACH. 5. Weladderinsafeanddryplace. 4. Maintain a firm grip. do not leave ladder W up and Unattended. 6.Donotuseasbrace.

2-ENGL 0724150 0557033 2 8 8 2000 m American National Standard A14.2-2000 MANUFACTURER'S iNSTRUCTIONS ANDIOR GRAPHICS DEPiCTlNGLOCKiNG MECHANISMS MANUFACTURER'S GRAPHICS SHOWING USESIPOSITIONS Marking No. 16 67 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . 17 ~ ~~ Marking No.STD-ANSI AL4.

m e laws when needsd. Keep w r shoes clean. steps. 9. pmitim per man&Crer's insinAhm before climbing. 2. THE LOCKING MECHANISM MUST BE ENGAGED BEFORE USING LADDER. 4. Do not ovaload. keep oantered between side mils. DO NOT USELADDERS if y w tire easily. Place on a firm levei Surface with a secure footing. 4. 4. If equipped w n casters. Desboy ladder if brmcen. rungs. lock in proper pition before climbing. If equkved w R oumiggers. bentN tmken Iader. Marking No. 5.unstable bæes or scaffolds to gain additional height Do not place in hunt of door opening toward Uder. joints. 19 PROPER CARE ANO STORAGE 1. Select ladders within the following: TYPE IAA IA I II KEEP BODY CENTERED BETWEEN SIDE RAILS. 7. snow. Do rot "walk" or "W ladder when standing on R 8. Keep laddec dean and free of all M i n materials. piatkm. UNLOCKED PROPER CLIMBING ANO USE 1. or are subjea to fainting spelk. To protect children. Use boa hands in dimbing. 5.dimbwsitcnbraces. speadesandplaawm hinge k~nctm popenl. free from grease. worn or if exposed to fire a chemical corrosion. Marking No. 2. Use extreme caution when pushing a pulling anythirg while on the Mer. 6. Make sure ladder is fuly open. Navw climb ladder frmn the side unlaSS Wer is secured against side-wise motion. Do not wmeach.American National Standard A14.speaderscn any surfaca Mgher thanthe platfum. M plank. 10. 3. Maintain a fim I&. 3. DANGER! METAL CONDUCTSELECTRICITY! Do not let ladders of any material come in contact with llve elemita¡ wires. AIparts must be in good working order. or are physically impaired. WEAR SUP-RESISTANT SHOES. Inspect upan receipt and before each use. 3.FOR YOUR SAFETY REA0 CAREFULLY PROPER SELECTION 1. DO NOT OVER-REACH. Do not W on slippery surfaces. INDUSTRIAL-HEAW 250 lbs. HINGE OPERATION INSPECTION l . nuts and bo16 are tight. Do not place on h e s . INDUSTRIAL-EXTRA HEAW 300 lbs. mud. spreaders and/or datform are secure. 3. wet paint and m e r slippery material. Make Sure all r i v e t s . do rot leme ladder set up and UlTaltded. ADDmoNAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROPER CAREAND USE OF THE LOCKIHINGE M E C W I S M ACCORDING TO THE TWEEACH MANUFACTURER EMPLOYS IN THE LADDER. Select ladderof proper length to reach working height 2. 5. COMMERCIAL-MEDIUM 225 lbs. braces. 20 . never cilmb a damaged. Never make tempwary repairs of damaged or missing parts. 18 68 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services Marking No. leather soles should not beused. and platformsare SEXE. oil. ROperly secure and suppwt W r while in bansit. me ladder whendimbing up IXdorm. Do not use æ brace. IMPORTANT:Ladders are designed to support me person plus materials andtools not more than the wollting hadon the notice sun on this ladder. Dorotstand. Nwer store materials m ladder.LaWers are meant fw one parson. MANUFACTURER'S GRAPHIC DRA WING LOCKED MANUFACTURER'S GRAPHIC DRAWING PROPER SET-UP 1. 3. Keep ladder clean. SEC A U FOUR FEET ON flRM LEVEL SURFACE. 2. Streladderhsafoanddrjplace. MANUFACTURER'S INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE DUlYMTlNG WORKING LOAD SPECIALDUTY 375 lbs. or are u s n lg medicine or alcohol. spreaders. 4. 2.2-2000 PLATFORM LADDER .

Marking No. 21 Marking No.FOR YOUR SAFETY READ CAREFULLY USE LADDERS ONLY IN Ladder Size Type and/or Duty Rating POSITIONS SHOWN. USE IN ANOTHER POSITION ~~ Maximum Working Length (If extension Ladder) TWE IA I II 111 WTr RATING INDUSTRIAL-MRA HEAW mwWNG UW INWSTRIbL-HEAW 250 lbs. 200 lbs.2-2000 ~ MICULATED LADOER . Highest Standing Level Total Length of Sections (If extension Ladder) MAY RESULT IN DEATH OR SERIOUS INJURY. 225 lb.American National Standard A14. 23 SHORT STEP UDDER ADDmONAL POSmolyS MAY BE ADDED ACCORDING To THE CAPABILITIES OF EACH PRODUC7 THAT MEETAPPUMBLE TEST PROTOCOLSAND SPECIFIMTION~ OF THIS STANDARD.MEOIUM HOUSEHOD-LIGHT 300 lb. 22 69 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . Model Numberor Name Manufacturer or Distributor Name Manufacturing Plant(If multiplant organization) LADDER Month and Year of Manufacture 4 ANSI Standards Compliance Warranty DOUBLE LADDER If Warranty Offered OVERHANG LADDER Marking No. COMMERCW.

reviewed and the placement ofthe 1abeVmarkingillustrations in the approved by theA14 standards committee. the labeldmarkings. 24 Appendix C formatting text with the use of numbers or alphabet or both. To clarify this issue as definitively as with this definition . Use of the word illustrarelate to the illustrations of more detailed andapparently tion has been specifically chosen. except for technical therein is construed in the broadest sense as offering information in the text. arrowspointing out locations or direction. The use of of the labeldmarkings placed on portable ladders. One which keepsreappearing and has requiredperiodic Underscoring the above position is the description of revisiting is the labeling/marking requirements as these labels/markings as illustrations. there have been a number of interpretations technical information thus meeting the requirements of various requirements within the A14 ladder standards. The dictating exact duplication. are not requiredto be exact designers or buyers general guidance.As 1abeld. Coupled Appendix B. buyer. rather than duplications of those following Appendix B. specific labels/markingsin the appendix following which is defined as an example and explanation. of the standardfor label/marking. based upon its meaning.markings appendix and the illustrations contained illustrations. and its applicable requirements. and style ofexpression need not be followed The interpretation below represents thecommittee’s exactly butrather is left to the discretion of the developview of understanding properlythe use of labels/ er of the IabeVmarkingor as ordered by a labellmarking marking in the appendices of this standard. is provided: appendix since appendices are not part of the standard Interpretation but explanations and elaboration of the standard.is possible the following interpretation.2-2000 I Marking No.STD=ANSI A34-2-ENGL2000 m 0724350 0559034 American National Standard A14. in creating signs or graphics of the labeldmarkings including figures of users. 70 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .and lending emphasis to it. Such textor verbiage can be added or presented more cogently as long as the broad general intent of the Preface labellmarking is achieved without changing the basic Over the years.the referred to labeldmarkings are stating throughillustration and explanation how requireillustrations only and notintended to be exact renditions ments of the standard can be implemented. labeldmarkings for portable ladders. Inthe traditional structuring While the requirements in the body of the portable ladder and developmentof standards the use of the appendix standards for labeldmarking are keyed to specifically was also specifically chosen as a recognized means of numbered markings.

. A notice of action taken will be forwarded to those issuing substantive comments.S T D .(Each comment must include a rationale) Mail or fax to: ALI Headquarters. 401 N..527. Michigan.P lease copy this form for additionalcommentsl Comment.. It shall be the responsibility of those wishing to comment on a proposed standardto complete all sections of this form. Please complete theinformation below Date Standard ## Title Name OrganizatiodCompany City/ State/ Phone Fax Zip Only one comment per form. The appropriate SubCommittee will reviewall comments received.A N SA I /LI=Z-ENGL 2000 9 07t4150 0559035 9 2 3 9 American National Standard A14.(Please be specific) Rationale.2-2000 ANSI A14 Comment Form This form shall serve as the official responseform for comments on A14 Standards.. Illinois. 60611 Fax: 312.6705 71 COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services . . Chicago..

sba. Illinois 6061 1 Telephone: 312-644-6610 FAX: 312-527-6705 http://ali.A M E R I C A N L A D DIENRS T I T U T E A NationalTradeAssociation 401 North Michigan Avenue Chicago.com/ali COPYRIGHT American National Standards Institute Licensed by Information Handling Services .