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8/19/2015

A

20

10

D

5

15

15

Line
AB
CB
CA

5

45

40
B

30

A

7

1st trial

r

LOOP ABC
Q
rQ2
6
15
4
30
8
5
∑=

D

9-3 = 6

19

Correction for loop ABC

15
Line
CD
CA

8

45

40
B

180
240
80
500

C
∆Q =

20

2rQ
-1350
3600
-200
2050

r

Q
rQ2
2rQ
6
5
-150
60
7
10
700
140
8
5
200
80
∑=
750
280

Correction for loop ABC

C

26

-4.1 ≈ - 4

∆Q = -2.67857 ≈ - 3
8/19/2015

63

2nd trial

A

20

7

D

9-3 = 6

19

15
Line
AB
CB
CA

8

r

LOOP ABC
Q
rQ2
2rQ
6
19
-2166
228
4
26
2704
208
8
6
-288
96
∑=
250
532

Correction for loop ABC

45

40
B

20

A

26
6.1

D

6.5-0.9 = 5.6

19.5

∆Q = -0.46992≈ - 0.5

C
15

8.9

Line
CD
CA

r

Q
rQ2
2rQ
6
8
-384
96
7
7
343
98
8
6
288
96
∑=
247
290

Correction for loop ABC

45
64

40
B

25.5

C

∆Q = -0.85172≈ - 0.9 8/19/2015

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5 234 4 25.9 = 5.6 19.6 -250.62 527.0.8 A 20 5.9 45 Correction for loop ABC 15 40 B 25.1 D 6.26 mm).9 -475.13 = 5.5-0.13006 ≈ .47 85.03 Correction for loop ABC 45 40 B ∆Q = -0.88 89.8 7 6.6 19.12807 ≈ .63 15 9.13 25.97 D 5.6 ∑= 68.5 8.28 m3/s 100 m 0.37 C 8/19/2015 65 Network Analysis  Find the flows in the loop given the inflows and outflows.0.6 ∑= 36.32 m3/s A B C D 0.5 2601 204 8 5.6 6.4 8 5.6 250.10 m3/s 0.13 Line CD AD CA r LOOP ADC Q rQ2 2rQ 6 8.5 C ∆Q = -0.5 -2281.88 89.73-0.26 106.09 281. 0.  The pipes are all 25 cm cast iron (ε=0.14 m3/s 200 m 66 8/19/2015 2 .8/19/2015 A 3rd trial 20 Line AB CB CA r LOOP ABC Q rQ2 2rQ 6 19.1 260.

k =169 k1 =   5 2 m5 2 4  (9.14 m8/19/2015 3 .10 m3/s C h f = −0.00 0.25) π  0.28 m3/s B A 0.32 m3/s 0.7m 1  8 fL  hf =  5 2  Q 2  gD π  h f = 0.04 C 0.222m 2 f=0.10 67 8/19/2015 Network Analysis  Calculate the head loss in each pipe h f = 34.10 m3/s 0.02 for Re>200000 3 Sign convention +CW h f = kQ Q 2 k1.32 0.28 m3/s 2 4 68 h f = −3.53m i=1 0.02)(200)   = 339 s k .8)(0.00m 4 4 ∑h fi = 31.k3=339  8(0.39m 3 D 3/s 0.32 m3/s A 1 B 0.8/19/2015 Network Analysis  Assign a flow to each pipe link  Flow into each junction must equal flow out of the junction arbitrary 0.14 m3/s D 0.

02 0. 70 8/19/2015 4 .575 Solution to Loop Problem Q 0 + ∆Q 0.00 8/19/2015 31.14 m3/s Better solution is software with a GUI showing the pipe network.000 f 0.040 339 -0.32 0.69 0.25 k Q0 Q0+∆Q 339 0.04 0.  the numbers in bold were entered.27 -3.202 C 0.062 0.8/19/2015 Numeric Solver  Set up a spreadsheet as shown below.39 0.02 0.25 0.100 169 0 0.062 −0.218 3 D 0.218 −0.32 m3/s 1 A 4 2 0.000 Sum Head Loss 69 hf 34.102 0.25 0.202 −0.320 169 0.25 0. the other cells are calculations  initially ∆Q is 0  use “solver” to set the sum of the head loss to 0 by changing ∆Q  the column Q0+ ∆Q contains the correct flows ∆Q pipe P1 P2 P3 P4 0.102 0.1 -0.02 L 200 100 200 100 D 0.10 m3/s 0.02 0.28 m3/s B 0.

8/19/2015 71  Gradual closure of the valve  Rapid closure of the valve  Other causes  Pump startup can cause the rapid collapse of a void space that exists downstream from a starting pump. This phenomenon of sudden rise in pressure in the pipe is known as water hammer or hammer blow.8/19/2015 Water Hammer in pipes  When the water flowing in a long pipe is suddenly brought to rest by closing the valve or by any similar cause.  Pump power failure can create a rapid change in flow. which causes a pressure upsurge on the suction side and a pressure downsurge on the discharge side. there will be a sudden rise in pressure due to the momentum of moving water being destroyed. Water Hammer Analogy 72 8/19/2015 5 .

8/19/2015  Gradual closure of the valve  Axial force available to produce retardation pi × a  Mass of liquid contained in the pipe w (a × L ) g  Force bringing retardation = mass × acceleration/retardation = w V − 0 waLV = ( aL ) × g t gt pi × a = 73 p waLV LV ⇒ i = gt w gt 8/19/2015 Transmission of pressure wave along a pipe due to instantaneous closure of valve 74 8/19/2015 6 .

8/19/2015  dqc = volume by which the liquid is compressed due to pressure         pi dqe = additional volume provided by the stretching of the pipe walls under pressure pi dD = resulting increase in pipe diameter dt = time for pressure wave to traverse the pipe T = wall thickness of pipe E = Young’s modulus for the material of the pipe K = bulk modulus for the liquid ft = tensile hoop stress in pipe walls due to pressure pi 1/m = Poisson’s ratio 8/19/2015 75  Instantaneous closure of the valve π 2 dQ = 4 × D × dL dD π  π 2 dqe =  (D + dD ) − D2  L = πD L 4  2 4 And dqc = pi π 2 DL K 4 Hoop strain dD f t  1  = 1 −  D E  2m  Hoop stress ft = ∴ dD = 76 pi D 2T pi D 2  1  1 −  2TE  2m  ∴ And 1  dD pi D  = 1 −  D 2TE  2m  dqe = pi D 2  1  π DL 1 −  2TE  2m  2 8/19/2015 7 .

8/19/2015  But dQ = dqe + dqc π 4 × D 2 × dL = pi π 2 p D2  1  π DL D L + i 1 −  2TE  2m  2 k 4 1 D  1  dL = pi L  + 1 −  k TE m   2   Again pi = dL = Vdt Vdt 1 D  1  L + 1 −   k TE  2m   ∴ pi = 77 But dt = wLV gpi V g 1 D  1  + 1 −   w  k TE  2m   8/19/2015  Velocity of the compression wave V0 = 78 L = dt g 1 D  1  w + 1 −   k TE  2m   8/19/2015 8 .

8/19/2015 Water Hammer in pipes  Critical time: T0 = 2L V0 pi =  Gradual closure of the valve (T > T0) wVL gt  Rapid closure of the valve (T ≤ T0) pi = V0 = 79 L = dt V g1 D  1  + 1 −  w  K TE  2m   g 1 D  1  w + 1 −  K TE 2 m     pi = For rigid pipes V0 = For rigid pipes V g 1    w K  L = dt =V wK g g K = ρ 1 w   K 8/19/2015  Water Hammer in pipes  As an approximation if Poisson’s ratio is not considered pi = V V0 = g1 D + w  K TE   INERTIA HEAD. then hi = 80 pi ∆VV0 = ⇒ pi = ρ∆VV0 w g 8/19/2015 9 . hi = L = dt g 1 D w +  K TE  pi VL VV0 = = w gdt g Allievi Formula  If the valve is rapidly closed partially such that the velocity of flow changes from V to V1.

= 0.43 × 103 MPa).07 × 10   = 876 m/s 8/19/2015 10 .0 m/s to 1.20 × 10 9 = 1483.gr. Neglect Poisson’s ratio.5 m diameter carrying kerosene (sp.8/19/2015 Problems  A valve is suddenly closed at the downstream end of a 0.24 = 4.24 m/s 1000 p i = ρ∆ VV 0 = 1000 × 3 × 1483.90 m diameter pipeline carrying water in such a manner that the velocity is decreased from 4.80.0 m/s instantaneously. Assume the pipe to be rigid and K for water = 2.5   1000  + 9 11  1.45 M P a 8/19/2015 81 Problems  Calculate the velocity of propagation of a pressure wave in a steel pipe (E = 2. V0 = K = ρ 2.02 × 2.43 × 10 0.20 × 103 MPa pi = ρ∆VV0 For rigid pipes. V0 = 82 L = dt g 1 D w +  K TE  = 1 1 2. K = 1.07 × 105 MPa) of 2. Estimate the maximum pressure rise at the valve. The pipe thickness is 2 cm.45 × 10 6 Pa= 4.

15 s V0 928.81 = 1287 kPa Total pressure = 1077. time of closure should be more than critical time.1 = 1.415 m/s × 0. The static head at the outlet is 160 m of oil.1 × 105 kPa < ft So.2 × 0. CONSIDERING INSTANTANEOUS CLOSURE OF THE VALVE Velocity of the pressure wave. V0 = g 1 D w +  K TE  = 1 0.2 + 1287 = 2364.38 8/19/2015 11 .82 × 1000 × 9.003 But working stress = 0.3  1  0. If the working stress of steel is 0. Also calculate the rise of pressure within the pipe if the valve is closed in 3 s.415 × 928. T0 = 84 2 L 2 × 1000 = = 2.14 × 1011 Pa. find out whether the pipe will be able to withstand instantaneous closure of the valve. gr.003 × 2. For oil: K = 1 × 109 Pa and for steel: E = 2.32 8/19/2015 Solution contd… Inertia pressure developed p i = ρ∆ VV 0 = 0. The pipe is 1000 m long and conveys a flow of 100 l/s of oil (sp.82 × 1000 × 1.82).2 kPa Static pressure = 160 × 0.1 kN/mm2.38 = 1077.8/19/2015 Problems  A steel pipeline is 30 cm in diameter and has a wall thickness of 3 mm.82 ×1000  9 + 11 10 . V= 83 π 4 0.2 kPa Stress developed in the pipe.14 ×10  = 928. ft = pi D 2364.3 = = 1.18 × 105 kPa 2T 2 × 0.38 m/s Velocity of flow. = 0.

25-in thick walls. reducing the velocity to 6 fps. E = 2.2 × 109 Pa for water.059 kN/mm2] Water flows at 10 fps in a 400 ft long steel pipe of 8-in diameter with 0. The pipe thickness is 6 mm. Complete closure.8 kPa gt 3 8/19/2015 85 Practice Problems (Water Hammer)  A 20 cm steel pipe is 1500 m long and conveys 50 L/s of water     86 with a static head of 200 m at the downstream end of the pipe. ft = 0.82 ×1.415 × 1000 = = 386. estimate the stress in the pipe wall at the valve.8/19/2015 Solution contd… Pressure rise for valve closure in 3 s pi = wVL 1000 × 0. [K = 2. pi = 79. If a valve at the downstream end is closed in 3 s.800 psf.] 8/19/2015 12 . [Ans. V0 = 4110 ft/s.600 psf. Partial closure. Calculate the critical time & maximum pressure rise theoretically caused by instantaneously closing the end valve a) completely b) partially. pi = 31.11 × 1011 Pa for steel] [Ans.

17  For the network shown below.8/19/2015 Practice Problems (Hardy Cross)  Refer TEXT Book MODI and SETH. B 100 units r=2 r=4 r=1 20 units C 30 units A r=1 r=5 D 50 units 8/19/2015 87 B 100 units 57. and the discharge into or out of various nodes are shown in the sketch.1 20.3 D 50 units 88 8/19/2015 13 . Illustrative example 11. The values of r for each pipe. The discharges are in an arbitrary unit.9 20 units 42.7 17. the head loss is given by hf = rQ2.6 C 30 units A 32. Obtain the distribution of discharge in the network.