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Benha University
Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra

Lecture #3
BJT Biasing Circuits
Instructor:

October 2014

ECE-312
Electronic Circuits (A)

Transistor DC Bias Configurations

Design Operations
Various BJT Circuits
Troubleshooting Techniques & Bias Stabilization
Practical Applications

Operating Point

ECE-312 , Lec#3 , Oct 2014

Agenda

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• Basic Relationships/formulas for a transistor:

Biasing means applying of dc voltages to establish a fixed level of
current and voltage. >>> Q-Point

• Any increase in ac voltage, current, or power is the result of a
transfer of energy from the applied dc supplies.
• The analysis or design of any electronic amplifier therefore has two
components: a dc and an ac portion.

ECE-312 , Lec#3 , Oct 2014

Introduction

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Transistor Regions Operation:
1. Linear-region operation:
Base–emitter junction forward-biased
Base–collector junction reverse-biased

2. Cutoff-region operation:
Base–emitter junction reverse-biased
Base–collector junction reverse-biased

3.Saturation-region operation:
Base–emitter junction forward-biased
Base–collector junction forward-biased

• For transistor amplifiers the resulting dc current and voltage
establish an operating point on the characteristics that define the
region that will be employed for amplification of the applied signal.
• Because the operating point is a fixed point on the characteristics, it
is also called the quiescent point (abbreviated Q-point).

ECE-312 , Lec#3 , Oct 2014

Operating Point

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Oct 2014 • • • • • • • 5 .© Ahmad El-Banna Fixed-Bias Configuration Emitter-Bias Configuration Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration Collector Feedback Configuration Emitter-Follower Configuration Common-Base Configuration Miscellaneous Bias Configurations TRANSISTOR DC BIAS CONFIGURATIONS ECE-312 . Lec#3 .

• Fixed-bias circuit. Collector–emitter loop. © Ahmad El-Banna • ECE-312 . • Base–emitter loop. Lec#3 . • DC equivalent ct. Oct 2014 Fixed-Bias Configuration 6 .

Lec#3 . Oct 2014 © Ahmad El-Banna Fixed-Bias Configuration Example 7 .ECE-312 .

. Oct 2014 Fixed-Bias Configuration . • Determining ICsat • Determining ICsat for the fixed-bias configuration.• Saturation regions: (a) Actual (b) approximate. © Ahmad El-Banna • Transistor Saturation ECE-312 . 8 . Lec#3 ..

. Lec#3 . Oct 2014 Fixed-Bias Configuration .© Ahmad El-Banna • Load Line Analysis ECE-312 .. 9 .

• Base-Emitter Loop • DC equivalent ct © Ahmad El-Banna • ECE-312 .BJT bias circuit with emitter resistor. Oct 2014 Emitter-Bias Configuration 10 . Lec#3 .

Lec#3 .© Ahmad El-Banna Collector-Emitter Loop ECE-312 . Oct 2014 Emitter-Bias Configuration 11 .

5) ECE-312 .The addition of the emitter resistor to the dc bias of the BJT provides improved stability. Oct 2014 Emitter-Bias Configuration 12 . such as temperature and transistor beta. the dc bias currents and voltages remain closer to where they were set by the circuit when outside conditions. • Saturation Level • Load Line Analysis © Ahmad El-Banna • Improved bias stability (check example 4. change. that is. Lec#3 .

Lec#3 . ECE-312 .• DC components of the voltage-divider configuration. Oct 2014 Voltage-Divider Configuration 13 . • Exact Analysis © Ahmad El-Banna • Voltage-divider bias configuration.

• Transistor Saturation • Load-Line Analysis © Ahmad El-Banna • Approximate Analysis ECE-312 . Oct 2014 Voltage-Divider Configuration 14 . Lec#3 .

ECE-312 . Lec#3 . Oct 2014 © Ahmad El-Banna Voltage-Divider Configuration Example 15 .

Oct 2014 Collector Feedback Configuration 16 . Lec#3 . ECE-312 .• Collector–Emitter Loop • Base–Emitter Loop © Ahmad El-Banna • DC bias circuit with voltage feedback.

Lec#3 . © Ahmad El-Banna • ECE-312 . Oct 2014 Collector Feedback Configuration 17 . The level of IBQ is defined by the chosen bias configuration.Saturation Conditions Using the approximation I’C = IC • Load-Line Analysis Continuing with the approximation I’C = IC results in the same load line defined for the voltage-divider and emitter-biased configurations.

Oct 2014 Emitter-Follower Configuration 18 . Lec#3 .• dc equivalent ct i/p ct o/p ct © Ahmad El-Banna • Common-collecter (emitter-follower) configuration. ECE-312 .

Oct 2014 Common-Base Configuration 19 .Common-base configuration • i/p ct • Determining VCB & VCE © Ahmad El-Banna • ECE-312 . Lec#3 .

ECE-312 . Lec#3 . Oct 2014 © Ahmad El-Banna MISCELLANEOUS BIAS CONFIGURATIONS 20 .

Oct 2014 © Ahmad El-Banna Summary Table 21 .ECE-312 . Lec#3 .

ECE-312 . 22 . Lec#3 . Oct 2014 © Ahmad El-Banna Summary Table..

Oct 2014 © Ahmad El-Banna . Lec#3 .DESIGN OPERATION 23 ECE-312 .

All the elements are in place. Oct 2014 Design Operations 24 . ECE-312 . If the transistor and supplies are specified. • The design process is one where a current and/or voltage may be specified and the elements required to establish the designated levels must be determined. the design process will simply determine the required resistors for a particular design. and it is simply a matter of solving for the current and voltage levels of the configuration. • The design sequence is obviously sensitive to the components that are already specified and the elements to be determined. • Once the theoretical values of the resistors are determined. the nearest standard commercial values are normally chosen and any variations due to not using the exact resistance values are accepted as part of the design. Lec#3 .© Ahmad El-Banna • Discussions thus far have focused on the analysis of existing networks.

Lec#3 . Oct 2014 © Ahmad El-Banna Design Operations Example 25 .ECE-312 .

Lec#3 .. 26 .Design of a Current-Gain-Stabilized (Beta-Independent) Circuit © Ahmad El-Banna • ECE-312 . Oct 2014 Design Operations Example.

© Ahmad El-Banna • • Bipolar Transistor Constant-Current Source Transistor/Zener Constant-Current Source • PNP TRANSISTORS • TRANSISTOR SWITCHING NETWORKS VARIOUS BJT CIRCUITS ECE-312 . Lec#3 . Oct 2014 • MULTIPLE BJT NETWORKS • CURRENT MIRRORS • CURRENT SOURCE CIRCUITS 27 .

Oct 2014 MULTIPLE BJT NETWORKS 28 . Lec#3 .• R–C coupling Darlington configuration © Ahmad El-Banna • ECE-312 .

Lec#3 . 29 ..ECE-312 . Oct 2014 © Ahmad El-Banna MULTIPLE BJT NETWORKS.

Lec#3 .• © Ahmad El-Banna Feedback Pair ECE-312 . Oct 2014 MULTIPLE BJT NETWORKS… 30 .

31 . Lec#3 .• © Ahmad El-Banna Direct Coupled ECE-312 . Oct 2014 MULTIPLE BJT NETWORKS….

ECE-312 . Lec#3 . Oct 2014 © Ahmad El-Banna CURRENT MIRRORS 32 .

Lec#3 . Oct 2014 CURRENT SOURCE CIRCUITS 33 .• Bipolar Transistor Constant-Current Source • Transistor/Zener Constant-Current Source © Ahmad El-Banna ECE-312 .

© Ahmad El-Banna TRANSISTOR SWITCHING NETWORKS ECE-312 . Oct 2014 pnp TRANSISTORS 34 . Lec#3 .

Oct 2014 © Ahmad El-Banna TRANSISTOR SWITCHING NETWORKS. 35 .ECE-312 . Lec#3 ..

TROUBLESHOOTING TECHNIQUES 36 ECE-312 . Oct 2014 © Ahmad El-Banna . Lec#3 .

Oct 2014 TROUBLESHOOTING TECHNIQUES 37 . • For the typical transistor amplifier in the active region. the voltage VBE should be in the neighborhood of 0.For an “on” transistor. VCE is usually about 25% to 75% of VCC . Lec#3 . © Ahmad El-Banna • ECE-312 .7 V.

© Ahmad El-Banna • The stability of a system is a measure of the sensitivity of a network to variations in its parameters. Oct 2014 BIAS STABILIZATION 38 . • In any amplifier employing a transistor the collector current IC is sensitive to each of the following parameters: ECE-312 . Lec#3 .

. • the level of IC would continue to rise with temperature. with IB maintaining a fairly constant value—a very unstable situation. voltage-divider bias The most stable of the configurations © Ahmad El-Banna • ECE-312 . • • feedback configuration fixed-bias configuration a stabilizing effect as described for the emitter-bias configuration.emitter-bias configuration there is a reaction to an increase in IC that will tend to oppose the change in bias conditions. S(Ico) 39 . Oct 2014 BIAS STABILIZATION . Lec#3 .

For fixed-bias © Ahmad El-Banna ECE-312 . Lec#3 . S(VBE)& S(β) 40 .. Oct 2014 BIAS STABILIZATION .

Lec#3 . Oct 2014 • BJT Diode Usage and Protective Capabilities • Relay Driver • Light Control • Maintaining a Fixed Load Current • Alarm System with a CCS • Voltage Level Indicator • Logic Gates 41 .© Ahmad El-Banna PRACTICAL APPLICATION ECE-312 .

Lec#3 .• Relay Driver © Ahmad El-Banna • BJT Diode Usage and Protective Capabilities ECE-312 . Oct 2014 Practical Application 42 .

• Light Control Maintaining a Fixed Load Current © Ahmad El-Banna • ECE-312 . 43 . Oct 2014 Practical Application. Lec#3 ..

© Ahmad El-Banna • Alarm System with a CCS • Voltage Level Indicator ECE-312 . Lec#3 . Oct 2014 Practical Application… 44 .

45 . Oct 2014 Practical Application…. Lec#3 .• © Ahmad El-Banna Logic Gates ECE-312 .

Oct 2014 • For more details.edu. Boylestad. send to: • ahmad.eg © Ahmad El-Banna • Chapter 4 at R.edu.elbanna@ejust.bu.elbanna@fes. Prentice Hall.• The lecture is available online at: • https://speakerdeck. refer to: 46 .eg • ahmad. Lec#3 . ECE-312 . Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory.com/ahmad_elbanna • For inquires. 11th edition.