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Rules-of-Thumb: Chemical Process Design

This section contains engineering rules-of-thumb that may be useful for the
design problem calculations.
Engineering rules-of-thumb are rough estimates that represent the collective
experiences of many engineers. While the rules-of-thumb cannot be used in
place of detailed economic and process-specific design calculations, they can
be used to obtain reasonable estimates of many process parameters. As a
result, they may be useful for design parameters which must be chosen by the
Planner or Consultant in the design calculation section of each report.

Chemical Process Design
Chemical engineers are often responsible for the design, construction, and
operation of chemical plants and processes. Design engineers are constantly
searching for information that will aid them in these tasks.
Engineering publications, process data from existing equipment, laboratory
and pilot-plant studies are just a few of the many sources of information that
design engineers must use.
It is important for students to learn the difference between "theoretical"
designs and "practical designs". Design calculations must often be modified
by engineers to reflect economic, safety, construction, and maintenance
realities that will affect the design. For example:

Design calculation for a reactor might show that the optimum pipe
diameter is D = 3.43 inches. A survey of supplier catalogs will quickly
show that schedule-40 steel pipe is not manufactured with this diameter.
The design engineer must then choose between either the 3.07 or 3.55
inch diameter pipe that can be easilty obtained from the vendor.
Design calculations for a distillation column might show that a 600 ft
tower is required to achieve the specified product separation. The
maximum height of towers are generally limited to about 175 ft, however,
because of wind-loading and construction considerations. A 600 ft tower
would therefore need to be built in several different sections if alternative
designs were not available.

Typical Specifications for Utilities in a Process Plant
1. Steam (Low Pressure): 15-30 psig,
Steam (High Pressure): 100 psig.
2. Cooling Water: Supplied at 90 °F from a cooling tower, and returned at
110-120 °F.
3. Cooling Air: Supplied at 80-100 °F and returned at 100-140 °F.
4. Compressed Air: 45 or 150 psig.
5. Instrument Air: 45 psig, 0 °F dewpoint.
6. Electricity: 1-100 hp, 220-550 V.
Piping and Flow Rates
1. Schedule 40 steel pipe is the most common. Higher pressures require
higher schedule number (i.e. thicker walls).
2. Control valves require a 5 to 10 psi drop.
3. Globe valves are used for control. Gate valves are for most other
4. In large or complicated piping networks, the optimum size of the pipe
depends on many different factors (e.g., relative costs of capital
investments, power, maintenance, etc.). These types of calculations are
beyond the scope of this course--if you need to do them, however,
Perry's and/or Peters & Timmerhaus will point you in the right direction.
5. For small piping installations, however, the following rules-of-thumb are
sufficiently accurate:
Type of fluid

Type of flow

Velocity (ft/s)


Inlet to pump


Process Line or Pump Discharge


Inlet to pump


Process Line or Pump Discharge


Viscous Liquid




As chemical engineers, you will most likely encounter two different types of
1. Centrifugal pumps, and
2. Positive-displacement pumps.
Centrifugal pumps are more common, but positive-displacement are used to
achieve high pressures.
I. Centrifugal Pumps
A centrifugal pump, in its simplest form, consists of an impeller rotating inside
a casing. The impeller imparts kinetic energy to the fluid. The velocity head,
which is created by moving fluid from the low-velocity center to the highvelocity edge of the impeller, is converted into pressure head when the fluid
leaves the pump.
Centrifugal pumps are simple to construct, low cost, and deliver the fluid at a
uniform pressure without shocks or pulsations. In addition, they can handle
liquids which contain large amounts of suspended materials.
Centrifugal pumps CAN be throttled (partly shut off) on the discharge side to
control the flow rate of the material being pumped.
For more information about centrifugal pumps, go to the pump tutorial.
II. Positive-Displacement Pumps
There are two types of positive-displacement pumps:
1. Reciprocating Pumps
The chamber is a stationary cylinder. The liquid is drawn into the cylinder
by the withdrawal of a piston. The liquid is forced out of the cylinder on the
return stroke.
2. Rotary Pumps
The chamber moves from the inlet to the discharge and back again. In a

the dispersed phase should be the material which has the smaller volumetric flow rate. 3. For vapor-liquid contacting: the height-equivalent-to-a-theoretical-plate (HETP) is 1.2-1. 2.0 ft for 2-inch pall rings. the solvent will generally be recycled after use--as a result.5 times the minimum reflux ratio. (Nm). 2. 7. The dispersed phase in a liquid-liquid extraction column should be the phase that has the higher volumetric flow rate. Reciprocating and rotary pumps can be used to very high pressures. Typical tray efficiencies for distillations are 60-90% for light hydrocarbons and aqueous solutions. Typical tray efficiencies for gas absorption and stripping are 10-20%. two intermeshing gears rotate. 5. As a result. however. Reciprocating and rotary pumps CANNOT be throttled (partly shut off) on the discharge side--pumping against a closed valve will damage the pump! To change the flow rate. for example.8 ft for 1-inch pall rings and 2. whereas centrifugal pumps are limited in their head and are used for lower pressures. 6. The most significant cost in a liquid-liquid extraction process is the cost of the solvent.5-3.3-1. 4. 8. It is advisable to choose a safety factor of about 10% the number of trays calculated by the best available means. Commercial towers are limited to a height of about 175 ft (maximum) because of wind loading and construction considerations. the liquid is trapped in the spaces between the teeth and forced out at the discharge. The optimum number of trays is about twice the minimum number of trays. Packed towers are typically designed to operate near 70% of the flooding rate and below the loading rate. In equipment that is subject to backmixing. the speed of the motor must be adjusted--this is difficult to do using an electric motor (it gets very expensive!). The optimum reflux ratio is generally 1. . Distillation and Gas Absorption 1. Liquid-Liquid Extraction 1. the solvent entering the column will generally contain some of the product (it is very rarely "pure").gear rotary pump.

 Dissolve a solid in a liquid. Mechanical vapor recompression can be used to reduce the number of stages.8N lbevaporated-liquid / lb-of-supplied-steam. High-value products would be closer to 99%. 3. the optimum number of effects in series for a forward-feed evaporator is 4-6 effects. The boiling point elevation can produce differences of 3-10 °F between the solution and the saturated vapor. . Dissolved solids cause the boiling point of a solution to increase. Evaporators 1. Mixing and Agitation Many chemical engineering operations are dependent. on effective agitation and/or mixing of fluids. For small boiling point elevations. 2. Mixing--causing two or more separate phases to be randomly distributed through one another. 3. Some of the potential applications of mixing and agitation include:  Blend two miscible liquids. or  Agitate a fluid to increase the heat transfer between the fluid and a surface. You will not recover 100% of the product from a liquid-liquid extraction column! Columns are typically designed to recover 90-99% of the product. Interstage steam pressures may be raised using with either steam jet compressors (20-30% efficiency) or with mechanical compressors (7075% efficiency).  Disperse a gas in a liquid as fine bubbles.   Agitation--forcing a fluid (by mechanical means) to flow in a circulatory or other pattern inside a vessel. the optimum number of effects in series for a forward-feed evaporator is 8-10 effects. 4. 5. to a great extent. The steam economy of an N-stage evaporator is approximately 0.  Suspend fine particles in a liquid.NOTE: This is why you have to measure the concentration of acetic acid in the toluene feed for the liquid-liquid extraction lab. For appreciable boiling point elevations.

5 D.4-3 for more information. you can refer to the following values: (Geankoplis.9-2). Typical pressure drops across heat exchangers are: Boiling = 1. Typical horsepower (hp) requirements in agitation processes: Operation hp / 1000 gal Blending or mild mixing 0. 4. o Impeller level above bottom = D / 3.4-1 and Figure 3. 1-inch triangular spacing. o Four vertical baffles with width = D / 12. Proportions of a stirred tank relative to the tank diameter. For estimating the approximate magnitudes of the overall heat transfer coefficients.Design rules-of-thumb for mixing and agitation processes: 1. o Impeller-blade width = 0. Typical conditions for cooling water: 5. 3. U. Table 4.5 Liquid-Liquid Mixtures 5 Liquid-Gas Mixtures 5-10 Slurries (to keep solids suspended) 10 2. Heat Exchangers & Fouling Coefficients 1. 2.2-0. . The minimum temperature approach is 20 °F (normal coolants) and 10 °F or less (refrigerants). Inlet temperature = 90 °F. 16 ft length. D: o Liquid-level = D.5 Homogeneous chemical reaction 0. o Turbine-impeller diameter = 0. in shell-and-tube heat exchangers.5 psi. and Other Services = 3-9 psi.3-0. Heat exchangers typically use 3/4-inch OD tubes.5-1.075-0. and Outlet temperature = 110-120 °F. See Geankoplis Table 3.125 D.

6873 W/m -K Fouling In practice.1140 1420 . hdi.e. and for the fouling outside the tube. "fouling") is generally taken into account by adding resistances. to account for the fouling inside the tube.Mechanism Water to Water Water to Organic Liquids Water to Condensing Steam Steam to Boiling Water Water to Air (Finned Tube) Light Organics to Light Organics Heavy Organics to Heavy Organics U (W/m -K) 1140 . Algea can grow in cooling towers and biological processes. soot.9-1). and various deposits form on one or both sides of heat transfer surfaces and/or tubing. 1/hdi and 1/hdo. 4.2270 1420 .3-21 in Geankoplis' text. The effect of these deposits (i.1700 570 .425 55 . See Eq.230 230 . Dirt. For example:    Coke and other substances can deposit on surfaces in petroleum processes. heat transfer surfaces do not remain clean for very long. these deposits add additional resistances to the flow of heat and reduce the overall heat transfer coefficient. Like any other material. U. U.2270 110 .230 NOTE: Conversion: 1 btu/h-ft -°F = 5. Typical values for the fouling coefficients are shown below: (Geankoplis. Table 4. Deposit Distilled and Seawater City Water hd (W/m -K) 11350 5680 . h do. in the equation for the overall heat transfer coeficient. and Corrosion products can form on many different surfaces--seriously affecting the resistance to heat transfer.

55 280 .1700 1700 .23 11. As a general rule: Towers are limited to a maximum height of 175 ft (see the distillation rules-of-thumb).3 . but the flow rate for my design is Y (gal/hr).2800 NOTE: Conversion: 1 btu/h-ft -°F = 5.Muddy Water Gases Vaporizing Liquids Gas Oils and Vegetable Oils 1990-2840 2840 2840 1990 NOTE: Conversion: 1 btu/h-ft -°F = 5. the design is clearly not feasible! You need to rethink the problem or your assumptions or both. what tower diameter (distillation or extraction) will give me the same conditions in each column?" The second question you need to ask is: What tower height do I need to achieve the specified product concentrations? BEWARE: Many students just grab the first number that they calculate with little or no thought to what it actually implies.28000 5700 . For example.6873 W/m -K Heat Transfer Coefficients The following table contains approximate magnitudes for the heat transfer coefficient for various mechanisms: Mechanism Still Air Moving Air Moving Water Moving Hydrocarbons Boiling Liquids Condensing Steam Condensing Organics h (W/m -K) 2. the . If your design needs to be taller than that.28000 1100 . if your calculations yield a 9-mile high tower. with a 10-inch diameter.8 .17000 55 .6873 W/m -K Estimating Tower Heights and Diameters The basic question you need to ask is this: If the flow rate of my experiment is X (gal/hr).

. etc. It is impossible to recover 100% of the product! Typically. It is up to you to decide how much of the product will be recovered. A typical value is 90% or 328 days/year. etc. Capital equipment costs. but for high-value products. copper. etc) is limited by the equilibrium conditions which might exist in the outlet stream. affect how many pumps you might need. processes will be designed to recover 90-99% of the desired product.). Specifying Pumps for your Design Project .g. the yield be much closer to 99%.but this is not a realistic choice.g. It goes without saying that the absolute maximum production rate would be achieved if the process operated 24 hours/day. For example. and economics are an important part of engineering. While this type of information is sometimes unknown (and probably beyond the scope of this course)--it is something you should start to think about. maintenance. replaced. of course. you may discover that the outlet product concentration in a separation process (e. the formation of a binary azeotrope may make it impossible to produce a nearly pure product. the yield would probably be around 90%.. Process equipment needs to be repaired. 365 days/year. In addition.tower would be built in several sections--which would.. For low-value products. Product Recovery and Yields In some of the design problems. pharmeacutical products. factories shut down for holidays. extraction. you are asked to create a process that will recover some sort of product (e. distillation. it may not be wise to run the process at 100% capacity because it may lead to excessive wear on the equipment. Estimating the Yearly Production Rate Many of the design problems ask for an estimate of the yearly production rate. etc. serviced. in distillation processes.. As an additional caution.

As always. Mr. A control valve. Dr. When I think of such rules. Perhaps his most popular is Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers. be aware that these rules are for estimation and are not necessary meant to replace rigorous calculations when such calculations should be performed. This is because students rarely account for the pressure losses which occur because of valves. Branan has either helped write or edit numerous books concerning this topic. Someone who can at least estimate the size of a vessel without doing any calculations. Walas and Branan. But at many stages of analysis and design. these rules can save you hours and hours. you have probably neglected something important (valve losses? friction losses?). This article won the 2000 BeychokMontemayor Award here at The Chemical Engineers' Resource Page! Updated Fall of 2002 (New Additions in Blue) Experience is typically what turns a good engineer into a great engineer. Chemical Process Equipment: Selection and Design has been widely used in the process industry and in chemical engineering education for years. two authors come to my mind. requires a pressure drop of at least 5 to 10 psi to maintain good control. Walas' book. As a rough estimate. .In some of the design problems. Here. If the pumps on the experiments are much larger than your calculations. you are asked to specify the pumps that will be required to move fluids within your process. I'll share some of these rules with you along with some of my own. look at the pumps that you are using in the laboratory. Now. Many students calculate pump sizes which are much too small for their design project. for example. Experienced-Based Rules of Chemical Engineering Your about to read an award winning article. An engineer that can look at a pipe and a flowmeter and guess the pressure drop within 5%. These types of losses will affect your design calculations!" The pump tutorial has been written to help lead you through these types of calculations.

02-0.10-0.32-0.40 0.0140. 0C 86-430 0.01-0.239 0.0 2.4 0.if you have some shortcuts that you'd like to add to the list.598 0.070 0.2 1.03 0.55-0. email them to me and I'll add them on.010.958 kg/m3 1000 700-1500 1.040 0. Download the spanish version here. we now have the Excel spreadsheet available in Spanish.29 43.05 0.4790.06 Btu/h ft 0.08@STP KJ/kg 12002100 200-1000 Density Latent Heat Btu/lb 516-903 Thermal W/m Cond.6-94.05 0.116 0F 0.0250.057-0.20 0.0-2.0 1.116-0. Physical Properties Property Units Water Organic Liquids Steam Air Organic Vapors Heat KJ/kg Capacity 0C 4.0 0F 0.479 0.02-0. You can also download this page as an Excel 97 file here (updated).70 0.29@STP lb/ft3 62. New Note: Thanks to Leopoldo Cabieses.03 .0-4.025-0.0.0144.35 0.2390.029 Viscosity cP 1.8 @ 0 **See 0C Below 0.5 2.0 Btu/lb 1.

57 @ 50 0C 0.7 0.7-0. at low temperatures.25 Tbp (°C) = (Pressure (MPa) x (1x10 )) Function of Pressure: Materials of Construction Material Advantage Disadvantage Carbon Steel Very poor resistance to Low cost.0.28 @ 100 0C 0. especially environments well. Resists most alkaline other materials. most common streams. . acids and stronger alkaline abundant.0 0.14 @ 200 0C Prandtl Number 1-15 10-1000 1.8 ** Viscosities of organic liquids vary widely with temperature Liquid density varies with temperature by: Gas density calculated by: can be Boiling Point of Water as a 9 0. easy to fabricate. More brittle than material.

Is often used on and fabrication is again Titanium sea water application where difficult and expensive. Difficult to weld. specifically developed for acid Their use must be justified. still easy to No resistance to chlorides. 254 (Avesta) Moderate cost. Available is many temperatures. and capable of withstanding weak very difficult to fabricate. Superior resistance to chlorides. Titanium's resistance may not be acceptable. Resist a wider and resistance decreases Stainless Steel variety of environments than significantly at higher carbon steel. Some have been Fairly expensive alloys. have failed. very expensive. thicknesses. Much Strength allows it to be of cost will be in welding fabricated at smaller labor. still easy to fabricate. different types. Titanium Very good resistance to While the material is chlorides (widely used in moderately expensive. temperature caustic streams. stainless steel. Graphite One of the few materials Brittle.Relatively low cost. even at higher Very expensive material Pd stabilized temperatures. fabricate. Some stream components have been know to diffusion . fabrication is difficult. seawater applications). Hastelloy Alloy Very wide range to choose from. Resistance is better Little resistance to SMO over a wider range of chlorides. HCl streams. and resistance at concentrations and higher temperatures could temperatures compared to be improved. Nickel Very good resistance to high Moderate to high expense. services where other materials Most are easy to weld.

Pneumatic conveying is also appropriate for multiple sources and destinations.55 C. Tantalum types of Superior resistance to very Extremely expensive. A 5-10 °F (2. Conveyors A. Drift losses are around 0.0 25 0. Countercurrent induced draft towers are the most common. B.5 °C) approach is more common. Evaporation losses are about 1% by mass of the circulation rate for every 10 °F (5.0 m/s) D.1 °C) of the wet bulb temperature. ft (81162 L/min m2) and air velocities are usually 5-7 ft/s (1. Relative tower size is dependent on the water temperature approach to the wet bulb temperature: Relative Twater-Twb Size 5 2. must harsh services where no other be absolutely necessary.through some graphites.4 15 1.5-2.25% of the circulation rate. Pneumatic conveyors are best suited for high capacity applications over distances of up to about 400 ft. Water circulation rates are generally 2-4 GPM/sq. Vacuum or low pressure (6-12 . material is acceptable. These towers are capable of cooling to within 2 °F (1. With industrial cooling towers. E. A blowdown of about 3% of the circulation rate is needed to prevent salt and chemical treatment buildup.8-5.5 °C) of cooling. Cooling Towers A. cooling to 90% of the ambient air saturation level is possible.

the temperature of the solution is kept 1-2 °F (0. Bucket elevators are generally used for the vertical transport of sticky or abrasive materials. D.psig or 0.05 B.7-36./h (28-85 cu. During crystallization by cooling.4 to 0.02 to 1. Inclines can be up to about 20°. m/h) at around 40-60 rpm. Drag-type conveyors (Redler) are completed enclosed and suited to short distances. D.0. Inclines up to 30° are possible. C/C sat (concentration/saturated concentration) is kept near 1. Screw conveyors can be used for sticky or abrasive solids for transports up to 150 ft (46 m).03 to 0. Travel velocities can be from 30 to 250 ft/min (10 to 75 meters/min). ft. Belt conveyors can be used for high capacity and long distance transports. During most crystallizations. capacities of 1000 cubic feet/hr (28 cubic meters/hr) can be reached at speeds of 100 ft/min (30 m/min). C. Power consumption is relatively low. With a bucket measuring 20 in x 20 in (500 mm x 500 mm).80 .5 cubic meters of air per cubic meter of solids). Speeds up to 300 ft/min (90 m/min) are possible. E. Sizes range from 3 to 19 inches square (75 to 480 mm).2 °C) below the saturation point at the given concentration./h (85 cu m/h) at speeds of 100 ft/min (30.5-1. A 12 in (305 mm) diameter screw conveyor can transport 1000-3000 cu. Crystallization A. ft. A generally acceptable crystal growth rate is 0. B.10 .8 bar) is used for generate air velocities from 35 to 120 ft/s (10. A 24 in (635 mm) belt can transport 3000 cu. Crystal growth rates and crystal sizes are controlled by limiting the degree of supersaturation. C. Speeds can be as high as 600 ft/min (183 m/min).6 m/s). Air requirements are usually in the range of 1 to 7 cubic feet of air per cubic foot of solids (0.5 m/min). The power requirements for these conveyors is higher than other types.

For initial design purposes. Rotary dryers have drying times ranging from a few minutes to up to an hour. Gas expanders may be justified for recovering several hundred horsepower. 28-38% for gas engines and turbines. Induction motors are most popular.5 m). The product of rpm and . Parallel flow should yield an exiting solids temperature of 212 °F (100 °C).5 m/s). D. 40-75% for steam turbines. Spray dryer have drying times of a few seconds. Rotary cylindrical dryers operate with air velocities of 510 ft/s (1. B. D. Their speeds can be controlled and they make good spares for motors in case of a power failure. Rotation speeds of 4-5 rpm are common.1. Countercurrent design should yield an exit gas temperature that is 18-35 °F (10-20 °C) above the solids temperature. They are available up to 20. C. Synchronous motors have speeds as low as 150 rpm at ratings above 50 HP (37. At lower recoveries. Synchronous motors are good for low speed reciprocating compressors. Efficiencies: 85-95% for motors. pressure let down will most likely be through a throttling valve. Rotation speeds are 2-10 rpm and the maximum evaporation capacity is around 3000 lb/h (1363 kg/h).5-3 m/s). Drying of Solids A. Steam turbines are seldom used below 100 HP (75 kW). up to 35 ft/s (10.000 HP (14. Continuous tray and belt dryers have drying times of 10200 minutes for granular materials or 3-15 mm pellets. an 85% free cross sectional area is used. E. B. Residence times range from 5-90 min. C.5 .3 kW) only. Diameters are generally 1. Drum dryers used for highly viscous fluids use contact times of 3-12 seconds and produce flakes 1-3 mm thick.5-5 ft (0.915 kW). Electric motors are nearly always used for under 100 HP (75 kW).mm/h Drivers and Power Recovery A.

drying times of 1-2 minutes are sufficient in continuous operation.diameter (in feet) should be 15-25. Normally. a holdup of 30 minutes is a good estimate E. Single pass residence time is typically near one minute.3-125 ft (1-38 m) in length. Gas/Liquid separators are usually vertical B. F. Fluidized bed dryers work well with particles up to 4. Liquid/Liquid separators should be designed for settling velocities of 2-3 inches/min . Holdup time is 5 minutes for half full reflux drums and gas/liquid separators Design for a 5-10 minute holdup for drums feeding another column D. Size range from 0.3 m) in diameter by 3. F. range is 2. For drums feeding a furnace. Knockout drum in front of compressors should be designed for a holdup of 10 times the liquid volume passing per minute.7-2 times the minimum fluidization velocity is good practice. Air velocities are usually 33-100 ft/s (10-30 m/s).6-1. Pneumatic conveying dryers are appropriate for particles 1-3 mm in diameter and in some cases up to 10 mm.2-0. Drum Type Vessels A. E.5 to 5 C.0 ft (0. Designing for a gas velocity that is 1. Liquid drums are usually horizontal.0 mm in diameter. Optimum Length/Diameter ratio is usually 3.

Gas velocities in gas/liquid separators. Turbines can be justified in services where they will yield several hundred horsepowers.167 with vertical mesh deentrainers. Otherwise. velocity = k (liquid density/(vapor density-1))^0. They can be used for services up to about 15000 kW (20000 hp) C. Efficiencies range from 85-95% for electric motors. disengagement spaces of 6-18 inches before the mesh pad and 12 inches after the pad are generally suitable. Electric Motors Turbines and A.G. For services under 75 kW (100 hp). A six inch mesh pad thickness is very popular for such vessels I.35 with horizontal mesh deentrainers and 0. where k is 0. k is 0. . electric motors are almost always used.5. For positive pressure separations. 4278% for steam turbines 28-38% for gas engines and turbines B. throttle valves are used to release pressure.1 without mesh deentrainers and velocity is in ft/s H.

B.5" (19-63 mm) in diameter and 12-30 ft (3. C. D.5-6 m/s) range. Reverse feed results in the more concentrated solution being heated with the hottest steam to minimize surface area. 0R P1 = Inlet pressure.9 °C) usually result in 4-6 effects in series (feed-forward) as an economical solution. the solution must be pumped from one stage to the next. psia P2 = Outlet pressure.1 m) in length. A quick estimate of the energy available to a turbine is given by: where: Delta H = Actual available energy. Btu/lb 0F T1 = Inlet temperature.6-9. BPE's greater than 7 °F (3. E. Tubes range from 3/4" to 2.D. Most popular types are long tube vertical with natural or forced circulation. Btu/lb Cp = Heat Capacity at constant pressure. . Boiling Point Elevation (BPE) as a result of having dissolved solids must be accounted for in the differences between the solution temperature and the temperature of the saturated vapor. Forced circulation tube velocities are generally in the 1520 ft/s (4. With smaller BPE's. psia K = Cp/Cv Evaporation A. more effects in series are typically more economical. However. depending on the cost of steam.

10. precoat drums. F.0 cm/min (medium). Mild agitation results from superficial fluid velocities of 0. Initially.10-10.03-0. Finely ground mineral ores can utilize rotary drum rates of 1500 lb/dat ft2 (7335 kg/day m2) at 20 rev/h and 18-25 in Hg (457-635 mm Hg) vacuum. B.0 ft/s (0. 0.06 m/s).0 cm/h (slow) B. top feed drums. Mixing and Agitation A. Continuous filtration methods should not be used if 0. Cartridges.21-0. E. processes are classified according to their cake buildup in a laboratory vacuum leaf filter : 0.10-0.35 sm of cake cannot be formed in less than 5 minutes. agitation intensity is measured by power input and impeller tip speeds: Power Requirements HP/1000 kW/m3 gal Tip Speeds ft/s m/s . Pressure filters or sedimenting centrifuges are best for slow filtering. and sand filters can be used for clarification duties with negligible buildup. and pusher-type centrifuges are best for rapid filtering. Vacuum drums and disk or peeler-type centrifuges are best for medium filtering. G. Filtration A.340 kg/day m2) at 20 rev/h and 2-6 in Hg (51-152 mm Hg) vacuum.1010.20 ft/s (0. For baffled tanks. Belts. 0. H. Intense agitation results from velocities of 0.10 . D.30 m/s). Interstage steam pressures can be increased with ejectors (20-30% efficient) or mechanical compressors (7075% efficient).0 cm/s (rapid).F. Course solids and crystals can be filtered at rates of 6000 lb/day ft2 (29. C.70-1.

824 ----- ---- Homogeneous 0.57-6. For settling velocities around 0. margins increase above this range .0-15.0330.247 0. Various geometries of an agitated tank relative to diameter (D) of the vessel include: Liquid Level = D Turbine Impeller Diameter = D/3 Impeller Level Above Bottom = D/3 Impeller Blade Width = D/15 Four Vertical Baffle Width = D/10 D.0-10.647 Slurries 10.5-10. intense propeller agitation is needed.Blending 0.0 15.0-20.0 3.647 -------C.29-3.0 4.57-6. Design Temperatures between -30 and 345 °C (-22 to 653 °F) is typically about 25 °C (77 °F) above maximum operating temperature.824 15.05-4.2470.0 2.0 1. E.09 Mixtures Liquid-Gas 0.05 Reaction Reaction w/ 1.0-20.5-1.5 0. For settling velocities above 0.03 ft/s.0 4.0 0.0 10.09 Mixtures 1.0820.082 0.15 ft/s.57 Heat Transfer Liquid-Liquid 5.8245.2-0. solids suspension can be accomplished with turbine or propeller impellers.5-5. Pressure Vessels and Storage Pressure Vessels A.5 7. Power to mix a fluid of gas and liquid can be 25-50% less than the power to mix the liquid alone.

69 to 1.B.38 in) for diameters over 1. design pressures are 1 barg (15 psig) to full vacuum D.07-1.7 bar (25 psi) above the normal operation pressure.25 in) for 1.32 in) for 1.07 m (42 in) diameter and under 8.1 mm (0.52 m (60 in) E. For vacuum operations.4 mm (0.7 bar (10 to 25 psi) above the maximum operating pressure. Maximum allowable working stresses: Temperature CS SA203 -20 to 750 650 °F °F 850 °F 1000 °F -30 to 400 345 °C °C 455 °C 540 °C 18759 psi 15650 9950 psi psi 1290 bar 1070 686 2500 psi 273 . C. Allowable working stresses are taken as 1/4 of the ultimate strength of the material F. The maximum operating pressure is taken as 1. Design pressure is 10% or 0. whichever is greater. Minimum thicknesses for maintaining tank structure are: 6.7 mm (0.52 m (4260 in) diameter 9.

stress in psi.000 gallons) use horizontal tanks on concrete supports K.15 in (4 mm) for noncorrosive fluids. corrosion allowance in inches.85 for initial design work H. Liquids with low vapor pressures. Guidelines for corrosion allowances are as follows: 0. .5 mm) for steam drums and air receivers. use tanks with floating roofs.000 gallons) use vertical tanks on concrete pads 302 SS bar bar 18750 psi 18750 15950 6250 psi psi psi 1290 bar 1290 1100 bar bar 431 bar G. **Weld Efficiency can usually be taken as 0.06 in (1.35 in (9 mm) for known corrosive fluids.8 m3 (1000 gallons) use vertical tanks on legs J. and 0. radius in inches. For less than 3. 0. Storage Vessels I.8 m3 and 38 m3 (1000 to 10. Between 3. Thickness based on pressure and radius is given by: where pressure is in psig. Beyond 38 m3 (10.

Saturated steam lines should be limited to 37 m/s (120 ft/s) to avoid erosion.1 bar/100 m or 0. Storage tank capacity should be at 1. dry steam or gas line should be 61 m/s (200 ft/s) and a pressure drop of 0. 130 m3 (34. D. Limits on superheated.5 psi/100 ft of pipe. size for (1.3+D/6) ft/s and a pressure drop of 0. use the following: . For example. For turbulent flow in commercial steel pipes.500 gallon) rail cars Piping A. Steam or gas lines can be sized for 20D ft/s and pressure drops of 0. Raw material feed tanks are often specified for 30 days feed supplies N.0 psi/100 ft of pipe at pump discharges At the pump suction.4 psi/100 ft of pipe **D is pipe diameter in inches B.5 times the capacity of mobile supply vessels.5 psi/100 ft of pipe C. Liquid lines should be sized for a velocity of (5+D/3) ft/s and a pressure drop of 2.M.4 m3 (7500 gallon) tanker truck. 28.

Globe valves are most commonly used for gases and when tight shutoff is required. For two phase flow. then F. 103.E. Flange ratings include 10. . 40. 300. Schedule 40 is the most common. and 2500 psig) H. I. Screwed fitting are generally used for line sizes 2 inches and smaller. 20. 1500. Control valves require at least 0. an estimate often used is Lockhart and Martinelli: First.69 bar (10 psi) pressure drop for sufficient control G. Larger connections should utilize flanges or welding to eliminate leakage. Pipe Schedule Number = 1000P/S (approximate) where P is the internal pressure rating in psig and S is the allowable working stress of the material is psi. the pressure drops are calculated as if each phase exist alone in the pipe. J. 600. and 175 bar (150. Gate valves are common for most other services.

000000238FG^2+.1 m (4-20 ft) of liquid C. NPSH=(pressure at impeller eye-vapor pressure)/ (density*gravitational constant) Common range is 1.0000 00639(F^2)G+ .5% . G is flow in GPM Ranges of applicability are F=50-300 ft and G=100-1000 GPM Error documented at 3.2855F+.000378FG-.67)[Flow (bar)]/Efficiency for (m3/min)][Pressure hp=[Flow (gpm)][Pressure (psi)]/1714 (Efficiency) drop drop **Efficiency expressed as a fraction in these relations B.Pumps A. F is developed head in feet.2 to 6.000539F^2-. Power estimates pumping liquids: kW=(1. An equation developed for efficiency based on the GPSA Engineering Data Book is: Efficiency = 800.0000000004(F^2)(G^2) where Efficiency is in fraction form.

8 m3/min (10-100.0037818. Reciporating pumps can be used for 0.89 m3/min (500 GPM).000. Rotary pumps can be used for flows of 0. For flow of 0. 85% at 37. Axial pumps can be used for flows of 0.000 GPM). Centrifugal pumps: Single stage for 0. and 90% at 373 kW (500 hp) Compressors Equipment and Vacuum A.D. The following chart is used to determine what type of compressor is to be used: .000 GPM) use multistage.000 ft) and efficiencies of about 50-80% G.076-41.9 m3/min (15-5000 GPM). 80% at 37. up to 300. E. 152 m (500 ft) maximum head. Efficiencies of 45% at 0. 70% at 1.8 m3/min (10.0378-37.000 GPM) Expect heads up to 12 m (40 ft) and efficiencies of about 65-85% F. 1675 m (5500 ft) maximum head.378 m3/min (100 GPM).000 ft).000 m Efficiencies: 70% at 7.9 m3/min (1-5000 GPM) Expect heads up to 15.46 kW (10 hp).057-18.076-378 m3/min (20-100.6 m3/min (20-11.3 kW (50 hp).200 m (50.000 GPM) Expect heads (1.

a = (k-1)/k .1)] / a where: T1 is the inlet temperature. The outlet for the adiabatic reversible flow. m is the molar flow rate. C. blowers to raise to less than 2. . Exit temperatures should not exceed 204 0C (400 0F). The theoretical reversible adiabatic power is estimated by: Power = m z1 R T1 [({P2 / P1}a .75 barg (40 psig). R is the gas constant. and compressors to higher pressures. T2 = T1 (P2 / P1)a E.B. z1 is the compressibility. Fans should be used to raise pressure about 3% (12 in water). and k = Cp/Cv D.

K. A three stage ejector requires about 100 lb steam/lb air to maintain a pressure of 1 torr. with n stages.20 for P >90 torr.000 acfm) at suction is about 76-78% J. Air leakage into vacuum equipment can be approximated as follows: Leakage = k V(2/3) where k =0. two stage to 10 torr.001 torr. Efficiencies of large centrifugal compressors handling 2.8 to 47 m3/s (6000100. 0.05 torr.4) this corresponds to a compression ratio of about 4 G.F. the ratio = (Pn / P1) 1/n. H. rotary piston types can achieve vacuums of 0. and five stage to 0. three stage to 1 torr. M. and 0.5 75% at compression ratios of 2. Reciprocating piston vacuum pumps are generally capable of vacuum to 1 torr absolute.0 80-85% at compression between 3 and 6 ratios I. Compression ratios should be about the same in each stage for a multistage unit. Efficiencies for compressors are as follows: reciprocating 65% at compression ratios of 1. For diatomic gases (Cp/Cv = 1. L.025 for P < 1 torr V = equipment volume in cubic feet Leakage = air leakage into equipment in lb/h Heat .08 for 3 < P < 20 torr. Single stage jet ejectors are capable of vacuums to 100 torr absolute.

Most commonly used tubes are 3/4 in.1 bar) for vaporization and 3-10 psi (0. Cooling tower water is typically available at a maximum temperature of 90 °F (3 and should be . fouling. (1.5 psi (0. G. Viscous and condensing fluids are typically placed on the shell side. For the heat exchanger equation.2-0. C.9 m) long.9 cm) in outer diameter on a 1 in trian spacing at 16 ft (4.9 when charts fo LMTD correction factor are not available B. Flows that are corrosive. or under high pressure are usually plac the tubes F. A 1 ft (30 cm) shell will contains about 100 ft2 (9. The minimum approach temperature for shell and tube exchangers is about 20 ° °C) for fluids and 10 °F (5 refrigerants. Typical velocities in the tubes should be 3-10 ft/s (1-3 m/s) for liquids and30-100 f 30 m/s) for gases E.Exchangers A.68 for other services H. Pressure drops are about 1. Q = UAF (LMTD).3 m2) A 2 ft (60 cm) shell will contain about 400 ft2 (37.2 m2) A 3 ft (90 cm) shell will contain about 1100 ft2 (102 m2) D. use F = 0. °C) for I. scaling.

com/ Tray Towers A.processassociates. Shell and Tube heat transfer coefficient for estimation purposes can be found in reference books or an online list can be found at one of the two following addresses: http://www. Plate heat exchanger with gaskets can be used up to 320 °F (160 °C) and are used for interchanging duties due to their high efficiencies and ability to "cross" temperatures.returned to the tower no higher than 115 °F (45 °C) J.shtml relative volatility can be taken as the ratio of pure component vapor pressures B. Spiral heat exchangers are often used to slurry interchangers and other se containing solids M. For ideal mixtures.htm Double pipe heat exchangers may be a good choice for areas from 100 to 200 ft2 18.6 m2) L. Tower operating pressure is most often determined by the cooling medium in condenser or the maximum allowable reboiler temperature to avoid degradation of .alfalaval. More compact heat exchangers can be found at: http://www.

10% more trays than are calculated are specified for a tower.the process fluid C. The minimum number of trays is determined with the FenskeUnderwood Equation. F. If the relative volatility of components do vary significantly. If relative volatility nor feed composition vary widely. If the concentrations of the feed vary significantly but the relative volatility do not. remove products concentration. Typically. Peak tray efficiencies usually occur at linear vapor velocities of 2 ft/s (0. The most economic number of trays is usually about twice the minimum number of trays.5Rmin E. Tray spacings should be from 18 to 24 inches. take products off one at time as overhead the 3. with accessibility in mind H.2Rmin and 1. For columns: sequencing 1. remove products in order of decreasing volatility 4. G. Perform the easiest separation first (least trays and lowest reflux) 2. The most economic reflux ratio usually is between 1.6 m/s) . in order of decreasing D.

sieve. Valve trays typically have 1. A typical pressure drop per tray is 0. Seive tray holes are 0. Bubble cap trays are typically used when low-turn down is expected or a lower pressure drop than the valve or sieve trays can provide is necessary. The most common weir heights are 2 and 3 in and the weir length is typically 75% of the tray diameter O.25 to moderate pressures. Reflux pumps should be at least 25% overdesigned P.00 Q. Tray efficiencies for aqueous solutions are usually in the range of 60-90% while gas absorption and stripping typically have efficiencies closer to 1020% K.50 in. N. Valve trays usually cost less than seive trays. The optimum Kremser absorption factor is usually in the range of 1. I.1 psi (0. The three most common types of trays are valve. diameter holes each with a lifting cap. 12-14 caps/square foot of tray is a good benchmark. or 6 ft/s (1. L.007 bar) J. and bubble cap. Reflux drums are almost always horizontally mounted and designed for a 5 min holdup at half of the .8 m/s) under vacuum conditions. diameter with the total hole area being about 10% of the total active tray area.25 to 2.5 in. M.

B. The Length/Diameter ratio of a tower should be no more than 30 and preferrably below 20 U. Packing is often retrofitted into existing tray towers to increase capacity .drum's capacity. For towers that are at least 3 ft (0.2 m) should be added to the top for vapor release and 6 ft (1. A rough estimate of reboiler duty as a function of tower diameter is given by: Q = 0. Limit tower heights to 175 ft (53 m) due to wind load and foundation considerations.15 distillation D2 for vacuum where Q is in Million Btu/hr and D is tower diameter in feet Packed Towers A. 4 ft (1. R.8 m) should be added to the bottom to account for the liquid level and reboiler return S.3 D2 for atmospheric distillation Q = 0.5 distillation D2 for pressure Q = 0.9 m) is diameter. Packed towers almost always have lower pressure drop than comparable tray towers. T.

plastic packing should be limited to an unsupported depth of 10-15 ft (3-4 m) while metallatic packing can withstand 20-25 ft (6-7.4-0.8 ft (0.5 cm) packing.56 m) for 1 in pall rings and 2. use 2 in (5 cm) packing D.5 m) for other types of random packings G.0 ft (0. I.90 m) for 2 in pall rings J.76-0.6 m) F. They should be even more numerous in smaller towers.2 m3/min) use 1 in (2. Liquid distributor should be placed every 5-10 tower diameters (along the length) for pall rings and every 20 ft (6. there should be 8-12 streams per sq. H. Packed columns should operate near 70% flooding. Height Equivalent to Theoretical Stage (HETS) for vapor-liquid contacting is 1. Ratio of tower diameter to packing diameter should usually be at least 15 E. For redistribution. foot of tower area for tower larger than three feet in diameter.or separation. C.6 m3/min) or more.3-1. for gas flows of 2000 ft3/min (56. For gas flowrates of 500 ft3/min (14.5-3. Due to the possibility of deformation. Design pressure drops should be as follows: Service Pressure drop (in water/ft .

40 0.40 - Foaming 0.15 0.25 0.40 - Non-Foaming Systems Moderate Systems Fume Scrubbers Atmospheric Distillation or Vacuum Distillation Maximum System for Any 1.80 - 0.40 0.25 - Water Absorbent 0.40 - Pressure 0. The rate of reaction must be established in the laboratory and .60 - Chemical Absorbent 0.0 **For packing factors and more on packed column design see: Packed Column Design Reactors A.25 0.packing) Absorbers Regenerators and 0.15 0.

3 kW/m3). G. F. B. C. the reaction performance of a 5 stages .1-0. of a properly E. 1 mm in slurry beds. D. Tubular reactors are also a good choice when significant heat transfer to or from the reactor is necessary. Relatively slow reactions between liquids or slurries are usually conducted most economically in a battery of 3-5 CSTR's in series. however. Catalyst particle sizes: 0. the agitation should be about three times these amounts.5-1. the agitor power input should be about 0. For conversion under 95% of equilibrium. if heat is to be transferred.10 mm for fluidized beds. Ideal CSTR behavior is usually reached when the mean residence time is 5-10 times the length needed to achieve homogeneity. For homogeneous stirred tank reactions. Tubular flow reactors are typically used for high productions rates and when the residence times are short.5 hp/1000 gal (0. and 2-5 mm in fixed beds. Homogeneity is typically reached with 500-2000 revolutions designed stirrer.the residence time or space velocity will eventually have to be determined in a pilot plant.

H. For various refrigeration temperatures. the following are common refrigerants: Temp (°F) Temp (°C) 0 to 50 -18 -10 to Chilled brine or glycol to -45 -10 to Ammonia. freon.000 Btu/h (12.700 kJ/h) of heat B. A ton of refrigeration equals the removal of 12. Typically the chemical reaction rate will double for a 18 °F (10 °C) increase in temperature. butane -50 -40 Refrigerant . catalysts usefulness is in improving selectivity rather than increasing the rate of the reaction. J. The reaction rate in a heterogeneous reaction is often controlled more by the rate of heat or mass transfer than by chemical kinetics. I. Refrigeration Utilities and A.CSTR approaches that of a plug flow reactor. Sometimes.

-150 to -100


Ethane, propane

C. Cooling tower water is received from the tower between 8090 °F (27-32 °C)
and should be returned between 115-125 °F (45-52 °C)
depending on the size
of the tower. Seawater should be return no higher than 110 °F
(43 °C)
D. Heat transfer fluids used: petroleum oils below 600 °F (315
°C), Dowtherms
or other synthetics below 750 °F (400 °C), molten salts below
1100 °F (600 °C)
E. Common compressed air pressures are: 45, 150, 300, and
450 psig
F. Instrument air is generally delivered around 45 psig with a
dewpoint 30 °F below the coldest expected ambient
Distillation Columns
1. Packed Tower:
(a) Flooding: Pressure drop 2-3 inches of water per foot of
packed height
(b) Loading: Pressure drop 0.5 - 1 inch of water per foot of
packed height
Packed columns are often designed to operate at their loading
velocities; they often have their lowest HETP's at such
2. The height of the columns should not exceed 175 feet because of
foundation and wind loading problems

3. For columns less than 3 feet in dia, packed towers are usually used
because of high cost involved in fabricating small trays
4. Typical values of overall column efficiency are in the range of 60 to
5. Tray spacing: In columns 5 feet and larger in diameter, it is
recommended that the tray spacing be a minimum of 24 inch in order
to permit workmen to crawl between trays. In columns 4 feet and
below in dia, a tray spacing of 18 inch can be permitted.
6. Bubble cab size:
Column dia, feet

Cab dia, inch

2.5 - 4



4 - 4.5



Fluid Mechanics
1. At room temperature kinematic viscosity is 1 centiStoke for water
and 15 centiStoke for air at atmospheric pressure.
2. An ideal fluid has a viscosity of zero, and incompressible one. The
flow of such an ideal fluid is called potential flow. Potential flow has
two important characteristics: (i) Neither circulations nor eddies can
form within the stream, so that potential flow is also called as
irrotational flow, and (ii) friction cannot develop, so that there is no
dissipation of mechanical energy into heat.
3. Reynolds number = Inertial force / viscous force
4. For circular tubes the flow is laminar when NRe is less than about
2100, although a stable sinuous motion sets in at a Reynolds
number of about 1225. Above 2100 laminar motion may be
maintained temporarily if the tubes are very smooth and free from
vibrations, but if the system is disturbed or if there is any appreciable
surface roughness the laminar motion will give way to the random
motion that characterizes turbulent flow.
5. The curve of v versus y (v = velocity; y = distance from the wall) is
referred to as the velocity distribution or profile. At a sufficiently large
distance from the tube entrance, the velocity profile assumes a
constant shape; the flow is said to be fully developed. The velocity

distribution for developed flow depends on whether the flow is

6. For ordinary laminar flow there is a parabolic variation of velocity
from zero at the wall to vmax at the center of the tube. For pseudo
plastic fluids, a relatively flat profile is obtained, and in the limit of an
infinitely pseudoplastic fluid there is rodlike flow. For dilatant fluids,
the profile is sharper, and for the limiting case of an infinitely dilatant
fluid, the velocity is a linear function of the radius. The velocity profile
is conical.
7. A fundamental principle of fluid mechanics, originally stated by
Prandtl in 1904, is that, except for fluids moving at low velocities or
possessing high viscosities, the effect of the solid boundary on the
flow is confined to a layer of fluid immediately adjacent to the solid
wall. This layer is called the boundary layer, and shear and shear
forces are confined to this part of the fluid.
8. Boundary layer: The boundary layer is the region near a solid where
the fluid motion is affected by the solid boundary. Outside the
boundary layer potential flow survives.
9. If a fluid flowing with a uniform velocity enters a conduit, a boundary
layer builds up and eventually fills the pipe. Thus, in fully developed
laminar or turbulent flow, the entire radius of the pipe is in the
boundary layer.
If the boundary layer is turbulent and fills the pipe, as it usually
does except very near the entrance to the pipe, a viscous sublayer
persists near the walls.
Fanning Friction factor (f) = w / [V2/2].
Blasius or Darcy friction factor is also commonly encountered in
fluid mechanics literature, and is 4 times the fanning friction factor.
Care should be taken in reading friction factor charts, that whether
the friction factor is Darcy or Fanning.

Hagen Poiseuille equation: for laminar flow the following relation is valid: Ps = 32LV/ D2 One of its use is in the experimental measurement of viscosity. Skin friction and friction factor are related by as: Ps = 2fLV2 / D 15. Beyond a certain value of k. they increase the turbulence. and r the radius of the pipe. the pipe is said to be hydraulically smooth. u CL the velocity at the centerline of pipe. When further smoothing brings about no reduction in friction factor for a given Reynolds number.13. In this case the pipe is said to be hydraulically smooth. the effect of the wall roughness is negligible. the effect of the roughness is so great that the inertia forces caused by the fluid flowing around the projections completely outweigh the viscous . Where ux is the velocity at a distance y from the walls. in which k/D is usually somewhat less than 0. and increase the flow resistance. the following equation is valid up to NRe = 105.01. If a pipe is smoothed. Relation between Pressure drop due to skin friction (Ps) and wall shear stress (w) for flow through circular pipe: Ps = 4wL / D 14. by measuring the pressure drop and volumetric flow rate through a tube of known length and diameter. change the velocity profile. In laminar flow through commercial pipe. The relative roughness (k/D) affects the flow in several ways. 16. 19. In turbulent flow the wall roughness also has no effect if it is smaller in height than the thickness of the viscous sub-layer. However. the friction factor is reduced. This equation is referred to as the Prandtl one-seventh power law. In turbulent flow a rough pipe leads to a larger friction factor for a given Reynolds number than a smooth pipe does.817 times the centerline velocity 18. 17. Velocity profile in turbulent flow: In pipe flow. It is also sometimes called as Blasius 1/7 power law. Laminar flow: Average velocity is precisely one-half the maximum velocity. the mean velocity of flow is found to be equal to 0. By using Prandtl one-seventh power law. if the irregularities enter into the main fluid stream.

respectively.forces. 21. The thickness of the viscous sub-layer is a function of the Reynolds number. Equivalent Diameter: Friction factor versus Reynolds number chart of circular pipes can be used for turbulent flow through noncircular cross sections by replacing the diameter D by the equivalent diameter Deq defined by the relation. In these circumstances the pipe is said to be relatively rough. rH = Flow cross sectional area / wetted perimeter of conduit For a circular pipe it may be verified that this definition leads to the result that D = Deq The hydraulic radius can also be used with the friction factor charts for flow in open channels or partially filled pipes. Flow resistance in rough pipe: For completely rough pipe the following relation is valid in the turbulent regions: 1 / f = 4.36 (this relation is given by Nikuradse) where f = fanning friction factor. Frictional loss coefficient for sudden expansion of cross section (Ke): Ke = (1 . f is not a function of velocity. 23. k = absolute roughness of pipe. in turn defined by the equation. In completely rough turbulent flow. In laminar flow f is inversely proportional to the velocity. r i = inside radius of pipe. so that the same pipe may be hydraulically smooth at one flow rate and completely rough at another. 22.Sa/Sb)2 Where Sa and Sb are the cross sectional areas upstream and downstream conduits.Sb/Sa) . Frictional loss coefficient for sudden contraction of cross section (K c): Kc = 0. 20. Deq = 4 rH In this relation rH is the hydraulic radius.06 log10(ri/k) + 3.4 (1 .

It is less affected by downstream disturbances. The orifice meter has a large permanent loss of pressure because of the presence of eddies on the downstream side of the orifice plate. For NRe > 10. The coefficient of discharge of orifice C D is dependent on the location of the pressure taps. Orifice meter: The orifice plate can easily be changed to accommodate widely different flow rates. flange tapes are the most common.000 CD of orifice meter is constant at 0. in the rotameter. Venturi meter: The shape of the converging and diverging sections of venturi meter minimizes losses by eddy formation. the meter should be placed 50 pipe diameters downstream and 10 pipe diameters upstream from any disturbances. For smaller Reynolds numbers the coefficient decreases rapidly. where as the throat diameter of a venturi meter is fixed. Where P is pressure drop measured by the manometer connected between the upstream and throat sections of venturi meter. .000 the frictional loss over the venturi meter is about 10 percent of P. As a general rule. 32. 30. flange taps and vena contracta taps out of which. The orifice discharge coefficient is significantly affected by flow disturbances which originates in valves.000 CD of venturi meter is constant at about 0. At lower Reynolds numbers the orifice coefficient becomes a strong function of NRe. Experimental measurements show that for NRe > 10. The upstream distance can often be reduced by placing straightening vanes in the pipe. and other fittings located upstream from the orifice.61. (NRe is calculated based on the diameter of orifice opening) 31.98. Rotameter: In the case of venturi and orifice meters the area of constriction remains constant and the pressure drop varies with flow rate. 28. This effect is partially caused by the non-uniform velocity distribution across the diameter in laminar flow (in the length of venturi meter). the pressure drop remains nearly constant and the area of constriction varies.24. (NRe is calculated based on the pipe diameter) 26. Orifice meter: There are a number of customary positions of the pressure taps which lead to the manometer such as pipe taps. (NRe is calculated based on the pipe diameter) 25. bends. 27. The shape of the venturi meter prevents the formation of these eddies and greatly reduces the permanent loss. 29. For NRe > 10.

2. The ratio of the heat transfer surface area on one side of the heat exchanger to the volume can be used as a measure of the compactness of heat exchangers. They are automatic in operation and prevent flow in one direction but allow it in the other. 80 and 120. Above 12 inch. Nominal diameter is close to the actual outside diameter. Higher the BWG lower is the thickness. Check Valves are used when unidirectional flow is desired. The schedule 10 is mostly for stainless steel pipes. 39. Gate valves are universally used in larger sizes. BWG ranges from 24 (very light) to 7 (very heavy). Regardless of wall thickness. 14. 38. The fluid passes through a restricted opening and changes direction several times. A heat exchanger having a surface area density on any one side greater than about 700 m 2/m3 quite arbitrarily is referred to as a compact heat exchanger regardless of its structural design.33. 34. 35. The commonly available schedule numbers are 10. As a result the pressure drop in this kind of valve is large. 37. The wall thickness of copper and brass tubing is often expressed in terms of Birmingham wire gauge(BWG). The globe valve is ordinarily used in smaller sizes. . Pipe is completely specified by giving its nominal diameter and schedule number. Globe valves are widely used for controlling flow. the outside diameter of all pipe of a given nominal pipe size is the same. Globe valves: The essential feature of these valves is a globular body with a horizontal internal partition having a circular passageway. 16 and 18. 40. The common BWG are 12. Heat Exchangers 1. 36. It is generally considered a poor practice to use a globe valve in a size larger than 2 inch. Tube is sold on the basis of actual outside diameter and wall thickness. Actual outside diameter of pipe is more than the nominal diameter up to a nominal diameter of 12 inch. Pipes are rougher than tubes and produce more turbulence for equal Reynolds numbers. Lower the schedule numbers lower is the thickness. In the indirect contact type or surface heat exchangers there is no mixing of fluid. to ensure the interchangeability of the fittings. Gate valves are not recommended for controlling flow and are usually left fully open or fully closed. outer diameter is equal to the nominal diameter.

involves a step gradient along the path of flow. Because of this limitation. the wall is almost at a uniform temperature. It is not suitable for liquid-to-liquid heat exchange. thus the temperature difference T between the hot and cold fluids is constant throughout. 6. 3. the exit temperature of one fluid may approach the inlet temperature of the other. because only for gases is the heat capacity of the heat transfer matrix much greater than the heat capacity of the gas contained in the heat flow passages. Therefore. because the heat capacity of the heat transfer matrix is much less than that of the liquid. In a counterflow exchanger. the temperature effectiveness of the parallel flow exchangers is limited. To increase the effectiveness or compactness fins are used. Theoretically. In a parallel flow heat exchanger. Increasing the fluid bulk . the outlet temperature of the cold fluid can not exceed that of the hot fluid. generally they are not considered for heat recovery.Shell and tube heat exchangers are not compact heat exchangers. in contrast to that of the parallel flow one. The fluid velocity and the fluid temperature appear to be among the factors that affect the rate of fouling on a given surface. Therefore. An increase in the velocity decreases both the rate of deposit and the ultimate amount of deposit on the surface. The metal temperature in the counterflow exchanger. the thermal capacity of the counterflow exchanger can be twice that of the parallel flow exchanger. 5. since the metal temperature lies approximately midway between the hot and cold fluid temperatures. However. Regenerative type rotary heat exchangers are suitable only for gas to gas exchange. In a pure counter flow heat exchanger. 7. the temperature rise in the cold fluid is equal to temperature drop in the hot fluid. The high heat recovery and temperature effectiveness of this exchanger makes it preferable to the parallel flow exchanger whenever the design requirements permit such a choice. 4. the exit temperature of the cold fluid can be higher than that of the hot fluid.

Correction factor for LMTD: (FT) Tcorrected = FT x LMTD for counterflow Generally FT is less than unity for cross flow and multipass arrangements. 8. Because it offers more resistance 15.Tc.out . the energy change in either process is identical. however are inherently very different. 13.TL) / ln (T0/TL) Where. It represents the degree of departure of the true mean temperature difference from LMTD for counterflow. Log mean temperature difference: LMTD LMTD = (T0 . 11.temperature increases both the rate of buildup of fouling and its ultimate stable level. LMTD = T0 = TL Less heat transfer area is required for counterflow arrangement. 12. Effectiveness of an exchanger  ) = Q/Qmax = actual heat transfer rate / maximum possible heat transfer rate from one stream to the other. it is unity for true counterflow heat . Highly polished and white surfaces generally have lower emissivities than rough or black surfaces. 14. When a pound of water is vaporized or condensed. 9. Vaporization is generally a much more rapid phenomenon than condensation. The rates at which either process can be made to progress with an independent source or receiver. high for liquids. . Parallel flow is used for cold viscous fluids.out for counterflow When T0 = TL.Tc. since the arrangement may enable a high value of U to be obtained. and usually intermediate for gases. Specific heat for unit mass is very low for solids. T0 = Th. The smaller heat transfer coefficient is the controlling film for counterflow TL = Th. 10.

and slopes are usually in the range 0 to 0. Driers are most readily built with length / diameter ratios in the range of 4 to 10 5. the flights extend from the wall of the drier a distance of 8 to 12 percent of the diameter. 4. 17. (D = diameter of drier in meter). Inside the Drier the lifting flights extending from the cylinder wall for the full length of the Drier lift the solid and shower it down in a moving curtain through the air.05 to 0. Peripheral speed 0. Shell and Tube Exchangers . (c) Temperature & Pressure: For high temperature / pressure services requiring special or expensive alloy .15. condensing steam). Rotary Driers 1. For most purposes.g.2 to 0. When one of the fluid proceeds through the apparatus isothermally (e. Corrosive fluid cannot be sent in the shell side. 6. 3. This lifting action also assists in the forward motion of the solid. Pipes are rougher than tubes and produce more turbulence for equal Reynolds numbers. since the shell side fluid will affect both shell and tubes. parallel flow and counterflow yield identical temperature differences. and ranges from 0. The Drier is installed at a small angle to the horizontal. (b) Fouling: Placing the fouling fluid inside the tubes allow better velocity control. and their number ranges from 6D to 10D.08 m / m length. Higher holdup results in increased kiln action. Straight tubes allow mechanical cleaning without removing the tube bundle. thus exposing it thoroughly to the drying action of the gas. Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers 1.5 m/sec. with consequent poor exposure of the solid to the gas and an increase in power required for operating the drier. 2.16. increased velocities tend to reduce fouling.Fluid Allocation: (a) Corrosion: Fewer costly alloy components are needed if the corrosive fluid is inside the tubes. Holdup of solid is defined as the fraction of the Drier volume occupied by the solid at any instant.

Q: What is the difference between Gauge and Absolute? . Reasonable pressure drops for various pressure levels are listed below: Pressure level Reasonable P Sub-atmospheric 1/10 absolute pressure 1 to 10 psig 1/2 operating gauge pressure 10 psig and higher 5 psi or higher 3. Di .inside dia of shell. inch n .75 do (nNP)0. Shell dia is related to the number of tubes by the empirical equation: Di = 1. Co-current flow works better than countercurrent when cooling viscous fluids. Turbulence exists on the shell side at much lower velocities than within the tubes. inch do .number of tube passes per shell Q: Can I measure water pressure with SR4 or SRP4 loggers? A: The media should be non-corrosive gases and dry air. fewer alloy components are needed when hot fluid is placed within the tubes (d) Flow rate: Placing the fluid with the lower flow rate on the shell side usually results in a more economical design.materials. because a higher heat transfer coefficient can be obtained for the cold fluid with this arrangement 4.47 Where.number of tubes per pass NP . 2.the outside dia of tube.

This only applies over the range of 0-70°C (32 to 160°F) as the pressure modules require temperature compensation. . then you can connect it to the SR7 or SRP7 (process signal logger).7 PSI). Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + atmospheric pressure (for example: if the atmospheric pressure where you are is 14. typically with no pressure applied. PSI). If you have a pressure transducer with the output of 0-25 mADC.5. Q: I want to record pressure values around 500 PSI. 5. 10 Volt DC. Q: I want to measure atmospheric pressure. You can also write a custom equation to convert the unit and get the pressure readings in the required units (e. Q: What is the accuracy of SR4 and SRP4 loggers? A: The accuracy of the pressure channels is +/-1% of full scale at 25°C (77°F) for the SmartReader 4 logger and +/-0. Which logger should I use? A: You can use SRP-004-30A or SR-004-30A loggers.7 PSI and your gauge pressure is 1 PSI then the Absolute pressure will be 15.7 PSI. 0-2. So.A: Gauge pressure is Zero PSI at atmospheric pressure. Do you have any pressure loggers for that range? A: The maximum pressure range for the SRP4 is 150PSI Gauge. Absolute pressure includes the atmospheric pressure.g. The SRP4 LPD Logger Q: What type of pressure sensor is in LPD Logger? A: It is a Silicon piezoresistive strain gauge.5% of full scale for the SmartReader Plus 4. it will read approximately 14. or 0-200 mVDC.

1°F at 77°F). This means that the accuracy of the Thermistor Probe varies over the entire temperature range of the logger. you can. mid and high) temperatures. The accuracy of SRP1 and SRP8 at 25°C is ±0. To create a custom equation. Therefore. On Pages 6-3 and 6-4 of the TrendReader for Windows’ Reference Guide.23°C (0. Q: Can I connect my own Thermistor Probe to these loggers? A: Yes. ±1” & ±0.5”WC ranges. Q: If I use my own probe. You will need to create a custom equation.42°F at 77°F). our the probes are not Waterproof. which equation number should I use? A: You should create a thermistor equation for your probe.Q: What is the accuracy of the SRP4 LPD loggers? A: ±0. . the total accuracy of the system depends on the temperature range. Q: What is the accuracy of these loggers? A: The accuracy of SR1 and SR8 at 25°C is ±0. Thermistors are non-linear. the tips are stainless steel and water resistant.6°C (1.5Pa) for the ±2”.05”WC (±12. However.1”WC (±25Pa) for the ±5” & ±10”WC ranges Q: Are your probes waterproof? A: No. Note: The accuracy of the system is equal to the accuracy of the Thermistor Probe plus the resolution of the data logger. you can find the procedure for creating a thermistor equation. Please refer to the pages 6-3 and 6-4 of the TrendReader for Windows’ Reference Guide (Creating a thermistor equation) for the details. ±0. you need to know the resistance of your probe at the three (low.

SRP1.0°C above 70°C and below 0°C (±1. a General Purpose temperature probe which is suitable for the range –35 to 95°C (-30 to 200°F). The thermistor resistance varies with temperature. please refer to Appendix C of the Reference Guide.For example.36°F between 32 and 158°F) ±1.2°C between 0 and 70°C (±0. The accuracy of this probe is: ±0. The maximum recommended length is 100 feet of two wire 22-gauge standard conductor.SR8 and SRP8 loggers. You can connect only Thermistor Probes to SR1. The accuracy curves for the the SR1. with the ET-016 external thermistor probes with lengths less than 100 feet. are shown on page 48 of the latest catalog. Q: What is the maximum recommended cable length of the ET temperature probes? A: These temperature probes use a resistive thermistor. SR8 and SRP8 loggers.SRP1. there is a limit to the length of the conductor that can be added to a Thermistor Probe (without affecting readings). These curves also apply to the internal temperature channels on these loggers.8°F above 158°F and below 32°F) The total accuracy of the system depends on the temperature and whether you are using a SmartReader or SmartReader Plus logger. Q: Can I connect a Thermocouple Probe to this logger? A: No. Since the conductor has an inherent resistance. let’s assume that you use the ET-016 probe. Only the current probes that ACR sells are compatible with SR3 or SRP3 loggers. . For the “Resistance versus Temperature Tables” and the Thermistor Probe resolution curves. Q: Can I use Fluke or any other current probes with your logger? A: No.

Q: What is the cable length of the probes and how much can we extend them? A: These probes are manufactured in five foot lengths of two 18-gauge stranded copper conductors.84cm) in diameter. This probe should be clamped over the A60FL or A70FL probes.84cm x 9.08 cm (2”) and the clamp mouth can open to 5. You need to use a Line Splitter A-47L in addition to the A60FL probe. to help eliminate the adverse effect of electrical noise.62 cm (1. Q: How many current probes can be connected to your logger? A: Three probes to SR3 loggers and 4 to SRP3 loggers. Q: Do you have any probes for current readings higher than 500 Amps? A: Yes. This probe can be extended up to 750 feet with more of the same specified conductor.54 cm (1”) and the clamp mouth can open to 2. The Amprobe A47L energizer multiplies the signal to the logger by ten times over a range of 0.23 cm (2. A70FL: The internal diameter of the clamp is 5.06”). you need two probes. Q: Can I record current readings below 1 Amps with your probe? A: Yes. It is best to use a shielded conductor.1 to 15A.1”). You can read up to 3000 amps using a CT-50-2 Amprobe. Therefore. .Q: What is the diameter and size of the A60FL and A70FL probes? A: A60FL: The internal diameter of the clamp is 2.84cm) or cable 3-7/8” (9. The CT-50-2 (four link) adjusts to accommodate bus measuring 3-7/8” x 3-7/8” (9.

means that if the switch on the probe is set to 100 amps and a customer has a circuit with 25 amps flowing. the logger could record any value from 21. Should we remove it or not? What is the function of this resistor? A: The function of this resistor is to convert the 0-1 mA output of the transducer to 0-5 VDC (that should be used with SRP3 loggers). you should not remove that resistor. Therefore. the accuracy of the system is +/.5 amps.5% of full scale for SmartReader Plus 3 (above 10% of the range). Q: What is the accuracy of these loggers? A: On the current channels.4% of full scale for SmartReader 3 and +/-3. .5 to 28.) are accurate to +/-3% of F. Q: On the voltage transducer of Rochester Scientific. The current probes supplied from Amprobe (A60FL. or isolated output is recommended to prevent ground loops.5% of F. the accuracy is ±25mV. there is a resistor. Q: Is there any restriction on the transducer if we use our own voltage transducers with output of 0-5 Volts DC? A: The use of a single power supply. +/-3. The remaining 1% or 0. A70FL. On the 0-5Volts voltage channels of the SRP3 the accuracy is ±0.S.S.5% comes from resolution effects and logger circuitry. Note that below 10% of the measuring range the current probes are not considered accurate.5% of the full scale. In other words.Q: What is the fourth AC current channel on the SRP3 logger used for? A: The fourth AC current channel has been added to allow users to record neutral currents on 3-phase power systems.

60Hz transducer and a 120 volt. the accuracy of the 0-25 mA channel on SR7 is ±0. single phase. The input ranges are 0-600Vac for the 480V transducer and 0-150Vac for the 120V transducers. Q: Can I measure 20 VDC with this logger? A: Yes.5% of full scale for the SRP7 logger. external circuitry is required. 3-phase. Just connect it to the 0-25mA channel of the logger. As an example. you can. Do you have any suitable voltage transducers to use in Canada? A: No.125 mA. you can. Q: Can I order another combination of the channels. Q: What is the accuracy of this logger? A: The accuracy is +/-1% of full scale for the SR7 and +/-0. These transducers are designed for use with our SRP-003 Current and Voltage logger. That is. you should add an external resistor. these transducers should not be used with this logger. 60Hz transducer. which is good for USA.Q: The nominal voltage of the three phase Rochester Scientific voltage transducer is 480 Volts. for example I want 3 channels 0-25ma and the rest 0-5 VDC? . The SRP-003 loggers will work just fine as they have a much higher input impedance. However. Q: Do you have any AC Voltage Transducers? A: We stock two different models: a 480 volt.25mA and that of the SRP7 is 0. These transducers have a 0-5Vdc output proportional to the input. Please note that due to the lower input impedance of our SR-007 logger. Q: Can I connect the output of my 4-20mA transducer to these loggers? A: Yes.

If you must use nonisolated transducers. then you must use a Signal Repeater/Loop Isolator between the transducer output and the SR7 or SRP7. Q: Can an EH-020A probe be used with SR7 or SRP7 loggers? A: No. as it will be a custom logger there will be an extra cost. Q: What is the grounding problem and how can it be prevented? A: The SRP7 has four common inputs (Labeled "Common"). Do not connect your logger to your computer for realtime readings unless: -your computer is battery-operated (i. Ground loops can damage your SRP 7 as well as your transducers. Q: Can the Rochester Scientific Transducers (the ones that ACR supplies) be used with the 0-5 Volt channel of the SR-007? . These commom channels are all connected internally. To avoid ground-loop problems in your SRP7 or SR7 circuit: 1. It can only be used with SR2 and SRP2 loggers. If you must use more than one grounded power supply in your SRP7 or SR7 circuit.your transducer power supply is not grounded.e. each transducer you use must be isolated. you can. We do not have any relative humidity sensors for use with SR7 or SRP7. Do not use more than one grounded power supply to excite your transducers.A: Yes. However. 2. not grounded) or . The EH-020A (relative humidity and temperature probe) can not be used with these loggers. A grounding loop can occur when there is more than one path to ground in your logger-transducer circuit. These are not isolated from each other and can be used as the negative "-" connection for the power supply (or battery) and any of the transducers being logged by the SRP7.

Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure + atmospheric pressure (for example: if the atmospheric pressure where you are is 14.5% of full scale for the SmartReader Plus 4. Due to the lower input impedance of our SR-007 logger. Which logger should I use? A: You can use SRP-004-30A or SR-004-30A loggers. typically with no pressure applied. Q: What is the difference between Gauge and Absolute? A: Gauge pressure is Zero PSI at atmospheric pressure. Q: Can I measure water pressure with SR4 or SRP4 loggers? A: The media should be non-corrosive gases and dry air. these transducers should not be used with this logger.A: No. Do you have any pressure loggers for that range? A: The maximum pressure range for the SRP4 is 150PSI Gauge. it will read approximately 14. 5. So. 10 Volt DC.7 PSI. Q: I want to measure atmospheric pressure. or 0-200 mVDC. Q: I want to record pressure values around 500 PSI.5. This only applies over the range of 0-70°C (32 to 160°F) as the pressure modules require temperature compensation. Q: What is the accuracy of SR4 and SRP4 loggers? A: The accuracy of the pressure channels is +/-1% of full scale at 25°C (77°F) for the SmartReader 4 logger and +/-0. 0-2.7 PSI and your gauge pressure is 1 PSI then the Absolute pressure will be 15.7 PSI). If you have a pressure transducer with the output of 0-25 mADC. Absolute pressure includes the atmospheric pressure. then you can connect it to the SR7 or SRP7 (process signal .

switch closing) the logger registers a count of ‘1’. switch opening) and back to high again.e.05”WC (±12.g.5Pa) for the ±2”. ±0.logger).5”WC ranges. The accuracy of the SR9 is: 32 HZ Channel: ±1 pulse/8 seconds 64 HZ Channel: ±2 pulse/8 seconds 128 HZ Channel: ±4 pulse/8 seconds Q: How does the SR9 work? A: The SR9 keeps track of the number of times a switch opens and closes by maintaining a voltage potential across the input terminals on a continual basis. ±1” & ±0. Q: What is the accuracy of the SRP4 LPD loggers? A: ±0. Q: What is the accuracy of SR9 and SRP9 loggers? A: The accuracy of the SRP9 is: ±1 pulse/sample period. The SRP4 LPD Logger Q: What type of pressure sensor is in LPD Logger? A: It is a Silicon piezoresistive strain gauge.e.1”WC (±25Pa) for the ±5” & ±10”WC ranges. (i. PSI). Every time the voltage potential changes from high to low (i. You can also write a custom equation to convert the unit and get the pressure readings in the required units (e. .

stores the average of each 8 second period and stores to memory. e. since it will be as accurate or better than the average mode. then at the end of the sample interval.Q: What is the minimum pulse length and minimum interval between pulses on the SR9? A: Four milliseconds Q: What is meant by jumper selectable frequencies on the SR9? A: The SR-009 has 3 jumper selectable frequencies. In Accumulate mode. SR5. If the logger is set to a 16 second sample interval and the logger sees pulses at 10Hz for the first 8 seconds and none for the next 8 seconds. In this mode. e.g. If the logger is set to a 10 minute sample interval and the jumper set to 32Hz. The Accumulate mode is always preferred over averaging. SRP6 Q: What is the accuracy of these loggers? A: The accuracy of the SR5 and SR6 (8 bit Thermocouple loggers) is +/-1% . the maximum frequency decreases as the sample interval increases. Q: What is the Accumulate mode in the SR9? A: The Accumulate mode is designed for lower frequencies. every second pulse. the logger will record up to 255 pulses per sample interval. or every fourth pulse.g. SRP5. This effects the logger in both the Average and Accumulate mode.425Hz. SR6. Thus the maximum frequency is 0. Q: What is the Average mode in the SR9? A: The Average mode adds up the number of pulses recorded in each 8 second period. the value stored to memory would be 5Hz. the maximum number of pulses it could record is 255 per 10 minutes. This determines whether the logger counts every pulse. This is selected by placing a jumper wire on the terminal strip.

The temperature range is for the specific thermocouple type that is to be used and each thermocouple range is specified in our product catalog or Reference Guide.75°F. (12 bit thermocouple loggers) the accuracy is +/-0.7 = ±12. Example: For a T-type thermocouple with the range of -200°C to 400°C (-325 to 750°F) and SRP6 logger. Q: Is it possible to narrow the range on the SRP5 and SRP6 to reach better accuracy? A: No.4 = ±3. Q: What is the maximum recommended cable length? A: The maximum recommended cable length for the 20 gauge t/c wire is 300 feet (100 meters).53 with the SRP5 or SRP6 logger? A: No.5% of the temperature range plus the resolution.7°C which is ±22. You can.4°C which is ±6. For the SR logger and T-type thermocouple the accuracy is: (1% * 600) + 6. Q: Can I use Narrow range equations like 49. the Accuracy is (0. For the SRP5 and SRP6.5% * 600) + 0.of the temperature range plus the resolution. The resolution also varies with thermocouple types and is stated in either the product catalog or Reference Guide. Q: Can I use my own thermocouples? A: Yes. The correct equation numbers for the SRP5 and SRP6 loggers are: .125°F. 51.

Before pressing the “Zero” button you should first short the “+” and “-“ channel terminal with a piece of wire and also type (0) zero for the Low calibration values. Do not press the "Zero" button when the thermocouples are connected. . Please refer to the calibration section for the SRP5 and SRP6 loggers for proper usage of this button. 51. If the Zero button is pressed while the thermocouples are connected the calibration values will change and will be incorrect. If this occurs you should retype the factory calibration values (that are printed on the card that comes with the logger) and save to the logger. 53 and 73 with SRP loggers. Q: What is the function of the “Zero” button in the setup screen? A: The "Zero" button is used during the calibration of the logger.J type thermocouple: Equation 50 K type thermocouple: Equation 52 T type thermocouple: Equation 54 S type thermocouple: Equation 74 Do not use equation numbers 49.