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Excelet

Radiometric Dating
A variety of long-lived radioactive isotopes can be used
to determine the age of geological materials.
Let's examine how this is done for the parent nuclide, P, decaying to the daughter nuclide, D!

Click on the tabs to navigate !!!

time passes ----->

Place cursor in cell above!

Parent Decay to Daughter

At time t = 0, P = Po = 100

t=

0.0

number, N, of:
time line
0
0

N

0

P

----->

50

0 increase the time (click up arrow)
P
100

D
0

100
0
half-life intervals
-50.0
0
-50.0
100
-50
-50

100

time

150

D/P
0.00

0
100
-50
-50

0
100

200

250

D

At time t = 0, only parent isotope is present.
This starts the clock!

0 intervals on graph
add half-life

Sinex 2010

x
3

y
4.5

4.5

y
-1

time
0

time
0

100

0

5 10.5162582 81.69 5.5 5.5 4 7 8 7.189652 18.080316 10.5 5 7 2 10 8 8.5 9 5 9 5.529889 14.65 10.268352 16.5 6.881164 49.810348 81.5 1.346934 45.5 2 5 2 5 2 -1 -1 1 2 10 20 1.34147 55.918178 32.65 10.126925 74.974116 90.5 8 2 3 2.5 9.212056 66.4 3.6 6.5 2 6.5 1.4 3.245643 11.5 2 6 4 10 8 10 6 9 4.754357 88.6 5 9.119421 27.081822 32005 53066 54.5 4.65853 932896 56966 787944 33.5 4.025884 9.466472 87.118836 50.287108 30.470111 85.box 1 11 11 1 1 1 1 11 11 1 10.5 1.76 3.746821 75.712892 69.7915 .5 5 7 2 10 8 8.340304 77.5 2 6 4 10 8 10 6 9 4.533528 12.873075 18.880579 72.043138 86.5 8 2 3 2.5 10.928205 91.919684 89.731648 83.67 1.956862 13.52 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 83742 9.967995 39.0717953 084999 25.5 6 8.253179 59696 22.5 4 3 2 8 7 9 10 7 9 10 3.69 5.067104 59.686984 79.313016 20.5 6 8.52 5 9.343034 63.

64 8.03 5.24 8.7 7.55 8.83 3.6.2 9.6 8.6 10.73 3.23 4.73 8.07 10.77 9.12 2.94 3.6 6.87 5.5 1.03 8.5 1.95 3.92 1.95 6.78 6.52 1.78 6.34 9.95 3.95 3.66 1.43 9.12 8.23 4.51 6.69 9.97 6.28 6.28 6.55 9 5 7.34 2.71 7.13 8.6 6.75 10.86 2.22 8.83 3.5 6.8 3.15 -1 -1 32 33 4.86 2.15 9.92 1.23 3.04 2.83 4.7 7.95 3.5 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 .52 1.87 5.28 7 8.73 3.95 6.37 10.12 5.24 8.27 8.12 10.77 9.69 9.33 6.75 10.55 9 5 7.2 2.83 4.34 9.45 9.2 2.73 6.73 8.22 8.23 3.66 1.48 7.04 2.46 4.

4 4.97 7.63 6.36 8.4 2.22 9.96 10.4 9.62 4.22 7.5 5.7 3.4 4.73 7.31 6.49 1.31 6.24 9.03 10 10 4.67 6.4 9.34 2.82 5.77 2.08 7.5 10 5.66 1.4 7.24 9.88 7.83 1.67 2.64 8.83 7.48 5.97 7.11 1.4 6.8 2.82 8 6.12 5.32 2.37 10.34 2.34 2.75 3.78 4.5.66 1.4 7.7 3.2 5.6 8.36 8.5 5.83 7.11 1.48 5.34 2.96 10.12 5.55 2.33 7.2 2.49 6.49 1.4 1.57 10.49 6.23 3.97 1.84 9.55 2.28 5.82 -1 -1 63 64 2.2 5.62 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 .23 10.73 7.63 6.37 10.8 2.8 3.88 7.64 8.77 3.05 5.4 2.52 1.23 3.

37 4.92 -1 -1 94 95 5.5 8.76 4.92 2.44 2.37 4.47 4.18 3.5.5 10.18 3.47 4.18 6.76 4.5 4 5.5 -1 -1 -1 -1 96 97 98 99 .78 10.

1817053 0.4 Setting the Clock At t = 0. D Pb-206 decay mode 8a.00E+00 1. initial amount of parent.3378224 0.866738 0.1436136 0.84439 0.114124 0.60E+10 age.7333977 0.00E+098.00E+10 1.00E+094. Po. is set and we assume Do = 0.0977342 D 0 0.1676971 0. t (years) age.710693 0. t = 1.20E+10 1.143614 0.818295 0.662178 0.00E+09 8.266602 0.2477582 0.50E+10 How does the D/P ratio vary over time? k = 1.00E+002.00E+09 9.539374 0.6 0.00E+10 1.00E+09 10 Sinex 2010 daughter decay mode The daughter.605526 0.8563864 0.20E+10 1.4606265 0.00E+09 6.2 1 0.47E+09 years Decay reaction P ---> D U .00E+096.00E+09 D 0.8 N/No D/P 0.885876 0.787823 0.00E+09 1.Decay and the D/P ratio 9 t 0.00E+09 7.3944743 0.5378722 0.752242 0.2 0 0.1332623 0.00E+09 2.30E+10 1.55E-010 yr-1 P 1 0.2121768 0. 6b adjust time to follow D/P ratio What is the D/P at one half-life? half-life 1.15561 0.00E+09 4.2893065 0.8563864 .10E+10 1.462128 0.40E+10 1.238 1 select parent isotope 1.00E+09 5.6280719 0.371928 0.40E+10 1.902266 t1/2 = 4. isotope 1.00E+09 3.00E+09 P 0.00E+09 1.

28E+09 Pb-208 Sr-87 Nd-143 Ar-40    EC from: White.edu/geology/classes/Chapters/Chapter08.pdf .07E+08 Pb-206 Pb-207   3 4 5 6 Th .06E+11 1.cornell.238 U .1 2 U .geo.87 Sm .147 K .232 Rb .47E+09 7.40 1. Geochemistry (2009) Chapter 8 online http://www.235 4.80E+10 1.40E+10 4.

decay mode .

.

235 -2.00E+07 8.00E+07 8.00E+07 1.60E+08 increase Do age.10E+08 1.Using the D/P Ratio to Determine the Age 7 t 1. Age 1.00E+00 D/P Suppose Do -2.00E+00 0.00E+07 4.00E+07 5.30E+08 1.00E+07 4.00E+08 1.00E+00 Age 1.02 -2.0298426 0.1 -2.0197974 0.14 -2.1359005 0.0502307 0.06 -2.00E+00 0.00E+00 0. How does the D/P ratio behave over time? select parent isotope Parent Isotope t1/2 = 7.00E+08 1.00E+00 -2.12 -2.08 -2.1029846 0. t (years) 0 as assumed 0 use approximation What happens if the initial amount of daughter is not zero as assumed? Sinex 2010 isotope half-life 0 .092226 0.00E+00 0.00E+07 2.07E+08 years 2 U .00E+00 0.00E+07 6.0710226 0.20E+08 1.00E+00 0.40E+08 1.0605757 0.40E+08 1.20E+08 1.00E+07 7.02E+07 years %Error 0.50E+08 k = 9.00E+07 1.1138492 0.16 -2.1248208 0.1583884 The D/P can be measured by mass spectrometry.80E-010 yr-1 D/P 0.0 0 0.00E+00 0.1470893 0.00E+00 -2.04 -2.00E+07 6.00E+00 0.0399867 0.00E+07 3.00E+00 D/P 0.0815723 0.18 -2.00E+07 9.00E+00 2.02E+07 years -2.0098502 0.00E+00 0.01 -2.00E+00 is not zero.

28E+09 .235 4.40E+10 4.47E+09 7.40 1.07E+08 3 4 5 6 Th .238 U .80E+10 1.1 2 U .06E+11 1.232 Rb .87 Sm .147 K .

.Suppose Do is not zero.

.

0713751 0.6E+07 0 0.0504777 0.0156309 206 D/P plot for each pair Pb/235U 9.0E+08 1.0E+07 5.0926883 0.015 4.6E+07 4.0E+07 1.0109162 0.6E-02 0.0E+07 7.6E+07 0. 4. adjust the time scale.0460473 6.0E+07 1.005 4.6E+07 766 1.0124853 0.0E+00 2.0062233 0. 207 0.0093494 0.0071146 460473 0.0E+07 8.0140569 0.0031068 0.0401823 0.U-Pb Dating of Zircons 7 time 1.0071146 0.0E+00 0.0299878 0.060875 0.0198933 0.0E-02 If line goes off data.2E-01 Age of sample 4.08 0.04 0.1035034 207 1.9E-03 0.02 0.1 0.0E-02 0 0.2E+08 time. years Pb/235U 4.0E+07 6.02 The lower plot shows one isotope pair plotted against the other isotope pair.0E+07 2.0E+07 8.0E-02 2.0E+07 3.0E+08 Pb/238U 1.6E-03 0.0E+07 4.0E+07 6.0819792 0. This plot is called the concordia diagram.0071146 460473 0 0 0 0.1E-03 206 0.06 207Pb/235U 0.0E-02 Pb/238U 7.01 4.0E-01 8.6E+07 206Pb/238U 0.0E+07 9.12 Sinex 2010 .0E+07 4.0E-02 Pb/U 6.0046638 0.0077851 0. This is for a closed system with no lead loss from the zircons.

It just is not that simple! .

Sinex 2010 .

0282 1. .5 1. Sinex 2010 http://hyperphysics.61 0.6 0.phy-astr.1692 4.000 87 0.61 intercept line 1.000 0.3026163 7962522 87Sr/86Sr 0.2538 points at t = 0 point at later time 5.61 0.html 61 The slope of this plot is the D/P corrected for any D from other sources.0846 2.3590116 7430373 3. and D on the graph are various mineral separates of the rock. t.61 0.5 5 intercept = 0.6946 0. The value of k is a constant for any P-D system.415407 898224 2.44E-011 yr-1 Rb/86Sr 0.415407 898224 0. From a plot of D/S as a function of P/S: 1.8494671 0.61 yields the Do/S A line where the slope only depends on time. is called an isochron.7792 0.000 2. t (yr) 3.61 1.3026163 7962522 2 462209 2.000 3.5 0.000 4.8494671 3 3.7510 0.5 0.5 4.5 0.0564 2.8638 0.500 2.3 0 Rb -----> 87 0 1.Examining the Rb-Sr Isochron Consider a rock as shown here.61 0. B.500 1.1128 3.1974 462209 0.61 1.056 yields the age Why ratio to a stable nuclide? answer The idea for this is from: 0.7228 0.6664 0.5 3.2820 87 Sr/86Sr 0.8920 0.610 4 4.5 0.edu/hbase/nuclear/clkroc.500 3.9 0.8356 0.61 0 A.2256 0.5 1 slope = 0.5 2. C.500 4.500 0.3590116 7430373 0 0.5 0.80E+10 years k = 1.000 1.61 5 0.1410 3.80E+09 38 Sro/86Sr 87 0.2 0.5 0.gsu.61 0.6382 0.61 0.8074 0.5 0. t1/2 = 4.5 87Rb/86Sr Sr + - 87 How does the age and 87Rbo/86Sr influence the isochron? age.

he isochron? .

4034725 1.7 0.4 0.4000 0.5000 0.403 D/S 1.4 age.1 0.4008681 1.4039066 1.397 0 0.4043406 Here are a variety of radiogenic isotopes used for dating.401 1.1000 0.Watch these!!! yields the Do/S Try solving the two examples on the assess and assess II tabs! Sinex 2010 isotope half-life .8000 0.9000 1.4 1.004 yields the age Beware the y-axis.399 Do/S 1.2000 0.5 0.4030385 1. D/S rescales with isotope selected and age! intercept = 1.4017363 1. t (yr) 3.8 0.405 How does the age and Do/S influence 1.404 the isochron? intercept line 0 1 1.4 14 1.6000 0.7000 0.Plotting an Isochron P/S 0.4013022 1.402 1.4 1.4021703 1.0000 D/S 1. Parent Isotope t1/2 = 4.6 0.80E+10 years Rb .44E-011 yr-1 4 select parent isotope 1.3000 0.0000 0.00E+08 3 1.4 1.4004341 1.3 0.4026044 1.2 0.40 <----.87 k = 1.9 1 P/S From a plot of D/S as a function of P/S: slope = 0.398 1.

147 K .232 Rb .47E+09 7.06E+11 1.40E+10 4.1 2 U .40 1.235 4.07E+08 3 4 5 6 Th .87 Sm .80E+10 1.238 U .28E+09 .

y-axis. D/S .

.

1678 0. The Task: 1.1773 D/S Nd/144Nd 143 0. Was the Ndo = 0? Explain why or why not.51227 0.51185 0.51232 were analzyed. 143 Sinex 2010 Data from: http://www.Metagabbro from Cana Brava complex in central Brazil Two different whole rock samples and mineral separates P/S Sm/144Nd 147 pyroxene plagioclase whole rock whole rock plagioclase biotite 0.cornell. 3.1819 0.51232 0. Determine the age of the volcanic rocks.51235 0.pdf .0763 0.51172 0.edu/geology/classes/Geo656/ProblemSets/656_05PS03Solution. Perform a linear regression on the data. Plot an isochron for the Sm - 147 Nd data. Show the calculations.1691 0. 4. Report the equation. 143 2.0609 0.geo.

050 3.70914 0. 3.230 3.7071 0. Was the Sro = 0? Explain why or why not.7093 0. Show the calculations. 87 Sinex 2010 Data from: http://serc.600 2. P/S Rb/ Sr 1.250 4. Report the equation. Plot an isochron for the Rb - 87 Sr data.xls .170 4.carleton. 4. Perform a linear regression on the data.7078 0.711 0.340 4.edu/files/NAGTWorkshops/petrology/teaching_examples/rb-sr_isochrons.7106 0.410 87 86 D/S Sr/86Sr 0. Determine the age of the volcanic rocks. 87 2.7113 87 The Task: 1.Volcanic rocks from the Ritter Range in California Seven samples were collected and analyzed.